Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Summary in English AR Williams

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues is written by AR Williams. has provided Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

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Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Summary in English AR Williams

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Theme

The story deals with the mysteries and various theories regarding the life and death of the youngest ruler of ancient Egypt -Tutankhamun. His tomb was discovered in 1922 by the famous archaeologist Howard Carter and since then his mummy has been subjected to a X-ray and later a CT scan. These investigations have answered a lot of questions and offered new clues on his life and death.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues About the Characters

King Tut: The last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. His preserved body was the first to be scanned.

Howard Carter: The British archaeologist who in 1922 discovered King Tut’s tomb. His search caused great damage to the King’s preserved body.

Zahi Hawass: The Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. He scanned King Tut’s mummy for an accurate forensic reconstruction.

Amenhotep III: King Tut’s father or grandfather, was’a powerful ruler who ruled for almost four decades.

Amenhotep IV: He promoted the worship of Aten and changed his name to Akhenaten. He outraged the country by attacking Amun, a major God, by smashing his images and closing his temples.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Summary in English

Death of King Tut
King Tut “was just a teenager when he died. He was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. He was buried and forgotten over the years. But after the discovery of his tomb in 1922, the modern world wondered about the cause of his untimely death. He was brought out of his tomb and recently a CT scan was done to ascertain the reason of his death.

The Mummy of King Tut
At 6 pm on 5th January, 2005, the world’s most famous mummy (preserved body) was taken out from its burial tomb. As the mummy of King Tut was being put into the scanner for performing a CT scan, angry winds stirred and dark clouds covered the stars. The weather had been overcast all day and the night sky was hidden by dark-bellied clouds. The CT scan was being done to unearth the remaining medical mysteries that surrounded the untimely death of this young King who died more than 3300 years ago. King Tut’s tomb lies 26 feet underground in the ancient Egyptian cemetery known as the Valley of the Kings. Tourists from around the world came to visit the tomb to pay their respects. They gazed at the murals on the walls of the burial chamber and looked at King Tut’s gilded face on the lid of his outer coffin. The visitors were curious and thoughtful. Some feared the pharaoh’s curse would befell those who disturbed him.

Howard Carter and his Findings
Howard Carter was a British archaeologist who in 1922 discovered King Tut’s tomb after years of futile searching. Its contents remain the richest royal collection ever found. There were dazzling works of art in gold that had caused a sensation then and continue to draw people’s attention even today. King Tut was also buried with everyday things such as board games, a bronze razor, cases of food, clothes, wine etc that he would need in the life after death. Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, explained that the mummy was in a very bad condition because of what Howard Carter did to it. Howard Carter found King Tut’s body in three nested coffins. In the first coffin, he found a shroud decorated with garlands of willow and olive leaves, wild celery, lotus petals and cornflowers which indicated that the burial took place in March or April. When he finally reached the mummy, he ran into trouble. The ritual resins had hardened, cementing King Tut to the bottom of the solid gold coffin.

Howard Carter had to Chisel Out King Tut’s Mummy
Howard Carter tried to loosen the resins by putting the mummy outside in the sun that heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit. For several hours the mummy was set outside in blazing sunshine but nothing happened. He reported that the tough material had to be cut from under the limbs and trunk to free the King’s remains. The royals in King Tut’s time believed that they could take their fortune with them after death. Hence, King Tut was buried with all his expensive belongings. To separate King Tut from his ornaments, Howard Carter’s men removed the mummy’s head and cut off nearly every major joint; then they reassembled the remains of the body on a layer of sand in a wooden box with padding.

King Tut’s Mummy X-Rayed
Archaeology has changed since then, focusing less on treasures and more on the fascinating details of life and fascinating mysteries of death. It also uses more sophisticated tools. In 1968, more than 40 years after Howard Carter’s discovery, an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy and revealed an astonishing fact that beneath the resin that caked King Tut’s chest, his breast bone and front ribs were missing. King Tut’s demise was a big event, even by royal standards, as he was the last ruler of his family. His funeral meant the end of a royal dynasty. But the facts of his death and its consequences are unclear.

King Tut and his Ancestors
King Tut’s father or grandfather, Amenhotep III, was a powerful King, who ruled for almost four decades. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him. He was a very strange King. He promoted the worship of Aten, the sun disk, and changed his name to Akhenaten. He moved the religious capital from Thebes to Akhetaten, now known as Amarna. He shocked the country by attacking a major god ‘Amun’ by breaking his images and closing down his temples.

Ray Johnson, Director of the University of Chicago’s research centre in Luxor, called this King very odd. He said it must have been a terrible time for the people because the family that had ruled for centuries was coming to an end. After Akhenaten’s death, Smenkhkare, a mysterious ruler, ruled for a brief period and departed with hardly any sign. It was then that a very young King Tutankhaten took over the throne. The boy soon changed his name to Tutankhamun, known as King Tut today. He oversaw revival of the old ways. King Tut ruled for nine years and then died unexpectedly.

King Tut’s Mummy and its CT Scan
King Tut is one mummy among many in Egypt. No one knows how many mummies there are in Egypt. The Egyptian Mummy Project has recorded almost six hundred and is still counting. King Tut’s mummy was the first mummy to be CT scanned to ascertain the secret of his death by a portable scanner donated by National Geographic Society and Siemens. King Tut’s entire body was scanned. On the night of the scan, workmen carried him from the tomb and rose it on a hydraulic lift into a trailer that held the scanner.

However, initially the costly scanner could not function properly because of sand in the cooler fan. But soon all the hurdles were crossed and after the scan, the King was returned to his coffin to rest in peace.

The CT scan showed an astonishing image of King Tut and his entire body very clearly. It showed a grey head, neck vertebrae, a hand, several images of the rib cage and a section of the skull. Zahi Hawass was relieved that nothing had seriously gone wrong. As the-technicians left the trailer, they saw the star constellation which the ancient Egyptians knew as the soul of Osiris, the God of the afterlife. They felt as if the God was watching over the boy King.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Chapter Highlights

  • Tutankhamun or King Tut died as a teenage pharaoh and was buried laden with gold. He was the last king of a powerful family that ruled Egypt for centuries.
  • On 5th January, 2005 his mummy was brought out of his tomb and a CT scan was done to ascertain the reason of his death.
  • Multitudes of tourists from around the world came to visit the tomb to pay their respects.
  • Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, said that the mummy was in a very bad condition because of what Carter did to it.
  • Howard Carter, the British archaeologist, discovered king Tut’s tomb in 1922 and investigated its contents.
  • Carter faced difficulty in extracting the mummy out of the coffin. The ritual resins had hardened, resulting in cementing
  • King Tut’s mummy to the bottom of his gold coffin.
  • Howard Carter tried to loosen the resins using the sun, but in vain. His men thus removed the mummy’s head and cut off nearly every major joint before reassembling it.
  • In 1968, an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy and revealed a startling fact. He claimed that the breast bone and the front ribs of the mummy were missing.
  • Amenhotep III — King Tut’s father or grandfather – was a powerful king. He was succeeded by Amenhotep IV, who promoted the worship of Aten, the sun disk, and changed his name to Akhenaten. He made some other changes.
  • King Tut’s mummy was one of the first mummies to be scanned. The CT scan showed a grey head, neck vertebrae, a hand, several images of the rib cage and a section of the skull.
  • Zahi Hawass was relieved to find that nothing had gone seriously wrong with the mummy.
    After their observations, when they left, the wind had stopped and there was complete silence. Just above the entrance to
  • King Tut’s tomb stood Orion, the constellation watching over the boy king.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
saga – long story of a series of happenings
teenager – between 13 and 19 years of age
heir – legal successor
tomb. – a large grave built of stone above or below the ground
forensic – process of reconstruction of the face and
reconstruction – body based on the information in the CT scan
pharaoh – Egyptian king
cemetery – place where dead bodies are buried
mummy – a preserved dead body
murals – paintings on the wall
gilded – thinly covered with gold
coffin – box in which dead body is kept
antiquities – very old objects
archaeologist – a scientist who studies ancient objects dug up from the ground
legend – an old story handed down through generations
artefacts – objects of art made by hands
resurrection – rebirth
board games – games like chess
linen – a fabric cloth made from flax used to make high quality clothes
cases – boxes
treasures – collections of valuable objects
.nested – fitted one inside another.
shroud – cover of the dead body
willow – soft wood
wild celery – a wild plant
cornflowers – bluish-purple flowers of a wild plant
resins – a sticky flammable organic substance, insoluble in water
chiselled away – separated with a chisel
collars – necklaces
bracelets – ornaments of the wrist
amulets – ornaments worn round the neck or arm or waist (Taaveez) to keep away the evil
sheaths – coverings to keep the sword in
adornments – items used for decoration and make-up
archaeology – science of studying ancient sites / buildings
tomography – a technique for displaying a representation of a cross section using X-Rays or ultrasound
dynasty – family line
cross section – parts seen when an object is cut in the middle
pallbearers – those who carry coffins

What is the meaning of discovering Tut The Saga Continues?

Discovering Tut: the Saga Continues is a chapter that gives us an in-depth insight of Tutankhamun, the last ruler of the powerful Pharaoh Dynasty in Egypt. He was a teenager when he died and his death was a mystery. Some speculated that he was murdered. He ruled in Egypt and its empire for centuries.

What is the theme of the chapter discovering Tut The Saga Continues?

Theme. The story Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues, is a description of the exploration conducted by a team of researchers. It gives the account of struggles the team faces to unravel the mystery of the death of a teenage ruler, King Tut.

Who is the writer of discovering Tut The Saga Continues?

A.R. Williams
Summary of Discovering Tut: the Saga Continues

A.R. Williams is the writer of this chapter. Moreover, this chapter is regarding the last heir of the great Pharaoh Dynasty, Tutankhamun. He died in his teenage after ruling for 9 years. His death gave birth to a mystery.

The Yellow Wallpaper Summary Analysis and Explanation in English

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

The Yellow Wallpaper Summary Analysis and Explanation in English

About the Author charlotte Perkins Gilman

charlotte perkins gilman -

Poet Name Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Born 3 July 1860, Hartford, Connecticut, United States
Died 17 August 1935, Pasadena, California, United States
Education Rhode Island School of Design (RISD)
Spouse Houghton Gilman (m. 1900–1934), Charles Walter Stetson (m. 1884–1894)

Summary of The Yellow Wallpaper in English

Charlotte Perkins The Yellow Wallpaper Book Summary Introduction

The Yellow Wallpaper is a short story or a novella written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. The short story starts with the narrator of the tale gushing over a beautiful house and the grounds surrounding. It’s a house that she and her husband are going to stay for the summer.

Her way of describing the large and grand house is different from how you would otherwise describe a home. The first way in which she describes the house is in a very romantic way as she is pleased with the vast choice of residence. The other way that she represents the house is that maybe it’s a haunted house. One question that she continually keeps wondering about is, “How are they able to afford the house?”.

She wonders how they were able to afford the house and why there wasn’t anyone living in the house earlier? As she is pondering, she starts thinking about her sickness, and she is suffering from “Nervous depression” and her marriage. Her husband, John, is treating her for her disease.

She starts complaining about how her husband doesn’t respect her thoughts, opinions, and her sickness. She and her husband have different sets of reflections while she has imaginative and sensitive. John is rational and practical. For her to get well from her condition, she needs to refrain from doing any activities, especially working and writing. However, the narrator feels the opposite and believes that doing things will improve her condition. She starts keeping a “secret journal” where she starts writing about the house and the various elements in the house.

One of the things that disturb her is the yellow wallpaper in her room. She has a weird feeling about the wallpaper as it is old and strange. She describes the wallpaper as a revolting item. While she is writing, she gets interrupted by John, so she stops writing.

The narrator keeps doing this for a while, and with her journals, she hides her thoughts from John. She keeps desiring for the company and chances to do more activities. Then, she starts complaining about the way John has control over her life and the restrictions that he has put on her life. She starts talking about the wallpaper again and starts describing it differently.

In the beginning, she got a weird and revolting feeling from it, but now she finds it intimidating. She starts talking about how John has started thinking that she is fixated on the wallpaper. He refused to change the wallpaper because it may impact her nervous depression. However, the narrator begins thinking about the wallpaper more and more. She starts imagining more and more things as the summer days pass. While thinking about the wallpaper, she starts imagining or picturing people walking around the house. It’s precisely the kind of things that John doesn’t want her to do and keep discouraging her from this kind of activity.

Among the things that the narrator thinks and imagines, she starts thinking about her childhood. When she was a child, the narrator used to believe something that used to result in her having night terrors. She comes back to the wallpaper in the bedroom. While she starts thinking about, she realizes that it must have been a nursery for children. She decides this because the furniture in the room is fixated and heavy. The apartment has scratches and other things that point out that it was a nursery.

As she starts seeing the sub-design of the wallpaper and writing about it, she gets disturbed again. This time, she is not worried about John. Instead, it’s his sister, Jennie, who is living with them. Jennie is the housekeeper while they are staying there, and she’s also the narrator’s nurse.

The narrator records that for the Fourth of July, her family visited them at their beautiful house. Their visit has felt her more tired than she already was before their appointment. This makes John threaten her about sending her off to Gilman, the physician under whom she had a nervous breakdown. The narrator starts talking about how she is alone at home almost all the time, and the only thing that interests her is the wallpaper.

Her obsession keeps growing as the sub-design of the wallpaper of her bedroom keeps becoming clear. She describes it as “a woman who is stopping down and creeping”. This is the sub-pattern of the wallpaper, and the main design is like a cage. As her obsession is growing, she keeps trying to ask John about when they would leave the house. He keeps silencing her, and this makes her stop. With every time he silences her, her fascination and obsession with the wallpaper keep growing.

The wallpaper is the only thing that the narrator thinks about, and it dominates her mind. Along with her journal, she starts hiding her obsession with the wallpaper, too, from John and Jennie. She wants to find the pattern on the wallpaper on her own. She finds Jennie looking at the wallpaper, and Jennie says that she found the yellow stains from the wallpaper on their clothes.

John thinks that the narrator is healing because she is a serine mood around them. However, the opposite is happening with the narrator because she starts sleeping less and less. The narrator begins imaging that can smell the paper everywhere around the house. Soon she sees a smudge mark on the wallpaper, which makes her assume that someone has rubbed it while crawling against the wallpaper. The sub-wallpaper looks like a woman trying to free herself of the main wallpaper.

The narrator starts imagining the woman trying to get out of the cage and she is free in the day. She mentions how she too sometimes creeps around the house. The narrator feels like John and Jennie know about her obsession. As soon as she starts feeling this, she decides that she is going to remove the wallpaper. She starts peeling off the wallpaper in the nights. Finally, as she is removing the wallpaper, she feels alone and also likes the woman finally got freedom who seesaw struggle in the pattern.

At the end of the story, the narrator starts going insane, and she starts imagining more women creeping around her. She feels like she was the woman in the wallpaper and starts feeling trapped. It this feeling that makes her creep around the room endlessly, and she keeps smudging the wallpaper. In the end, John has to break into the room, and the sight in front of him makes him faint. Therefore, the narrator has to creep around him every time.

What is the moral of The Yellow Wallpaper?

The moral of the story “The Yellow Wallpaper” is that lack of activity and mental stimulation worsens, rather than cures, a woman’s depression. The story illustrates that women should be treated as intelligent partners in devising a cure for their own mental illness, not treated as children.

Is The Yellow Wallpaper based on a true story?

Chastity Chapin, M.F.A. Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” draws from experiences that Gilman herself faced, but it is fiction rather than an entirely true story. After having a baby, Gilman suffered from what today would probably be called postpartum depression.

What really happens at the end of The Yellow Wallpaper?

At the end of the story, the narrator believes that the woman has come out of the wallpaper. This indicates that the narrator has finally merged fully into her psychosis, and become one with the house and domesticated discontent…

What does The Yellow Wallpaper symbolize in The Yellow Wallpaper?

The yellow wallpaper symbolizes the oppression that many women of Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s generation felt
under the institution of marriage.

Why does John faint at the end of The Yellow Wallpaper?

The reason for John to faint at the end of the story is his shock provoked by the wife’s mental state. He prescribes the “rest therapy” to eliminate any distressing events that could worsen his wife’s depression.

What was wrong with the woman in The Yellow Wallpaper?

The narrator in “The Yellow Wallpaper” is likely suffering from depression and likely from postpartum psychosis (at least in part) because of the young baby mentioned in the story. She finds that she cannot take care of her baby and has no desire to be near him, as his presence makes her “nervous.”

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English by William Saroyan

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse is written by William Saroyan. has provided The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse summary in hindi, analysis, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English by William Saroyan

About the Poet William Saroyan

Poet Name William Saroyan
Born 31 August 1908, Fresno, California, United States
Died 18 May 1981, Fresno, California, United States
Awards Academy Award for Best Story, Pulitzer Prize for Drama, New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award for Best American Play
Movies The Human Comedy, Ithaca, My Heart Is in the Highlands
Nationality American
William Saroyan - the summer of the beautiful white horse summary class 11
William Saroyan

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Theme

The story is about two poor Armenian boys who are fond of riding horses. Aram (9 years old) and Mourad (13 years old) belong to the Garoghlanian tribe, whose people were well-known for honesty and trust. Mourad is able to steal a horse and after enjoying riding for one month, he invites his cousin to join him in horse-riding. Finally, they decide to return the horse to its owner as they did not want to bring any shame for their family.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse About the Characters

Mourad: He is a 13 year old cousin of the narrator (Aram). He is a lively and crazy person but with love for his cousin Aram, whom he offers the horse to ride for some time. He knows how to handle a horse.

Aram (the narrator): He is a 9 year old boy. He and Mourad belong to the Garoghlanian tribe. He justifies Mourad’s stealing of the horse for the purpose of horse-riding, as they did not intend to sell it off.

John Byro: He is a farmer and owner of the beautiful white horse which was stolen by Mqurad. He is sad over the sudden disappearance of his horse a few weeks ago.

Uncle Khosrove: He is the narrator’s uncle who was considered to be a crazy man. He has been described as a man with a short temper and irritable nature.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English

Aram’s Recall of an Experience
Aram remembers an experience when he was 9 year old. The world for Aram, at that time, seemed to be delightful and joyous. Mourad, whom everybody considered crazy, came at four in the morning and woke up Aram by tapping on the window of Aram’s room. It was summer, with daybreak just around the corner. Aram jumped out of bed and could not believe his eyes. Mourad was sitting on a beautiful white horse. Mourad asked him to be quick if he wanted to ride. Aram had always longed to ride a horse, but they were poor. They couldn’t afford a horse.

The Garoghlanian Family
The Garoghlanian family was poor as they had no money. Their whole tribe was poverty-stricken. But most important of all was that they were famous for their honesty. From a long time, they had built up a reputation for being proud and honest. They would never even take advantage of anyone.

Aram’s Explanation About the White Horse
Aram asked Mourad if he had stolen the horse. Mourad called him out instead of answering. Aram was sure that the horse was stolen as they were both very crazy about riding horses. To console himself in a childish manner, Aram thought that stealing a horse for a ride was not the same as stealing something like money. It wouldn’t have been stealing until they offered to sell the horse.

Aram could not Resist the Offer
Aram got ready and jumped out of the window. As they lived on the boundary of the town on Walnut Avenue, there was the vast countryside full of orchards, vineyards and irrigation ditches nearby. In a few moments, both Aram and Mourad were having a wonderful time riding the horse. Mourad started singing out of excitement and enjoyment.

The Family’s Crazy Streak
Mourad was considered the natural inheritor of the crazy streak of their tribe. Before Mourad, uncle Khosrove was considered as crazy in the family. Khosrove had a powerful head of black hair and the largest moustache in the San Joaquin valley. Mourad was considered a crazy boy, though his father, Mr Zorab, was a practical man without having any crazy streak.

Aram Rides the Horse Alone
After enjoying the horse ride together, Mourad wanted to ride the horse alone. Mourad kicked the horse and it started running. After five minutes, Mourad stopped. Now, Aram also wanted to ride the horse alone. Mourad was not sure that Aram could ride the horse alone, as he did not know that how to control a horse.

Aram leaped on to the back of the horse and for a moment felt a fear like he had never felt before. He kicked into the muscles of the horse; then it started running. Instead of running across the field, the horse ran to the vineyard and leaped over seven vines before Aram fell. Mourad came running, as he was worried about the horse. He wanted to get hold of the horse and take him back before anyone could see him. The horse got lost. Both of them searched for the horse in different directions. It took half an hour for them to find it.

The Boys Decided to Hide the Horse
It was morning and Mourad was thinking either to take the horse back or hide it until the next morning. Aram concluded that Mourad was going to hide it. Aram again asked Mourad if he had stolen the horse. Mourad avoided answering the question.

He told Aram to tell everyone that they started riding the horse that very morning, if someone found out. They took the horse to the deserted vineyard of a farmer named Fetvajian and hid it in the barn.

John Byro’s Sadness Over his Missing Horse
In the afternoon, uncle Khosrove came to Aram’s house for coffee and cigarettes. Then another visitor arrived, a former named John Byro. He said that his white horse which was stolen the previous month was still missing and untraceable. John Byro also explained that his carriage was no good without a horse and he had to walk ten miles to reach there.

Aram Informed Mourad About John Byro
Aram went to Mourad and informed him about John Byro’s visit. He further informed Mourad that he should not return the horse until Aram had learnt riding. Mourad replied that it would take him a year to learn and they could not keep a horse for one year, as it would amount to stealing.

Finally, they decided to return it after six months to its true owner. Every morning, for two weeks, they rode the horse. Every time the horse threw Aram and ran away. But Aram kept his hope alive and hoped to ride the horse the way Mourad rode. One morning they were on their way to the vineyard when they encountered John Byro. He inquired about the name of the horse with them. Mourad said that its name was ‘My Heart’. John Byro kept observing the horse very keenly.

The Boys Decide to Return the Horse
The farmer looked into the horse’s mouth and found that the teeth matched those of his stolen horse. He said that he could swear that the horse was his, if he didn’t know their parents and the fame of their family for honesty. But the horse appeared to be the twin of his stolen horse.

Early the following morning, the boys took the horse to John Byro’s vineyard and left it there. The dogs followed them silendy. Aram thought they would bark. Mourad said that he had a way with dogs-and that’s why they didn’t bark. That very afternoon, John Byro came to the narrator’s house. He was very happy and thanked God. His horse had become stronger and better tempered. Uncle Khosrove again shouted at him to be quiet, as his horse had been returned.

The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse Chapter Highlights

  • Mourad and Aram were two poor Armenian boys aged 13 year and 9 year respectively. Both belonged to the
  • Garoghlanian tribe which was known for its pride and honesty.
  • The tribe was poverty-stricken, but its people were not dishonest and did not believe in stealing.
  • Mourad and Aram both had intense longing for horse-riding.
  • Going against the family reputation, Mourad stole a white horse of a farmer.
  • Aram was unable to understand how Mourad got that beautiful white horse, when he was so poor that he could not afford to buy a horse.
  • Aram could not resist the temptation of riding the horse, though he could make out that his cousin had stolen the horse.
  • Aram watched Mourad riding the horse and controlling it in an easy manner.
  • Aram rode the horse alone but could not manage to control it.
  • Mourad was considered a crazy person, the descendant of his crazy uncle Khosrove.
  • Uncle Khosrove, a big and powerful man, was a very impatient man. He did not allow anyone to speak and shouted loudly.
  • Mourad and Aram continued horse-riding for some weeks, though Aram was not able to control the horse.
  • One day both the boys came face to face with the horse’s owner John Byro, while they were taking the horse to its hiding place.
  • John Byro examined the horse and studied it tooth by tooth. He mentioned that the horse looked identical to his stolen horse.
  • But he never suspected the boys as he knew their family and parents, well-known for their honesty.
  • The boys returned the horse the next day quietly by taking it to John Byro’s place. Perhaps they felt guilty and they did not want to bring any shame on their family.
  • Next morning, John Byro visited Aram’s parents to tell of a great miracle. His horse, that had disappeared mysteriously, had returned. It was in better health and a better temper.

The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse Word Meanings

hallmarks – typical characteristics or features
magnificence – greatness, excellence
mysterious – strange, not known or understood, full of mystery
crazy – insane
tapping – hitting quickly and lightly with fingers
around the corner of the world – away
stuck – pushed out
longings – strong and continuous desires
poverty-stricken – suffering from extreme poverty
Garoghlanian – an Armenian tribe
comical – silly
bellies – stomachs
take advantage of – deceive, trick
pious stillness and humour – innocence and unconcern
edge – border or boundary
trot – used for horse or similar animal running at its slowest speed
streak – an inherent quality
descendant – someone deriving appearance, function or trait of character from a parent
furious – very angry
irritable – bad tempered
trimmed – made neat or tidy by clipping
roared – shout at a high pitch
capricious – impulsive, unpredictable
vagrant – not fixed
have a way – have success in dealing.
Vazire – a word in Armenian language meaning ‘run’
hind – back legs of an animal
snorted – a noisy sound made by breathing through nostrils
fury – burst
dripping – extremely
imaginable – which could be thought of
reared – raised
dawned on – occurred to
barn – a large building on a farm in which animals and their feed are kept
deserted – abandoned
vineyard – a plantation of grapevines
hearty – substantial
dweller – resident
surrey – a light four wheeled carriage
stalked – marched
slamming – shutting with force
homesick – acutely longing for one’s home
ran into – met accidentally
studied – examined
swear – guarantee
suspicious – full of mistrust
whispered – spoke in a low voice
patted – stroked lightly
better-tempered – well-behaved

What does the white horse symbolize in the summer of beautiful?

The white horse symbolizes the wishes of Aram and Mourad, which they wanted to be they want to be trustworthy and honest, and have beauty, freedom, gland wealth in their lives as well.

What are the themes you can find in William Saroyan The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse?

The story The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse by William Saroyan highlights the virtues of honesty, trust and owing up to one’s mistake. Aram, the narrator of the story, recalls an experience when he was 9 years old.

What moral lesson do you learn from the story the summer of beautiful white horse?

The moral of William Saroyan’s “The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse” is that compassion in the face of conflict yields both room for growth and fair compromise.

What is the main message of the story The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse?

The primary message of the story, The Summer of the Beautiful Horse, is that despite social or economic challenges, there are some truths which are absolute and should be practiced under and all conditioned. It is undeniable that the story is set within a family that is poor.

My Grandmother’s House Poem Summary in English and Hindi by Kamala Das

My Grandmother’s House Poem Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. My Grandmother’s House Poem is written by Kamala Das. has provided My Grandmother’s House Poem Objective Questions and Answers Pdf, Poem Ka Meaning in Hindi, Poem Analysis, Line by Line Explanation, Themes, Figures of Speech, Critical Appreciation, Central Idea, Poetic Devices.

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My Grandmother’s House Poem Summary in English and Hindi by Kamala Das

My Grandmother’s House by Kamala Das About the Poet

Kamala Das born on (March 31, 1934). She was a poet and short story writer. She has earned respectable place in both the English and Malayalam literature. Her autobiography published in 1976, created quite a stir. In 1984, she was shortlisted for the Noble Prize for literature. Her important volumes of verse in English include Summer in Kolkata (1963), Siren (1964), The Descendents (1967), The Old Play House and other poems. Kamala Das’s poetry is primarily autobiographical and her theme is love of a lonely heart love with never ending passion, just, greed and hunger that never satiate. Kamala Das reveals a commendable mastery of phrase and control over rhythm. The words are often painted and the rhythm is marvelously, almost feverously alive.

My Grandmother’s House Written by Kamala Das Introduction to the Poem

The poem “My Grandmother’s House” is a wonderful creation by “Kamala Das”. In this poem, Kamala Das, the speaker explained in her autobiography as to how she lived when she was too young. She has written about the grandmother’s house. She also used to live with her grandmother in that house.

My Grandmother’s House Poem Summary in English

The poem “My Grandmother’s House” is a wonderful creation by “Kamala Das”. She has written about the grandmother’s house. She also used to live with her grandmother in that house. When she was young in the house she was very beautiful. Her grandmother’s house was also very decent and comfortable. There she and her grandmother lived a very happy life.

Everything around that very house was good. But when her grandmother died and the speaker lived in another place, the house became in bad condition. Everywhere that house became in pitiable condition. Bushes grew around when the speaker went there to see the house. When she reached there she was warmly welcomed. She saw her house damaged. A strong feeling caught her mind. Everything was changed when she went there but still she was proud because when she reached there she was received warmly which she got at stranger’s door.

In this poem, Kamala Das, the speaker explained in her autobiography as to how she lived when she was too young.

My Grandmother’s House Poem Summary in Hindi

In this poem ‘My Grandmother’s House Kamala Das ने इसमें अपनी दादी के घर के बारे में लिखा है। वह भी अपनी दादी के साथ उसी घर में रहती थी। जब वह जवान थी तो वह बहुत सुंदर थी, उसका घर भी बहुत सुन्दर था, जहाँ वह अपनी दादी के साथ सुखी जीवन बिता रही थी। घर के चारों तरफ बहुत ही सुन्दर दृश्य था । लेकिन जब उसकी दादी की मृत्यु हुई और जब वह दूसरी जगह रहने लगी तो घर की हालत बहुत ही बुरी हो गयी। घर के चारों तरफ की हालत बहुत ही दयनीय थी। इसके चारों तरफ झाड़ियाँ उग गई थीं।

जब कवयित्री अपना घर देखने गई तथा वह वहाँ पहुँची, उन्हें पुराना प्यार और स्मृतियाँ याद आ गयीं। उसने अपने घर को क्षतिग्रस्त देखा। उसका दिमाग झनझना गया । जब वह वहाँ पहुँची सब कुछ बदल गया था। लेकिन फिर भी वह अपने घर पर घमंड कर रही थी क्योंकि जब वह वहाँ पहुँचती थी उसे हमेशा वे बातें याद आ जाती थीं जो उसे अपनी दादी से मिलती थीं। उसका नवावांतुक के रूप में पराए व्यक्तियों का प्रेम एवं अपूर्व स्वागत भी प्राप्त होता था।

इस कविता में कमला दास अपनी जीवनी के बारे में बता रही थीं कि उन्होंने अपना जीवन कैसे बिताया जब वे छोटी थीं।

What is the central idea of the poem my grandmother’s house?

The basic theme is that of lost love, with the speaker bemoaning the fact that once she lived in a house where she was loved, but now her circumstances mean that she has no love in her life.

What does the grandmother house represent?

The house represents the feeling of love which the speaker could get from her grandmother. But, now the house is silent. The poem moves through the happy past and sad present. The poet uses the image of snakes moving among the books now for which she was too younger in her childhood.

Which type of poem is my grandmother’s house?

The poem, ‘My Grandmother’s House’, first appeared in Kamala Das’s first anthology of verse titled Summer Time in Calcutta (1965). It is also an autobiographical poem in which the poet’s longing for her parental house in Malabar is movingly described.

How does the poem my grandmother’s house End 1 point?

The poet says that one won’t believe that she had some of the best memories of her grandmother’s house and she is quite proud of it. Now that she has lost her grandmother, she begs at strangers’ doors for love. … Hence the poet ends with hope and despair.

Why does the poet want to visit her grandmother’s house?

A1. Why does the poet want to go back to her Grandmother’s house? Kamala Das wants to go back to her grandmother’s house because she received love from that house in the past. She believes that by going back she can revive and relive those happy memories.

The Last Lesson Summary in English by Alphonse Daudet

The Last Lesson Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Last Lesson is written by Alphonse Daudet. has provided The Last Lesson Questions and Answers Pdf, Notes pdf, The Last Lesson theme, message of story The Last Lesson, the last lesson ppt, justify the title The Last Lesson.

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The Last Lesson Summary in English by Alphonse Daudet

The Last Lesson by Alphonse Daudet About the Author

Alphonse Daudet (13 May 1840 – 16 December 1897) was a French short story writer and novelist. He is remembered chiefly as the author of sentimental tales of provincial life in the south of France. All his life he recorded his observations of other people in little notebooks, which he used as a reservoir of inspiration.

Daudet represents a synthesis of conflicting elements and his actual experience of life, at every social level and in the course of travels, helped to develop his natural gifts. His major works include ‘Tastain’, ‘Le Petit Chose’, ‘In the land of Pain’ and ‘The Last Lesson’.

Author Name Alphonse Daudet
Born 13 May 1840, Nimes, France
Died 16 December 1897, Paris, France
Movies Letters from My Windmill, L’Arlésienne
Nationality French
Alphonse Daudet - the last lesson summary in English class 12
Alphonse Daudet

The Last Lesson Theme

‘The Last Lesson’ revolves around the language and its importance to the citizens of a country. It is the duty of every citizen to safeguard the language of the country as it is the identity of that country. The lesson depicts how after defeating France in the war, the Prussians wanted to rule over not only the territory of France but also over the minds and hearts of the people.

The story reinforces the fact that we value something more when it is lost. The pain and anguish of the students and the teacher is evident as everyone realizes how things were taken for granted. The lesson emphasizes the importance of the mother tongue for everyone and the need to realize the fact that it is our language that gives us our identity, respect and freedom.

The Last Lesson Summary in English

‘The Last Lesson’ is set in the days of the Franco-Prussian War. France was defeated by Prussia and the districts of Alsace and Lorraine had passed into Prussian hands. The orders came from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.

The story tells the effect of this transition on the people through the eyes of a young boy, Franz. The story describes what is just another ordinary day for Franz who started very late for school that morning. In fact, he was reluctant to go to school as he had not prepared his French lesson on participles and his teacher, M. Hamel, was going to conduct an oral test on the topic in the class. Initially, he thought of spending the bright warm day outdoors enjoying the chirping of birds and drilling of Prussian soldiers at the back of the sawmill, but finally he decided to go to school.

On the way, Franz passed the town hall, where he saw a large crowd reading the bulletin board which had been a source of all bad news. Franz didn’t stop there and rushed to the school.

When Franz arrived at the school, he found a strange quietness there. He found that his classmates were already seated in their places and the teacher had already started teaching. The back benches were occupied by the village elders who were grim and solemn. To his surprise, M. Hamel was in his formal dress that he used to wear only on the inspection or prize distribution days. Franz found M. Hamel to be kinder than usual.

He didn’t scold Franz for being late and allowed him to take his seat. Franz was shocked to get the news that it was their last lesson in French and the new German teacher would take charge on the following day. He was full of regret for not learning his mother tongue and felt a sudden love for French. He even started liking M. Hamel and forgot all about his ruler and crankiness.

When M. Hamel asked Franz to answer a question on participles, he was not able to answer. Even then, M. Hamel didn’t scold him and remarked that the only trouble with people of Alsace was of putting off learning till the next day. He blamed parents for sending their children to earn money rather than to school. He also blamed himself for sending students to water his plants or for giving them a holiday when he wanted to go fishing.

M. Hamel then talked of the French language, calling it the most beautiful language in the world. He told the class to keep their language close to their hearts to feel free and happy. As long as an enslaved people held fast to their language, they had the key to their prison. Their language could liberate them forever. As the church dock struck twelve, M. Hamel with a choked throat wrote on the blackboard Vive La France, i.e. Long Live France and dismissed the class.

The story, written in a historical background, is a beautiful depiction of the emotional bond of people with their mother tongue. It depicts the pathos of the situation that in order to conquer the minds of the people, it is not enough to win a country physically by force. In order to enslave a people completely, a conqueror needs to enslave their thoughts and make them devoid of the knowledge and use of their own mother tongue.

What is the summary of the last lesson?

The last lesson by Alphonse Daudet is mainly about the longing to learn the mother tongue and love for it. It has a sense of patriotism. The Prussians rejected the freedom of the people of Lorraine and Alsace to learn their own mother tongue. The colonizers took away the basic rights of the people.

What is the introduction of the last lesson?

‘The last lesson ‘ written by Alphonse Daudet narrates about the year 1870 when the Prussian forces under Bismarck attacked and captured France. The French districts of Alsace and Lorraine went into Prussian hands. The new Prussian rulers discontinued the teaching of French in the schools of these two districts.

What is the theme of the story the last lesson long answer?

The theme of the story ‘The Last Lesson’ is linguistic chauvinism of the proud conquerors and the pain that is inflicted on the people of a territory by them by taking away the right to study or speak their own language and thus make them aliens in their own land of birth.

What is the conclusion of the chapter the last lesson?

How does he conclude his last lesson? Ans. M Hamel said that French was the most beautiful, clear, and logical language in the world. They must guard it among them and never forget it because when the people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison

Once Upon A Time Summary in English and Hindi by Toni Morrison

Once Upon A Time Bit Summary in English and Hindi. Once Upon A Time is Written by Toni Morrison. has provided Once Upon A Time Objective Questions Answers, Story Chapter Ka Meaning in Hindi.

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Once Upon A Time Summary in English and Hindi by Toni Morrison

Once Upon A Time Written by Toni Morrison Introduction

“Once Upon a Time” a speech by Toni Morrison, is a fine example of his extra-ordinary narrations of the theme. It is not only been entertaining but also of the best way of absorption of knowledge.

The text also exhibits how the proper usage of language could be helpful in bringing about changes and big revolution in the world and moreover the immediate surrounding. The writer wants to express that language should be living and impressive.

Once Upon A Time Summary in English

Once upon a time is the story of an old woman. She is wise blind woman. She is the daughter of black, slave American. There might be a guru beside her who would be gently calming the unquiet children by his thoughtful sermons.

The writer feels that he has heard such stories in the writings of many cultures. In one of such version there is the description of a woman. She is a black American living alone in a small house outside of town.

She is famous for her undisputed wisdom far and wide. She is paid undue honour and commands respect not only in her neighbourhood but even in far away city where rural prophets are the subject of much amusement.

One day some young people visit her small house. One of them tells her- that he is holding a bird in his hand. He asks her whether it is living or dead. The old woman, being blind cannot see her visitors and the bird in the hands of one of them. They laugh over her silence. The young man repeats his question. Then she speaks in a soft but firm voice that she does not know whether the bird is dead or alive, because she is blind. She is being scolded for this reply.

The writer derives the underlying meaning from this narration. He speculates that bird in hand is a weak creature. So he choose to read the bird as language and the woman as a practiced writer.

The writer is anxious to know about those young children. He becomes surprised on their unexpected and sudden visit to the old woman’s house. He thinks that their visit may be a fraud or a trick to show their power, to interrupt and to break law of the elderly persons by their unpleasant speech, as well.

The young people continue to ask many questions from the old blind woman. According to them due to her blindness, she” can express her views without seeing the pictures or outward scenes. To know about man they even wanted to know from her about a woman and those who have no home in this world.

When the young children finish speaking and there is silence over that place, the old blind woman begins to say that now she has trust on them. She is also confident that the bird they have really caught is not in their hands at present. She thanks them even for their cordial behaviour and conversation with her.

Thus, the Nobel laureate Toni Morrison has wonderfully thrown light on the proper usage of language. It is the language which is the medium of great changes and big revolution in its surroundings and die world. But the language should be living and filled with energy. He has beautifully elaborated the plight of woman and depressed classes through the story— “Once upon a time”.

Once Upon A Time Summary in Hindi

“वन्स अपान ए टाईम” एक बूढ़ी महिला की कहानी है, जो एक काले अमेरिकी गुलाम (नीग्रो) की बेटी है। वह एक बुद्धिमती अंधी औरत है। संभवत: एक आध्यात्मिक शिक्षक (गुरु) भी वहीं निकट में रहता है जो अपने पांडित्यपूर्ण उपदेशों से अशांत एवं उद्विग्न युवा पीढ़ी के मन की उलझन को शान्त कर सकता है।

लेखक ऐसा अनुभव करता है कि उसने इस प्रकार की कहानियाँ अनेकों भाषाओं तथा संस्कृतियों में सुनी हैं। इस प्रकार के एक लेखन (कहानी) में एक महिला का वर्णन है। वह एक काले वर्ण की अमेरिकी महिला है जो शहर से बाहर एक छोटे से घर में एकान्त रूप में रहती है। वह अपनी निर्विवाद बुद्धिमता के लिए दूर-दूर तक विख्यात है। उसे अत्यधिक सम्मान . प्राप्त है तथा केवल अपने पड़ोस में ही नहीं बल्कि सुदूर नगर तक भी, जहाँ गावों के आध्यात्मिक नेता मनोरंजन के विषय हैं, उसकी ख्याति फैली हुई है।

एक दिन कुछ युवक उसके छोटे से घर में आए । उन युवकों में से एक व्यक्ति उससे कहता है कि वह अपने हाथों में एक चिड़िया पकड़े हुए है । वह उससे पूछता है कि उक्त चिड़िया जीवित है या मृत । वह बूढी औरत अंधी है। अत: वह आगन्तुकों को तथा उनमें से एक व्यक्ति के हाथ में पकड़ी हुई चिड़िया को नहीं देख सकती है। वे लोग उसके मौन रहने पर हँसते हैं। वह युवा व्यक्ति पुनः अपने प्रश्न को दोहराता है। तब वह धीमे किन्तु दृढ़ स्वर में कहती है कि वह नहीं जानती कि पक्षी मृत है अथवा जीवित क्योंकि वह अंधी है। इस उत्तर के लिए उसे झिड़कियाँ दी जाती हैं।

लेखक उस कथन में अंतर्हित गूढ अर्थ निकालता है। वह अनुमान लगाता है कि हाथ में रखी गई चिड़िया एक दुर्बल जीव है। अत: वह चिड़िया को भाषा के रूप में पढ़ना उचित समझता है तथा महिला को एक अनुभवी तथा धार्मिक विचारों वाली लेखिका।

लेखक उन युवा व्यक्तियों के विषय में जानने को उत्सुक है। बूढ़ी महिला के घर में उन युवकों के आकस्मिक तथा अनपेक्षित आने से वह आश्चर्यचकित हो जाता है। वह सोचती है कि उनका आना अपनी शक्ति का प्रदर्शन करने के लिए छल तथा चालबाजी युक्त बहाना हो सकता है। इसके साथ ही उनका उद्देश्य विघ्न डालना तथा अशिष्ट एवं अरूचिकर भाषा का प्रयोगकर प्रौढ़ और सज्जन व्यक्तियों के कानून को भंग करना भी हो सकता है।

युवकों ने बूढी अंधी महिला से अनेकों प्रश्न करना जारी रखा । उन युवकों के अनुसार अंधी होने के कारण वह चित्रों अथवा बाहरी दृश्यों को बिना देखे अपना विचार व्यक्त कर सकती है। पुरुष किसे कहते हैं, इसे जानने के लिए उन लोगों ने उक्त महिला से औरतों तथा बेघर लोगों के विषय में जानना चाहा। जब उन नौजवान लोगों ने अपनी बात समाप्त की तथा वहाँ का वातावरण शान्त हो गया तो उस बूढी अंधी महिला ने कहा कि अब वह उनलोगों पर विश्वास करती है। उसे पूर्ण विश्वास है कि जिस पक्षी को उन्हेंने वास्तव में पकड़ा था वह अब उनके हाथों में नहीं है। उसने उनलोगों के सौहार्दपूर्ण व्यवहार तथा वार्तालाप के लिए भी धन्यवाद दिया।

इस प्रकार नॉबेल पुरस्कार से विभूषित, टॉमी मॉरीसन ने आश्चर्यजनक ढंग से भाषा के : समुचित प्रयोग पर व्यापक प्रकाश डाला है। अपने आसपास तथा विश्व में महान परिवर्तन एवं क्रांतियों का माध्यम भाषा ही होती है। किन्तु भाषा ऊर्जा से पूर्ण तथा सशक्त होनी चाहिए। उन्होंने अत्यन्त सुन्दर ढंग से औरतों तथा शोषित वर्ग (काले अमेरिकी नीग्रो) की दुर्दशा का सजीव चित्रण अपनी कहानी, “वन्स अपान ए टाईम” द्वारा किया हैं।

What is the summary of the poem once upon a time?

The poem is a conversation between a father and his son where the son does things with emotion and the father wants to forget his fake personality and re-learn and create real personalities from his son. And he is asking the son to show him how to express true love and show real personality to others.

What is the central theme of the poem once upon a time?

Themes. Okara incorporates the themes of cultural crisis, selfishness, loss of innocence, and real emotion vs fake expression in his poem ‘Once Upon a Time’. The main theme of this poem is the cultural crisis. Though readers cannot find this theme directly in the text, it is an integral part of the poem.

What is the moral lesson of the poem once upon a time?

The central theme brought out through this short story is the idea that human fear represents the greatest obstacle to human happiness. The family “loves each other very much,” as indicated in the opening details. This love for one another creates a perpetual and increasing fear of the disruption in the outside world.

What does he hope to learn from him once upon a time?

He wants to (l) unlearn the unreal things and (m) relearn how to laugh as he had done once upon a time. … So, he asks his son to show him how to laugh the way he used to laugh, when he was a kid like him.

Who is the persona in the poem once upon a time?

So show me, son, how to laugh; show me how I used to laugh and smile once upon a time when I was like you. In this poem, the persona, a father (or mother) seems to be speaking to his son about how people, as well as he himself have changed from showing genuine emotion to being insincere and ingenuine.

What kind of person is the speaker in the poem once upon a time?

The speaker in this poem Once upon a time is about a time when citizens are sincere in work and do their jobs professionally. It is nothing but taken with famous words and taken mostly vast region. Nigerian Gabriel Okara wrote the poem from the perspective of a parent addressing a young boy.

What is the significance of the title once upon a time?

Once Upon A Time is a common beginning for American fairytales. The use of the phrase ‘once upon a time’ enables the reader to imagine the events in the story happening anywhere and at any time.

We Are Not Afraid To Die If We Can All Be Together Summary in English by Gordon Cook and Alan East

We Are Not Afraid To Die If We Can All Be Together Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. We’re Not Afraid to Die… If We Can All Be Together is written by Gordon Cook and Alan East. has provided We Are Not Afraid To Die If We Can All Be Together extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english The Portrait of A Lady summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

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We’re Not Afraid to Die… If We Can All Be Together Summary in English

The Portrait of A Lady Theme

The chapter revolves around a part of the round-the-world voyage undertaken by the narrator and his family in a sailboat. It describes their thrilling journey across the sea and their close encounter with death during their voyage. The plot talks about their possible attempts to save their lives.

The Portrait of A Lady About the Characters

The narrator: He is a 37 year old businessman. He wants to duplicate the round-the-world journey made by Captain James Cook 200 years earlier. He spends a long time improving his sea skills and finally begins his journey with his wife Mary, six year old son Jonathan and seven year old daughter Suzanne.

Mary: She is the narrator’s wife. She supports her husband’s dream and improves her sea skills. She joins her husband on their planned three-year voyage.

Larry Vigi: An American who joins the narrator and Mary at Cape Town to help them tackle one of the world’s roughest seas.

Herb Seigler: A Swiss who also joins them at Cape Town to help them cross the southern Indian Ocean.

Suzanne: The narrator’s seven year old daughter who displays immense courage throughout their voyage.

Jonathan: He is the narrator’s six year old son who shows immense strength and optimism even in difficult times.

The Portrait of A Lady Summary in English

The Voyage Begins
In July 1976, the narrator, a 37 year old businessman, his wife Mary, 6 year old son Jonathan and 7 year old daughter Suzanne started their sea voyage from Plymouth, England. They wished to go round-the-world on a long sea journey just as Captain James Cook had done 200 years earlier. The narrator and his wife had spent 16 years preparing for the round-the-world voyage and improving their marine skills. Their boat Wavewalker was a 23 metre, 30 ton boat that was professionally built and they had tested it in the roughest weather they could find.

The first part of their planned three year, 105000 kilometre journey passed pleasantly as they sailed down the West Coast of Africa to Cape Town. Then they took two crewmen—the American Larry Vigil and the Swiss Herb Seigler-before heading east from Cape Town, to help them tackle one of the world’s roughest seas, the southern Indian Ocean.

The Problems Begin During the Voyage
On the second day out of Cape Town, they encountered strong winds and high waves. The windstorms continued for the next few weeks. The size of the waves was upto 15 metres. On December 25, they were 3500 kilometres east of Cape Town, but the weather was very bad.

Despite the bad weather, they celebrated Christmas Day wonderfully. New Year’s Day saw no improvement in the weather and it worsened with the passing of time.

On 2nd January, the waves were gigantic. They were sailing with a small storm jib, but still they were going very fast. The boat moved to the top of each wave but the gigantic waves and dangerous wind continued to terrorise them. To minimise the damage, they dropped the storm jib and lashed a heavy rope in a loop across the stern. Then they fastened everything, went through their life-raft drill, attached lifelines and put on oilskins and life jackets and prepared themselves for the worst case scenario.

Disaster Strikes
The first indication of impending disaster came at about 6 pm, with an ominous silence. The wind stopped and the sky immediately grew dark. Then a loud roaring sound was heard. The narrator thought that he saw a cloud coming towards them. With horror, he realised it was not a cloud but the biggest wave that he had ever seen. It appeared vertical and double the height of all other waves.

The wave hit the boat and a tremendous explosion shook the deck. Water poured into the boat. The narrator’s head smashed against the steering wheel of the boat and before he knew it, he was thrown into the sea. He thought that he was going to die but suddenly his head popped out of the water. He saw that the boat had almost capsized. Suddenly, a wave hurled it upright and the narrator was tossed onto the boat. His left ribs were cracked; his mouth was filled with blood and some teeth were broken. Somehow he managed to find the wheel, lined up the stern for the next wave and hung on.

Frantic Survival Attempts
The narrator knew that the boat was flooding with water, but he dared not abandon the wheel to investigate. Suddenly, Mary came and informed him that the boat was sinking as water was pouring in. He handed the wheel to her and crawled towards the hatch. Larry and Herb pumped the water out like madmen. The wooden beams had broken. The whole starboard side had bulged inwards. Clothes, crockery, charts, tins and toys moved around noisily in water.

The boat had been damaged. He somehow managed to reach the children. Sue had a big bump on her head to which he did not pay much attention. He found a hammer, screws and canvas.

Somehow he managed to stretch the canvas and secure waterproof hatch covers across the gaping holes. Some water continued to come in but most of it could be prevented from entering the boat. But this was not the end of their troubles.

Damaged and Lost Equipment
The handpumps started jamming with the trash floating around the cabins. Soon their electric pump got short-circuited and the water rose threateningly.

He found that their two spare handpumps had been pulled away by currents along with the forestay sail, the jib, the lifeboats and the main anchor.

He managed to find another electric pump to drain out the water. The night was an endless, bitterly cold routine of pumping, steering and working the radio. However, there was no response to their Mayday calls as they were in a remote corner of the world. Sue’s head had swollen alarmingly. She had two black eyes and a deep cut on her arm. She didn’t tell the narrator more of her injuries as she didn’t want to worry him when he was trying to save them all.

Pinpricks in the Vast Ocean
On the morning of January 3, the pumps had reduced the amount of water on board. Each of them took rest for two hours by turns. They had survived for 15 hours since the wave hit the Wavewalker, but the boat was not strong enough to take them to Australia.

The narrator knew that the boat wouldn’t hold together long enough. He checked his charts and calculated that the only one hope for them was if they could reach lie Amsterdam, a French scientific base, one of the two pinpricks in the vast ocean. Mary found some corned beef and cracker biscuits and they ate their first meal in almost two days.

However, their relief was short-lived. The weather again started deteriorating and by the dawn on 5th January, their situation was again desperate.

“We aren’t Afraid to Dying… if We can all be Together”
The narrator went to comfort the children. He tried to assure them that they were going to make it. Jon said that they were not afraid of dying if they can all be together. This gave the narrator hope and a reason to fight the sea. He tried his best to protect the weakened starboard side of the boat. However, later in the evening, as more water came into the boat, they felt defeated again. On 6th January, the weather improved. The narrator again tried to calculate their position. While he was at work, Sue came to him and gave him a card. She had drawn caricatures of Mary and the narrator.

The card said that she loved them both and hoped for the best. The narrator was filled with optimism. Somehow they had to make it.

The Most Beautiful Island in the World!
The narrator made several calculations using a spare compass, made some adjustments and asked Larry to steer a course of 185 degrees. He said that, if they were lucky, they would see the island at about 5 pm. Dejected, he went down to his bunk and fell asleep.

It was about 6 pm when he woke up. He thought that they must have missed the island. Just then, Jon and Sue came to him and gave him a hug because he was the “best daddy in the world”. The narrator was confused. Sue announced that the island was just in front of them. He rushed out to the deck and saw the most beautiful island in the world! It was lie Amsterdam, a piece of volcanic rock with little vegetation.

When his feet touched land the next day, he thought of the cheerfulness and optimism of all the people on the boat which made them pass through the worst stress.

The Portrait of A Lady Chapter Highlights

  • The narrator with his wife Mary and two children Jonathan and Suzanne set sail from Plymouth, England, to duplicate the round-the-world voyage made by Captain James Cook 200 years ago.
  • Wavewalker, a professionally built boat, had been tested for months in the roughest weather.
  • The initial period of the three-year planned journey priced to be quite pleasant.
  • American Larry Vigil and Swiss Herb Seigler joined them at Cape Town to help them tackle one of the world’s roughest seas, the southern Indian Ocean.
  • The weather began to deteriorate and the crew experienced strong winds and huge waves.
  • At dawn on January 2 the waves were gigantic. The crew members tried to slow down the boat and prepared for an impending disaster.
  • Later in the evening, a tremendous wave wrecked the boat, throwing the narrator into the sea. Then he was tossed back into the boat. However, he was badly injured.
  • Realising that the boat had taken in water in its lower parts, he instructed Mary to take the wheel and then went below deck.
  • Larry and Herb pumped out the water that had accumulated in the boat.
  • The narrator made some repairs and began waterproofing the gaping holes.
  • The family managed to survive for 15 hours but the narrator knew that Wavewalker would not hold for long.
  • The narrator made some calculations and found two small islands. They hoped to reach the nearest island, lie Amsterdam, a French scientific base, soon.
  • However, their relief was short-lived. The weather deteriorated and their situation again became hopeless.
  • Jonathan’s fearlessness filled the narrator with determination and courage to fight the sea.
  • Fortunately, they managed to find lie Amsterdam that evening. It felt like the most beautiful island that they had ever seen.

The Portrait of A Lady Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
set sail – started a sea voyage
duplicate – repeat
voyage – journey over the sea
in the wake of – following
leisure – spare
honing – improving
seafaring skills – knowledge of navigation, handling a sailboat and its equipment etc
Wavewalker – name of their boat
beauty – beautiful boat made of wood
fitting it out – furnishing it
leg – part
crewmen – men to work on the ship
Swiss – from Switzerland
tackle – handle
out of – after starting from
gales – extremely strong winds
found us – we were
atrocious – very unpleasant
storm jib – small sail used at the time of a storm
making – going at the speed of
knots – nautical miles per hour
lashed – fastened
mooring – used for tying the boat to a fixed object
stern – back part
life-raft drill – practising how to climb into a lifeboat if the main boat sinks
lifelines – ropes fixed around the bodies of persons to prevent drowning
oilskins – waterproof clothing
life jackets – jackets without sleeves which can be filled with air to help persons to float in the sea
impending – approaching
ominous silence – quietness just before some dangerous happening
aft of – behind
breaking crest – top of wave overturning
ride over – go above
torrent – large amount
overboard – into the sea
popped out – came out suddenly
capsizing – overturning
strayed past – came through
taut – tightly
guard rails – rails on the outside of the deck of the boat
sailed – was thrown
boom – long pole to which the bottom of a sail is attached
rag doll – very light object
lined up – straightened
hung on – held the boat tightly
abandon – leave
hatch – door leading below the deck
scrambled – ran
like madmen – very hard
timbers – wood planks
starboard – right side
bulged – swelled
sloshed – moved noisily
bunk – sleeping berth
bashed – broken
taking – drawing in
gaping – big
stream – fall like a stream
deflected – moved away
block up – get stuck
debris – broken pieces of material
short-circuited – became electrically defective
wrenched – removed and thrown from where they were fixed
forestay sail – big front sail
dighies – small open boats used for emergencies
anchor – heavy metal object used to keep the ship fixed in one place
chartroom – room in the boat where maps are kept
out-pipe – drainage pipe
working – transmitting messages on
Mayday calls – distress messages sent over the radio
made more of – highlighted
waterline – the level of the boat in water
rib frames – wooden pieces forming the frame of the boat
keel – long wood / steel piece fixed vertically at the bottom of the boat to keep it vertical
rigging – ropes that balance the mast of the boat
sextant – instrument measuring angles and distances used for calculating position of a boat
compass – instrument used for checking direction tousled head – head with hair not arranged
offshore – near the shore

Were are not afraid to die summary?

Summary of We’re Not Afraid to Die… if We Can All Be Together. We are not afraid to die if we can all be together summary tells about the extreme bravery and skill exhibited by Gordon Cook. Gordon Cook’s family and crewmen in a war with water and the waves for existence.

What is the moral of not afraid to die?

Answer: The most important lesson that we learn from such hazardous experiences, when we are face-to-face with death, is not to lose hope under any circumstances. At times, life presents very dire situations but if one is optimistic about finding a solution and overcomes the odds, one will always be successful.

Who is the narrator of the story we’re not afraid to die?

We’re Not Afraid to Die Introduction

The narrator Gordon Cook, his wife Mary, and their children, Jonathan and Suzanne set sail on a ship to imitate the historical round-the-world voyage undertaken by James Cook in 1768.

Who said we are not afraid to die if we can all to be together?

“We’re Not Afraid to Die… if We Can All Be Together” Summary. The narrator and his wife plan a voyage around the world just like famous Captain James Cook. They have been preparing and perfecting their seafaring skills for the past 16 years.

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English by Patrick Pringle

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Albert Einstein At School is written by Patrick Pringle. has provided Albert Einstein At School extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Albert Einstein At School summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

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Albert Einstein At School Summary in English by Patrick Pringle

About the Author Patrick Pringle

Author Name Patrick Pringle
Born 1917 (age 103 years), London, United Kingdom
Books Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy
Nominations Edgar Award for Best Fact Crime
Patrick Pringle - albert einstein at school summary in english class 11
Patrick Pringle

Albert Einstein At School Theme

This biographical piece discusses the childhood of Albert Einstein, the famous physicist. The chapter starts with Einstein’s disagreement on rote learning with his history teacher. Einstein wanted to get away from the system of education followed in Munich. So he decided to get a doctor’s certificate declaring that he has had a nervous breakdown and needs rest for six months. Only his maths teacher admired Einstein for his brilliance. But before Einstein could get an appointment with the head teacher to present the certificate, he was asked by the head teacher to leave the school due to poor conduct. So he felt happy on leaving.

Albert Einstein At School About the Characters

Albert Einstein: During his schooldays at Munich, he was not interested in the rote learning methods of school education and expressed his frank opinion. Nobody except his maths teacher recognised his genius. In the end he was expelled by the school authorities.

Mr Braun: He was Einstein’s history teacher who believes in the rote learning system of education.

Yuri: He was Einstein’s good friend and a very helpful person.

Elsa: She was Einstein’s cousin who advised him that he will eventually succeed if he continues in his school.

Dr Ernst Weil: He was a newly qualified doctor who understands Einstein and helps him by giving the medical certificate which he required.

Mr Koch: He was Einstein’s maths teacher who understood his genius and gave him the reference he wanted.

Head Teacher: He is an administrator who simply takes the disciplinary action required by requesting Einstein to leave the school.

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English

Einstein in History Class
The narrative begins with Einstein being’ asked by his history teacher, Mr Braun, about the year in which the Prussians defeated the French at Waterloo. Einstein frankly replied that he did not remember and he didn’t see any point in learning dates. Mr Braun was amazed that Einstein didn’t believe in learning facts. According to Einstein, learning facts was not education at all. He thought that ideas were more important than facts. The teacher asked him to explain ‘Einstein’s theory of education’. Einstein shyingly elaborated that he would be more interested in learning the reason why soldiers killed each other instead of learning years or dates, or which of the armies killed more men.

Einstein Gets Scolded
Mr Braun was shocked and furious. He believed that Einstein had no desire to learn and was wasting his father’s money. Mr Braun did not agree with Einstein’s views on education. He punished Einstein by asking him to stay for an extra period in school. He also told Einstein that he was a disgrace to the school and ought to be ashamed of himself. The teacher suggested Einstein to call his father to take him away.

Einstein Hated the Atmosphere of Slum Violence
Einstein felt miserable that day. He wished his father would take him away. His father was not rich. So, Einstein lived in one of the poorest areas of Munich. He hated the slum violence there.

Einstein had no comfort there. The atmosphere was bad as his landlady beat her children regularly and every Saturday her husband, a drunkard, beat her. The only comfort for Einstein was when he played his violin, but that was also, stopped by his landlady because its sound disturbed her. All this made him miserable.

Einstein shared his pain with Yuri, his only friend in Munich. Yuri tried to convince by telling him that he was lucky to at least have his own room.

Yuri also told Einstein that he was sharing a room with students who were not civilised at all and they fought with each other. One of the students got killed the previous week in such a duel. The authorities did not take action and merely told them not to engage in such fights. Einstein got disgusted after hearing this account.

Einstein Met his Cousin Elsa
Einstein was doubtful about passing his exams for the school diploma. He told Elsa, his cousin, the same when she next came to Munich. She used to visit Einstein occasionally but she lived in Berlin, where her father had a business. Elsa tried to counsel him. She told him that she knew a lot of boys who were more stupid than him and they all had passed the exam. She counselled him to continue his studies in the school. Einstein explained his helplessness by saying that he was no good at learning things by heart. He was reading a book on geology, which was not even a part of his diploma. Still, he was studying it because he liked it. Apart from books on science, his only comfort was playing his violin, until his landlady asked him to stop.

Einstein’s Plan to Get Away from School
Einstein thought that it was meaningless for him to stay on in Munich. It was no use wasting his father’s money and everyone’s time. Einstein suddenly got an idea. He met Yuri and asked him if he knew a doctor. Einstein wanted to get a medical certificate to show that he had a nervous breakdown and he should stop going to school. Yuri doubted that the doctor will believe Einstein. Einstein commented that he would have a real nervous breakdown to make matters easier for the doctor.

The Doctor Gives Einstein a Medical Certificate
Yuri found a recently qualified doctor, Dr. Ernst Weil. Yuri warned Einstein against trying to deceive Ernst, but to be frank and honest.

Einstein met Dr. Ernst the next day. Dr. Ernst informed him that Yuri had told him about his troubles. Einstein informed him about his plans to move to Milan. Dr Ernst gave him a medical certificate stating that Einstein was suffering from nervous breakdown and should stay away from school for six months. Einstein thanked the doctor and took Yuri for a meal.

Einstein Seeks a Reference
Einstein told Yuri that he would leave school forever as he never wanted to come back to that school. Yuri suggested him to take a reference letter from his maths teacher, to Mr. Koch, before going to the headmaster. Mr. Koch really admired Einstein for his brilliance and gave him the reference.

Einstein Summoned By Head Teacher
Before Einstein had a chance to give the medical certificate to the head teacher, he was summoned to the head teacher’s office. The head teacher told him that he was expelled from the school and he should leave immediately.

When Einstein wanted to know the reason, the head teacher told him that his presence disturbed the class so much that no teaching could be done.

Einstein Happy to Leave the School
When Einstein heard this, he felt sad that he had unnecessarily wasted time and effort in procuring a medical certificate. Einstein was tempted to tell the head teacher what he thought about the school or about the teachers but somehow stopped himself. But he did not feel ashamed of being expelled and walked out keeping his head high. .He did not say goodbye to any teacher or student inside the school.

The only person he wanted to meet before leaving was Yuri, who wished him good luck and wished that he would be happier in Milan as it was a wonderful place.

Albert Einstein At School Chapter Highlights

  • The chapter opens in history class where Mr. Braun is asking Einstein a question related to dates. Einstein gives a frank reply that he does not remember the answer.
  • The conversation between Einstein and his history teacher Mr. Braun turns unpleasant when the teacher talks in a sarcastic manner about Einstein’s theory of education. The teacher calls him a disgrace and punishes him.
  • Einstein feels very miserable due to many factors: the school environment, the place where he lived etc.
  • The atmosphere where he lives is also depressing. He hates the atmosphere of ‘slum violence’ where the beating of children by their mother and the beating of a wife by a drunk husband is a regular feature.
  • Einstein discusses about all this with his friend Yuri who lives in a shared room.
  • Yuri says that his room was no better than Einstein’s, as students became violent over small matters.
  • Einstein discusses about the problems at school with his cousin Elsa who occasionally visited him.
  • Elsa thinks there is no reason that he cannot pass by remembering facts even though he does not understand them.
  • Einstein is greatly interested in reading books on science. Elsa points out to him that reading those books will not help him to pass his examination.
  • Einstein discusses with Yuri about getting a medical certificate from a doctor so that he can stay away from his school.
  • Yuri sends him to a newly qualified doctor, Ernst Weil. He is an understanding person and gives a certificate stating that
  • Einstein is close to a nervous breakdown and should keep away from school for six months.
  • Yuri suggests to Einstein to meet his maths teacher first for a reference before Einstein went to meet the head teacher with the medical certificate.
  • Einstein’s Maths teacher, Mr Koch, appreciates his brilliance. He gives a glowing reference to Einstein which can get him admission in a college or institute for higher education in maths.
  • Einstein is called by the head teacher who informs him that he is being expelled from the school. The head teacher tells him of his misbehaviour in class.
  • Einstein happily leaves the school with head held high. He does not bid goodbye to any teacher or student of that school,
    Before leaving for Milan, he meets his best friend Yuri, who wishes him good luck for the future.

Albert Einstein At School Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
physicist – scientist who studies physics
expulsion – forced removal
unthinking – spontaneous
amaze – surprise
heavy sarcasm – mockery
flushed – became red in confusion
stay in – remain
lodgings – place of residence
squalor – filth
slum violence – fights in the poorest areas of the town
came drunk – became drunk
civilised – polite, well-mannered
duel – fight between two people
scar – injury mark
badge of honour – mark of pride
glumly – sadly
learning things by heart – remembering things perfectly
wailing – long and loud sound made by the violin
gets on one’s nerves – annoys
howling – crying
absurd – silly
turn out – end in the result that
gleamed – shone brightly
nervous breakdown – mental illness

What is the central idea of Albert Einstein at school?

The basic theme of “Albert Einstein at School” is to throw light on the modern way of providing education. Education doesn’t mean-mugging updates, it means understanding facts and gaining practical knowledge.

What is the conclusion of Chapter Albert Einstein at school?

Albert Einstein at School Summary

It ends up in him being punished by the teacher, which again, is not new. Then the lesson talks about how Albert disliked his neighbourhood because of all the slum violence and compared it to his best friend, Yuri’s neighbourhood who did not like his’ either.

Why was Albert Einstein explain from school?

The head teacher told Albert that he was expelling him from school because his presence in the classroom made it impossible for the teacher to teach and other pupils to learn. No serious work could be done while he was in the class. Albert refused to learn and he was” in constant rebellion.

Why did Einstein not like his school?

Albert hated school because of the stifling environment that suppressed his scientifically curious mind . the excessively stern discipline and rigid rules in that school led to frequent clashes with his teachers . He began to feel that it was inappropriate place of liberal person like him .

What characteristics of Einstein’s nature is highlighted?

5) What characteristic of Einstein’s nature is highlighted by the exchanges between him and the teacher? Answer: The exchanges between Einstein and the teacher show him to be a person with firm convictions; he is frank and straightforward. Even at the cost of punishment he is not willing to compromise on his views.

The Soldier Poem Summary in English and Hindi by Rupert Brooke

The Soldier Poem Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Soldier Poem is written by Rupert Brooke. has provided The Soldier Poem Objective Questions and Answers Pdf, Poem Ka Meaning in Hindi, Poem Analysis, Line by Line Explanation, Themes, Figures of Speech, Critical Appreciation, Central Idea, Poetic Devices.

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The Soldier Poem Summary in English and Hindi by Rupert Brooke

The Soldier by Rupert Brooke About the Poet

Rupert Brooke (1887-1915) was born in England in 1887 in a well to do educated family, with academic legacy. Life and creations of Rupert Brooke are a pleasant contribution of patriotism chivalry and education. Rupert gradually assumed a symbolic role which gradually turned into the sanctity of the myth of a war-hero and a dedicated warrior who sacrificed his life for his motherland. Brooke is remembered as a war poet.

The Soldier Written by Rupert Brooke Introduction to the Poem

Rupert is mainly known and admired for his five war sonnets. The Solider is the best and finest of all those sonnets. It leaves a deep impression on its readers. The poem has a patriotic approach. The thoughts of a soldier towards his motherland with his immense desire to sacrifice his life is also reflected in the poem.

The Soldier Poem Summary in English

“The Soldier” is a war sonnet written by the poet Rupert Brooke. The poem has a patriotic approach. The thoughts of a soldier towards his motherland with his immense desire to sacrifice his life is also reflected in the poem.

The poet admires England and expresses his gratitude to it. The poet is describing about some foreign land, which is the part of England and on which he will be buried after his death. He wants a peaceful country and there would be no war between the two countries. According to him the surroundings of England is just like heaven as he says, “under an English heaven”.

The Soldier Poem Summary in Hindi

रॉबर्ट ब्रूक के द्वारा रचित कविता ‘The Soldier’ सैनिक है जो इंलैंड का सबसे सुन्दर युवक था। कवि ने यह कहा कि जब वह मरेंगे उनके शव को इंग्लैंड की जमीन पर एक कोने में जगह दे दी जाए जिससे वह उसी सरजमीन पर रहे।

जब युद्ध शुरू हो तो हवा सब कुछ अपने अन्दर छुपा ले और पानी उन सभी को बहा दे जो दूसरों के ऊपर अपना राज करना चाहते हैं। वे चाहते थे कि वे जब रास्ते पर चलने लगे जो उनके लिए कोई अनजान प्यार से उन्हें रास्ता दिखाये । वे नहीं चाहते थे कि उनके दिमाग में कुछ भी आये जो राष्ट्र के लिए बेकार हो। वे एक शांतिपूर्ण देश चाहते थे। वे चाहते थे कि कोई भी देश एक-दूसरे को मत मारे । वे इंग्लैंड की भूमि पर अपने आप को स्वर्ग के समान मानते थे।

What is the theme of the poem The Soldier?

“The Soldier” was written by Rupert Brooke in 1914 in a traditional sonnet form. The key themes of this poem are love and death which is the two most powerful things that recall the feeling of readers. Death, as he is a soldier going into World War One, and love in the sense of loving his country.

Why was the poem The Soldier written?

About the Poet

He saw combat action in the fight for Antwerp in 1914, as well as a retreat. As he awaited a new deployment, he wrote the short set of five 1914 War Sonnets, which concluded with one called The Soldier

What happens in The Soldier poem?

“The Soldier” explores the bond between a patriotic British soldier and his homeland. Through this soldier’s passionate discussion of his relationship to England, the poem implies that people are formed by their home environment and culture, and that their country is something worth defending with their life.

What kind of poem is The Soldier?

The Poem. “The Soldier” is a sonnet of two stanzas: an octet of eight lines and a sestet of six lines. It is the last in a series of five sonnets composed shortly after the outbreak of World War I.

What do lines 2 3 reveal about the speaker the soldier?

What do lines 2-3 reveal about the speaker? The speaker believes, and perhaps even wishes, that he will die. The speaker is deeply devoted to his home country of England.

Animals in Prison Summary in English and Hindi by Jawaharlal Nehru

Animals in Prison Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Animals in Prison is written by Jawaharlal Nehru. has provided Animals in Prison Objective Questions and Answers Pdf, Chapter Story Ka Meaning in Hindi.

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Animals in Prison Summary in English and Hindi by Jawaharlal Nehru

Animals in Prison by Jawaharlal Nehru About the Author

Jawahar Lal Nehru (1889–1964) India’s first Prime Minister was popular among the children as “Chacha Nehru”. He was a man of rare sensitivity. He got his education at Horrow and Cambridge University. He became a barrister after studying Natural Science and Law. He returned to India in 1921. He joined Indian Politics, being deeply influenced by Mahatma Gandhi. Soon after he emerged as a leader of the country’s youth. He was not only a politician, but also a dreamer, idealist, humanist and artist as well. His works include; An Autobiography, The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History and Letters from a father to his daughter. His work is remarkable for a rare vigour and beauty and had established him as a master of English Prose.

Animals in Prison Summary in English

The author, after fourteen and a half months, living in Dehra Dun Jail feels that he is fully familiar with every bit of it. He has become almost a part of it. He does not feel that he is alone in his cell as many creatures are living there.

He had better cells in other prisons. But in Dehra Dun, he had one privilege which was very precious to him. The cell was very small. He could not move in it. So he was allowed to walk outside in morning and evening. That extra privilege was much for his contact with nature. He could see mountains, fields and public-roads.

Only a prisoner, confined for long behind high walls, can understand the psychological value of the outside walks. It was so valued that the author did not stop his morning and evening walks even in rainy season. For months when he was all alone in his cell and not interviewed, he gazed at the mountains and enjoyed.

Spring was very pleasant in Dehra Dun but the winter denuded almost all the trees of their leaves. But very mysteriously, the situation changed and green leaves came out all over them. It was a gay and cheering sight. Sudden change from bud to leaf was really wonderful.

The monsoon rains were always welcome because they ended the summer heat. Dehra Dun is always favoured by the rain-God.

Winter, too was pleasant, except when it rained. Heavy rainfall, hailstorm and hailstones troubled occasionally. But, after all, there was a comfortable habitation.

Prevented from indulging in normal activities, they (the author and his co-prisoners) became more observant of nature’s way. They watched various animals and insects that came their way. As the author grew more observants, he started noticing all the manner of these insects. He never interfered with the insects as they were living their life without interfering with him. It was another thing that there was a continuous war between the author and the bed bugs and the mosquitoes to some extent the flies. There was a understanding between the author and other creatures.

The author did not like bats but he was to endure them. They flew soundlessly in the evening dusk. Sometimes they seemed to be attacking. The author used to call them ‘the flying foxes’.

He used to watch the ants, white ants and other insects for hours. He also watched the comic fashion of the lizards. Their stalking of prey and chasing each other looked interesting.

Squirrels were also the companions of the author there. The author enjoyed their movements. Sometimes they climbed to his knee. He found pigeons in almost all the jails, like that of Dun. Here they were thousands in number. Sometimes the jail officials would shoot them down and feed on them. There were ‘mainas’ also in Dun jail. A pair of them nested over his cell-door in. The author used to feed them. They demanded impatiently if there was any delay in their morning or evening meal.

In Naini Jail, there were thousands of parrots. Their courtship and love making was always a fascinating sight. Brain-fever bird and Monkeys were also the co-dwellers of the author in the jail. Reckless courages of monkeys sometimes terrified the crowd. Scorpions were frequently found in the cell. But the author was never stung by one. Three or four snakes were also found in his cell or near it. The author did not appreciate or welcome snakes, but he never feared from them. He felt repulsion only from centipedes.

In Dehra Dun Jail, he saw a new animal. The owner of the animal named in ‘Bo’. He knew afterwards that it was ‘Pangolin’.
To satisfy their emotional starvation, prisoners were keeping animal pets but the ordinary prisoners could not keep them. The commonest pets were squirrels and mongooses. Dogs were not allowed in jails but the author was very found of dogs and he kept a few and fed them.

Different countries have adopted different animals as symbols of their ambition or character. These patron animals mould national character. It is at surprising that Hindus are mild and non-violent for their patron animal is a cow.

Animals in Prison Summary in Hindi

1. For fourteen and …………………………….. in that little space.
अनुवाद : मैं देहरादून की जेल की कोठरी में साढ़े चौदह मास रहा और मुझे लगने लगा था कि मैं उसका लगभग अंश नन गया था। मैं उसके चप्पे-चप्पे से परिचित था, मैं सफेदी
दुई दीवारों त असमतल फर्श व घुन की खाई हुई लकड़ियों के प्रत्येक चिह्न व गड्ढे से परिचित बाहर छोटे से आंगन में मैं घास के गुच्छों व पत्थर के टुकड़ों का मित्रों के रूप में अभिनन्दन करता था। मैं कोठरी में अकेला न था क्योंकि वहाँ भिड़, ततैयों के कई छत्ते थे और बहुत-सी छिपकलियों ने कड़ियों के पीछे घर बना लिए थे और शिकार की खोज में सायं के समय बाहर आती थीं। यदि विचार व भावनाएँ भौतिक वातावरण में अपने अंश/चिह्न छोड़ सकते हों तो कोठरी की वायु उनसे भरपूर होगी, उस छोटे-से स्थान की प्रत्येक वस्तु से चिपक रह होंगे।

2. I had had better …………………… morning and evening.
अनुवाद : अन्य जेलों में मुझे बेहतर कोठरियाँ मिली थीं, परन्तु देहरादून जेल में मुझे एक विशेष सुविधा थी जो मेरे लिए बहुत महत्त्वपूर्ण थी। जेल विशेष बहुत छोटी थी, और हमें जेल की दीवारों के बाहर परन्तु जेल के आंगन में ही एक पुरानी हवालात में रखा गया था। यह जगह इतनी छोटी थी कि उसमें घूमने-फिरने का कोई स्थान न था, इसलिए हमें गेट के सामने तक प्रातः-सायं आने-जाने की अनुमति थी, जो कि लगभग सौ गज का फासला था। हम जेल के आंगन में ही रहते थे, परन्तु दीवारों से बाहर आने से हमें पहाड़ों, खेतों और कुछ दूरी पर के एक जनमार्ग का दृश्य प्राप्त हो जाता था। यह मेरे अकेले के लिए विशेष सुविधा न थी, बल्कि देहरादून में रखे ए व बी श्रेणी के सभी कैदियों को प्राप्त थी। प्रांगण में ही, परन्तु जेल की दीवार के बाहर, एक और छोटा-सा भवन था जिसे यूरोपियन हवालात कहते थे । उसकी कोई चारदीवारी न थी और कोठरी में बैठा व्यक्ति पहाड़ों व बाह्य जीवन का अच्छा दृश्य देख सकता था। इसमें रखे गए यूरोपियन अपराधियों व अन्य लोगों को जो इसमें रखे जाते थे, उन्हें प्रातः व सायं जेल के गेट के सामने घूमने की अनुमति थी।

3. Only a prisoner who…………………….the mountain and I.
अनुवाद : बाहर की सैर व खुले दृश्य के मानसिक मूल्य को केवल वही समझ सकता है जो ऊँची दीवारों के पीछे बहुत समय तक बन्दी रहा हो । मैं बाहर के इस घूमने-फिरने को बहुत महत्त्व देता था। मानसून के आने पर भी इनको न छोड़ता था, जब वर्षा मूसलाधार पड़ती थी और मुझे टखनों तक गहरे पानी में चलना पड़ता था। मैं सैर का स्वागत किसी भी स्थान पर करता परन्तु समीप में ऊँचे पहाड़ों का दृश्य वहाँ एक अतिरिक्त आनन्द था जो बहुत हद तक जेल में मेरी नीरसता को दूर करने में सहायक था। यह मेरा सौभाग्य था कि उस लम्बे समय में जब कोई मुलाकात न होती थी, और जब कई मास तक मैं अकेला रहता था, मैं उन पहाड़ों को देख सकता था जिन्हें मैं प्यार करता था। मैं अपनी कोठरी से पहाड़ न देख सकता था, परन्तु वे मेरे मन में समाए रहते थे और मुझे उनके समीप होने का आभास रहता था और हम दोनों के बीच गुप्त प्रेम बढ़ता गया । पक्षियों के झुंड ऊंचे व दूर उड़ गए हैं, एक बादलों की अकेली कतार भी घूमते हुए दूर
चली गई है, और मैं अकेला बैठा हूँ और परे चिंग टिंग चोटी खड़ी है, और हम एक-दूसरे से कभी तंग नहीं आते-पहाड़ और मैं ।

4. I am afraid……………………………… fevered mind.
अनुवाद : कवि लि ताईपो की भाँति मैं कभी नहीं कह सकता कि मैं कभी तंग न आता था, पहाड़ों से भी, परन्तु वह अनूठा अनुभव था, और मुझे उसके सामीप्य में बड़ी शांति मिलती थी। उसका ठोसपन और शांत दृष्टि मुझे लाखों वर्षों की बुद्धिमत्ता लिए निहारती थी और मेरी बदलती मानसिक स्थिति का मजाक उड़ाती थी, और मेरे परेशान मन को शांत करती थी।

5. Spring was…………………………..from bud to leaf!
अनुवाद : देहरादून में वसंत बहुत मनमोहक थी, और वह नीचे मैदानों की अपेक्षा चिरस्थाई थी। शीत ने लगभग सभी पेड़ों को पत्रविहीन कर दिया था और वे खाली नंगे खड़े थे, और मुझे यह देखकर आश्चर्य हुआ कि चार शानदार पीपल के पेड़ जो जेल के गेट के सामने खड़ें थे, उन्होंने लगभग अपने सभी पत्ते गिरा दिए थे। वे तब तक दुबले-पतले उदास खड़े रहे जब तक कि वसंत की गर्म हवा ने उनकी आंतरिक कोशिकाओं में जीवन का संदेश न भेजा। अचानक पीपल व अन्य पेड़ों में हलचल होने लगी, उनके चारों ओर रहस्य छाया रहा जब कि पर्दे के पीछे गुप्त कार्य चलता रहा, और मुझे उन पर सब जगह हरे बिन्दु झाँकते हुए देखकर आश्चर्य हुआ। यह बड़ी प्रसन्नता का दृश्य था। और फिर तेजी से लाखों की संख्या में बाहर आ जाएँगे और धूप में चमचमाएँगे और हल्की पवन में क्रीड़ा करेंगे। कोपल का अचानक पत्ते में बदल जाना कितनी अद्भुत बात है!

6. I never noticed…………………………….. become green.
अनुवाद : मैंने पहले कभी ध्यान न दिया था कि आम के नए पत्ते गेरुए रंग के होते हैं। विलक्षण ढंग से कश्मीर की पहाड़ियों की हेमन्त में आभा की भाँति । परन्तु उनका रंग शीघ्र ही
बदल जाता है और वे हरे हो जाते हैं।

7. The monsoon rains …………………………. from the windows.
अनुवाद : मानन की बरसात अच्छी लगती थी क्योंकि वह ग्रीष्म की गर्मी का अंत कर देती थी। परन्तु कोई अच्छी वस्तु भी अत्यधिक हो जाती है, और देहरादून वर्षा देवता का मनपसन्द अड्डा है। मानसून के आने के पहले पाँच-छ: सप्ताह में हमें पचास-साठ इंच वर्षा मिल जाती थी, और छत से टपकते या खिड़कियों में से घुसते हुए पानी से बचने का प्रयास करते हुए एक तंग स्थान में बन्द होकर बैठना कोई प्रिय अनुभव नहीं होता था।

8. Autumn gain was ………………………….artillery bombardment..
अनुवाद : हेमन्त फिर से अच्छा लगता था और शीतकाल भी, सिवाए इसके जब वर्षा होती थी। बिजली की कड़क और वर्षा और ठंडी तीखी पवनों के कारण किसी अच्छे से रहने के स्थान व थोड़ी-सी गर्मी व आराम की इच्छा होती थी। कभी-कभी ओला-वृष्टि हो जाती थी, और कंचों जितने बड़े ओले लोहे की नालीदार छतों पर गिर कर ऐसा भारी शोर करते थे जैसे तोपें बमवर्षा कर रही हों।
9. I remember one day…………… snow-covered mountains.
अनुवाद : मुझे एक दिन विशेषकर याद है। 24 दिसम्बर 1932 का दिन था। सारा दिन बिजली कड़कती रही और वर्षा होती रही, और कड़ाके की ठंड थी। शरीर की दृष्टि से वह मेरे जेल में काटे सभी दिनों से अधिक दुखदायक दिन था । सायं के समय आसमान बिल्कुल साफ हो गया और मेरी उदासी अचानक समाप्त हो गई जब मैंने पास के पहाड़ों को बर्फ की ओढ़नी से ढके हुए देखा। अगला दिन, क्रिस्मस का दिन, सुन्दर व साफ था, और बर्फ से ढके पहाड़ों का सुन्दर दृश्य था।

10. Prevented from…………………..respected each other.
अनुवाद : सामान्य गतिविधियों में भाग लेने से रोके जाने पर हम प्रकृति के ढंगों का निरीक्षण करने वाले बन गए । हम उन विभिन्न पशुओं व कीटों को देखने लगे जो हमें दिखाई पड़ते थे। मैं अधिक निरीक्षक बनने पर अपनी कोठरी व बाहर आंगन में रहने वाले सभी कीटों को ध्यान से देखने लगा। मैंने अनुभव किया कि जबकि मैं अपने अकेलेपन की शिकायत करता था, वह आंगन जो खाली व वीरान लगता था, वह जीवन से भरपूर था। हर प्रकार के रेंगने वाले कीट मेरे काम में कोई बाधा डाले बिना अपना जीवन व्यतीत कर रहे थे, और मुझे उनके जीवन में दमात देने का कोई कारण दिखाई न पड़ा। परन्तु मेरे और खटमलों, मच्छरों व कुछ हद तक – त्रयों के बीच लगातार युद्ध चलता रहता था । भिड़, ततैयों को मैं सहन कर लेता था और मेरी कोठरी में सैंकड़ों थे। मेरे और उनके बीच एक छोटा-सा झगड़ा हो गया था जब एक १. ने मेरे विचार में अनजाने में डंक मार दिया था। क्रोध में मैंने उनको नष्ट करने का प्रयास परन्तु उन्होंने अपने अस्थाई घर की रक्षा करने के लिए वीरता से मुकाबला किया, जिसमें वतः उनके अंडे थे, और मैंने यह प्रयास त्याग दिया और उन्हें शान्ति से रहने देने का निश्चय किया, यदि वे आगे से मुझे तंग न करें। उसके पश्चात् एक वर्ष तक मैं वहाँ कोठरी में भिड़, ततैयों से घिरा हुआ रहा, उन्होंने मुझ पर कभी आक्रमण नहीं किया और हम एक-दूसरे का सम्मान करते रहे।

11. Bats I did not…………. ………the flying-foxes.
अनुवाद : चमगादड़ें मुझे पसन्द थीं परन्तु उन्हें सहन करना पड़ता था। सायं की गोधूलि वेला में वे बिना ध्वनि के उड़ती थीं, और अँधेरा बढ़ते ही आकाश में उड़ती दिखाई देती थीं। डरावने प्राणी, मुझे उनसे भय लगता था । लगता था कि वे चेहरे से एक इंच की दूरी से गुजरती थीं, और मुझे डर लगता था कि वे मुझसे टकरा सकती हैं। ऊपर आकाश में बड़ी चमगादड़ें, उड़ने वाली लोमड़ियाँ गुजरती थीं।

12. I used to………………………… or accidental.
अनुवाद : मैं घंटों तक चीटियों व दीमक व अन्य कीटों को देखता रहता था और छिपकलियों को जब वे सायं को इधर-उधर घूमती थीं और अपने शिकार पर घात लगाती थी, और अपनी पूंछ हास्यकर ढंग से हिलाते हुए एक-दूसरे का पीछा करती थीं। साधारणतः वे ततैयों से दूर रहती थीं । परन्तु दो बार मैंने उन्हें बड़ी सावधानी से उन पर घात लगाकर आगे से पकड़ते देखा। मैं नहीं जानता कि डंक से ऐसे बचना उन्होंने जान-बूझकर किया था या संयोगवश हुआ था।

13. Then there were ……………………… efficient feeding bottle.
अनुवाद : वहाँ गिलहरियाँ थीं, यदि आस-पास पेड़ होते तो उनकी वहाँ भीड़ थी । वे बड़ी साहसी बन जाती और बिल्कुल हमारे समीप आ जाती थीं। लखनऊ जेल में मैं बहुत समय तक बिना हिले पढ़ता रहता था, और कोई गिलहरी मेरी टाँग पर चढ़कर मेरे घुटने पर बैठकर इधर-उधर देखती। फिर वह मेरी आँखों में देखती और तब उसे पता चलता कि मैं पेड़ न था या वह कुछ न था जो उसने मुझे समझा था। एक क्षण के लिए वह भय से निष्क्रिय बन जाती, और फिर वह फुर्ती से भाग जाती थी। कभी-कभी गिलहरी के बच्चे पेड़ों से गिर जाते थे। उनकी माँ उनके पीछे आती, उनको घुमाकर छोटी-सी गेंद-सी बना लेती और उठाकर सुरक्षित स्थान पर ले जाती थी। कभी-कभी बच्चा गुम हो जाता था। मेरे एक साथी ने तीन गुम हुए बच्चे उठाए, और उनकी देखभाल की। वे इतने छोटे थे कि उनको दूध पिलाना एक समस्या थी । परन्तु इस समस्या का समाधान बड़ी चतुराई से कर लिया गया। फाउन्टेनपैन की ट्यूब के साथ थोड़ी-सी रुई लगाने से सफल दूध पिलाने वाली बोतल बन गई थी।

14. Pigeons abounded…………………..impatient cries.
अनुवाद : सिवाए अल्मोड़ा की पहाड़ी जेल के, कबूतर सब जगह भारी संख्या में थे। वे हजारों थे। कभी-कभी जेल अधिकारी उन्हें मार गिराते और खा लेते थे। मैना भी थी। निःसन्देह वे संब जगह मिलती हैं। देहरादून में एक जोड़े ने अपना घोंसला मेरी कोठरी के दरवाजे के ऊपर बना लिया था और मैं उन्हें खाना देता था । वे बिल्कुल पालतू बन गई थीं, और यदि उनके प्रातः या सायं के भोजन में देर हो जाती थी, तो वे बिल्कुल मेरे समीप बैठकर जोर-जोर से पुकारकर अपना भोजन माँगती थीं। उनके संकेत और उनकी अधीर पुकार सुनने में बड़ा मजा आता था।

15. In Naini there were…………………………to the winner.
अनुवाद : नैनी में हजारों तोते थे, और भारी संख्या में मेरी बैरक की दीवारों की दरारों में रहते थे। उनका प्रणय-याचना करना और प्रेम करना सदा मनमोहक होता था, कभी-कभी दो नर तोतों में किसी तोती के लिए खूखार युद्ध हो जाता था जबकि वह मुठभेड़ के परिणाम की प्रतीक्षा शांति से बैठी करती थी और विजेता की पत्नी बनने को तैयार रहती थी। . 16.DehraDun had

16. Dehra Dun had a ………………………..over our heads.
अनुवाद : देहरादून में विभिन्न प्रकार के पक्षी थे, और वहाँ सदा गाने, चहचहाने की घालमेल रहता था और इनसे ऊपर कोयल की दर्दभरी पुकार सुनाई देती थी। बरसात के दिनों में या इससे तुरन्त पहले पागल पक्षी हमारे पास आता था ओर मैं शीघ्र ही समझ गया कि उसका यह नाम क्यों पड़ा था। दिन-रात, धूप या वर्षा में लगातार एक ही पुकार करते रहना अचम्भे की बात थी। उनमें से अधिकतम पक्षी हमें दिखाई नहीं पड़ते थे, हम केवल उनकी ध्वनि सुन सकते थे क्योंकि हमारे छोटे-से प्रांगण में पेड़ नहीं थे। परन्तु मैं गरुड़ों और चीलों को ऊपर आकाश में विसर्पण करते देखा करता था । कभी-कभी वे नीचे झपटते थे और फिर पवन के बहाव में ऊपर उठ जाते थे। प्रायः बतखों के झुण्ड हमारे सिरों के ऊपर उड़ते रहते थे।

17. There was a large…………………….. monkey was rescued.
अनुवाद : बरेली जेल में बन्दरों की एक बड़ी बस्ती थी, और उनका मसखरापन देखने योग्य था । एक घटना से मैं बहुत प्रभावित हुआ । एक बच्चा बन्दर हमारी बैरक के अहाते में आ गया परन्तु वह फिर से दीवार पर न चढ़ सका। वॉर्डर व कुछ अपराधी ओवरसियरों ने उसे पकड़ लिया और रस्सी का टुकड़ा उसके गले में बाँध दिया। उस छोटे बन्दर के (संभवतः) माँ-बाप ऊँची दीवार के ऊपर से यह सब देख रहे थे और उनका क्रोध बढ़ता जा रहा था। अचानक उनमें से एक विशाल बन्दर ने नीचे छलाँग लगाई और बच्चे बन्दर को घेरे खड़ी भीड़ पर अचानक हमला कर दिया। ऐसा करना अद्भुत वीरता का काम था, क्योंकि वॉर्डरों के हाथों में लाठियाँ थीं और वे उन्हें हर ओर से हिला रहे थे, और उनकी संख्या भी बहुत थी। दु:साहस की विजय हुई, और मनुष्यों की भीड़ भयभीत होकर और लाठियाँ वहीं छोड़कर भाग गई । छोटा बन्दर छुड़ा लिया गया।

18. We oftenhad…………………………… but he had vanished.
अनुवाद : प्रायः हमारे पास ऐसे पशु आ जाते थे जिनका आना हमें अच्छा न लगता था । बिच्छू बहुधा कोठरियों में मिलते थे, विशेषकर वर्षा के तूफान के पश्चात् । आश्चर्य की बात थी कि मुझे किसी ने न काटा था, यद्यपि मेरी उनसे भेंट अनपेक्षित स्थानों पर होती थी-मेरे बिस्तर पर, उस पुस्तक पर बैठे हुए जो मैंने अभी पंक्ति में रखी थी। मैंने एक विशेषकर विषैला दिखने वाला क्रूर (बिच्छू) प्राणी कुछ समय तक एक बोतल में रखा, उसे मक्खियाँ खिलाता रहा, और जब मैंने उसे एक डोरी से दीवार पर बाँध दिया तो वह बच निकलने में सफल हो गया। मैं उसे खुला न मिलना चाहता था, इसलिए मैंने अपनी कोठरी का सब सामान हटाकर उसे सब जगह खोजा परन्तु वह गायब हो चुका था।

19. Three or four ………………….. Pavlov’s reflexes were.
अनुवाद : तीन-चार माँप भी मेरी कोठरी या उसके पास पाए गए थे। उनमें से एक की खबर बाहर पहुंच गई और समाचार-पत्रों में मुख्य खबर के रूप में छपी। वास्तव में मुझे मनबहलाव चाहिए था। जेल का जीवन बहुत नीरस है और कोई भी चीज जो नीरसता को तोड़ दे, वह पसन्द आ जाती है। बात यह नहीं है कि मैं साँपों का प्रशंसक हूँ या उनका स्वागत करता हूँ, परन्तु मैं उनसे ऐसा भयभीत नहीं होता जैसा कि कुछ अन्य लोग होते हैं, मैं उनके काटने से डरता हूँ, और नि:संदेह यदि मैं साँप देखू तो उससे अपना बचाव भी करता हूँ। परन्तु घृणा की कोई भावना नहीं होती या भय से पराजित नहीं हो जाता । कानखजूरों से मैं अधिक भयभीत होता हूँ। इसमें इतना भय नहीं है जितनी स्वाभाविक घृणा है। कलकत्ता में अलीपुर जेल में मैं आधी रात के समय उठा और मुझे लगा कि कोई चीज मेरे पाँव पर रेंग रही है। मैंने टॉर्च जलाई और देखा कि मेरे बिस्तर पर कानखजूरा था । स्वाभाविक रूप से और आश्चर्यजनक फुर्ती से मैं बिस्तर से उछला और लगभग कोठरी की दीवार से टकरा गया । तब मैं पूर्णतः समझ सका कि पैवलॉव के भाव विश्लेषी का क्या अर्थ है।।

20. InDehraDun…………. ………….animal was the Pangolin.
अनुवाद : देहरादून में मैंने एक नया पशु देखा, बल्कि मेरे लिए वह नया था। मैं जेल के गेट पर खड़ा जेलर से बातें कर रहा था, तब हमने एक आदमी को बाहर एक विचित्र पशु को ले जाते हुए देखा । जेलर ने उसे बुलवाया और मैंने देखा वह छिपकली व मगरमच्छ के बीच का कोई प्राणी था, कोई दो फुट लम्बा, नुकीले पंजों व पपड़ीदार त्वचा वाला । यह पशु, जो बिल्कुल जीवित था, उसके मालिक ने उसे एक बड़े विचित्र गाँठ के रूप में मोड़ा हुआ था और उस गाँठ में से एक बाँस गुजार रखा था और इस प्रकार से उसे खुशी से उठा रखा था। उसने उसका नाम ‘बो’ बताया । जब जेलर ने पूछा कि वह उसका क्या करेगा, तो उसने भरपूर मुस्कान . से उत्तर दिया कि वह उसकी भुज्जी बनाएगा। वह जंगलवासी था। तत्पश्चात् एफ डब्ल्यू चैम्पियन की पुस्तक ‘द जंगल इन सनलाइट एण्ड शैडो’ पढ़ने से पता चला कि वह पशु पैंगोलिन था ।

21. Prisoners, especially …….. ……………. pulled herround.
अनुवाद : कैदी, विशेषकर दीर्घ अवधि की सजा वाले कैदी, भावात्मक अभिव्यक्ति के लिए तरसते हैं । प्रायः वे पशु पालकर अपनी भावनाओं को संतृप्त करने का प्रयास करते हैं। साधारण कैदी पशु नहीं पाल सकते परन्तु कैदी ओवरसियरों को थोड़ी अधिक छूट होती है और जेल के कर्मचारी इस पर आपत्ति नहीं करते । सामान्य पालतू पशु गिलहरियाँ होती थीं, और विचित्र बात यह है कि नेवले भी होते थे। जेल में कुत्ते रखने की अनुमति नहीं है। परन्तु लगता है कि बिल्ली पालने को प्रोत्साहन दिया जाता है। एक बार एक छोटे से बिलोटे ने मुझसे मित्रता कर ली। वह एक जेल अधिकारी का था। जब उसका स्थानांतरण हुआ तो वह उसे अपने साथ ले गया । मुझे उसकी याद आती थी। यद्यपि कुत्तों को रखने की अनुमति नहीं है, देहरादून में मेरा कुछ कुत्तों से लगाव हो गया था। एक जेल अधिकारी एक कुतिया लेकर आया था और फिर उसका स्थानांतरण हो गया और वह उसे छोड़ गया । वह बेचारी बेघर आवारा बन गई थी, एक पुलिया के नीचे रहती थी, वॉर्डरों से टुकड़े लेती थी, और प्रायः भूखी रहती थी। क्योंकि मुझे जेल विशेष से बाहर हवालात में रखा हुआ था, वह भोजन माँगने के लिए मेरे पास आ जाती थी। मैं उसे नियमित रूप से भोजन खिलाने लगा और उसने पिल्लों के एक समूह को पुलिया के नीचे जन्म दिया । कई तो लोग ले गए । तीन बचे थे और मैं उन्हें भोजन खिलाता था । उनमें से एक डिस्टेम्पर से बुरी तरह बीमार पड़ गया था, और उसने मुझे बहुत भारी कष्ट दिया। मैंने बड़ी लगन से. उसकी सेवा की, और कई बार रात के समय दर्जन (बारह) बार उसे देखने के लिए उठता था। वह बच गई और मैं प्रसन्न था कि मेरी सेवाओं ने उसे बचा लिया था।

22. I come in contact………………….. always go together.
अनुवाद : जेल से बाहर की अपेक्षा जानवरों से मेरा सम्पर्क जेल के अन्दर अधिक हुआ है। मुझे कुत्तों से सदा प्यार रहा है, और कुछ कुत्ते मैनें रखे भी थे। परन्तु मैं उनकी देखभाल उचित ढंग से न कर सकता था क्योंकि मेरा ध्यान अन्य मामलों में लग जाता था। जेल में मैं उनकी संगति का आभारी था। साधारणतः भारतीय लोग पशुओं को घरों में पालना अच्छा नहीं समझते । यह विचित्र बात है कि जिनका दृष्टिकोण पशुओं के प्रति अहिंसा का है, वे लोग विलक्षण रूप से प्रायः उनके प्रति लापरवाह व दया रहित हैं। यहाँ तक कि विशेष कृपापात्र पशु गाय, जिसको बहुत से हिन्दू सम्मान की दृष्टि से देखते हैं और लगभग पूजते हैं, और वह प्रायः दंगों का कारण बन जाती है, उसके साथ भी दयापूर्ण व्यवहार नहीं किया जाता । पूजा व दया सदा साथ-साथ नहीं चलती।

23. Different countries……………………… animal is the cow.
अनुवाद : विभिन्न देशों ने अपनी महत्वाकाँक्षा या चरित्र के द्योतक के रूप में विभिन्न पशुओं को अपनाया है-संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका व जर्मनी का गरुड़, इंग्लैंड का सिंह व बुलडॉग, फ्राँस का लड़ाका मुर्गा, पुराने रूस का भालू । यह राष्ट्रीय पशु किस सीमा तक राष्ट्रीय चरित्र को रूप प्रदान करते हैं ? इनमें से अधिकतर आक्रमणशील, लड़ाके शिकारी पशु हैं। इसमें कोई आश्चर्य की बात नहीं कि वे लोग जो इन उदाहरणों को समक्ष रखकर बड़े होते हैं, वे जान-बूझकर स्वयं को वैसा बनाते हैं और आक्रमणशील दृष्टिकोण अपनाते हैं, और दूसरों पर दहाड़ते हैं और उन्हें अपना शिकार बनाते हैं, न ही इसमें कोई आश्चर्य है कि हिन्दू विनम्र और अहिंसक बनें क्योंकि उनका द्योतक पशु गाय है।

How does Nehru expresses his connection with animals in animals in prison?

Nehru had observed the animal life at every jail that he was sent to. He finds that certain creatures are to be commonly found at different jails. … He also mentions how certain gaol officials would shoot these birds down without a thought, and enjoy them in their meal. Another bird found often was the maina.

How did Nehru manage not to feel lonely in Dehra Dun jail?

He had a special disliking towards snakes and centipedes as he was sort of afraid of the Idea of being troubled by them. He enjoyed the singing of Cuckoos and Koel . He could see Himalayas , Public roads, garden all from the confinement which made him get rid of loneliness.

Why did the prisoner so often observe the small animals around them?

They watch all the various animals and insects that come his way. In this way, they tries to make them involved in nature and also to let to interact with its. Thus during the prison period, due to the loneliness and weariness the prisoners often observes the small animals around them. 6.

Why was the winters sometimes not pleasant in prison?

Answer: because in winter sunlight is important as it makes us warm but un prison there is no path of sunlight to come inside. so it unpleasant simetimes.