MCQ Questions for Class 12 History with Answers PDF Download Chapter Wise

Here you will find Chapter Wise NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 History with Answers PDF Free Download based on the important concepts and topics given in the textbook. Answers of all CBSE Class 12 History MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers provided here with detailed solutions so that you can easily understand the logic behind each answer.

Class 12 History MCQs Questions with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Practicing these CBSE NCERT Objective MCQ Questions of Class 12 History with Answers Pdf will help students to attempt the exam with confidence.

Themes in Indian History MCQ Questions for Class 12 History with Answers

  1. Bricks, Beads and Bones Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. Kings, Farmers and Towns Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Kinship, Caste and Class Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Through the Eyes of Travellers Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. An Imperial Capital Vijayanagara Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Peasants, Zamindars and the State Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Kings and Chronicles Class 12 MCQ Questions
  10. Colonialism and the Countryside Class 12 MCQ Questions
  11. Rebels and the Raj Class 12 MCQ Questions
  12. Colonial Cities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  13. Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Class 12 MCQ Questions
  14. Understanding Partition Class 12 MCQ Questions
  15. Framing the Constitution Class 12 MCQ Questions

We hope the given NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 History PDF Free Download will definitely yield fruitful results. If you have any queries related to CBSE Class 12 History MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop your questions below and will get back to you in no time.

MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Here you will find Chapter Wise NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers PDF Free Download based on the important concepts and topics given in the textbook. Answers of all CBSE Class 12 Political Science MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers provided here with detailed solutions so that you can easily understand the logic behind each answer.

Class 12 Political Science MCQs Questions with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Practicing these CBSE NCERT Objective MCQ Questions of Class 12 Political Science with Answers Pdf will help students to attempt the exam with confidence.

Contemporary World Politics MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers

  1. The Cold War Era Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. The End of Bipolarity Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. US Hegemony in World Politics Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Alternative Centres of Power Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Contemporary South Asia Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. International Organisations Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Security in the Contemporary World Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Environment and Natural Resources Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Globalisation Class 12 MCQ Questions

Politics in India Since Independence MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers

  1. Challenges of Nation Building Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. Era of One Party Dominance Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Politics of Planned Development Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. India’s External Relations Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. The Crisis of Democratic Order Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Rise of Popular Movements Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Regional Aspirations Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Recent Developments in Indian Politics Class 12 MCQ Questions

We hope the given NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science PDF Free Download will definitely yield fruitful results. If you have any queries related to CBSE Class 12 Political Science MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop your questions below and will get back to you in no time.

MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Here you will find Chapter Wise NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers PDF Free Download based on the important concepts and topics given in the textbook. Answers of all CBSE Class 12 Geography MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers provided here with detailed solutions so that you can easily understand the logic behind each answer.

Class 12 Geography MCQs Questions with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Practicing these CBSE NCERT Objective MCQ Questions of Class 12 Geography with Answers Pdf will help students to attempt the exam with confidence.

Fundamentals of Human Geography MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers

  1. Human Geography: Nature and Scope Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Population Composition Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Human Development Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Primary Activities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. Secondary Activities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Transport and Communication Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. International Trade Class 12 MCQ Questions
  10. Human Settlements Class 12 MCQ Questions

India People and Economy MCQ Questions with Answers Class 12 Geography 

  1. Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Human Development Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Human Settlements Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Land Resources and Agriculture Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. Water Resources Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Manufacturing Industries Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Class 12 MCQ Questions
  10. Transport and Communication Class 12 MCQ Questions
  11. International Trade Class 12 MCQ Questions
  12. Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Class 12 MCQ Questions

We hope the given NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography PDF Free Download will definitely yield fruitful results. If you have any queries related to CBSE Class 12 Geography MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop your questions below and will get back to you in no time.

Lost Spring Summary in English by Anees Jung

Lost Spring Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Lost Spring Stories of Stolen Childhood is written by Anees Jung.

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Lost Spring Stories of Stolen Childhood Summary in English by Anees Jung

Lost Spring by Anees Jung About the Author

Anees Jung (born 1944-) is an Indian woman writer, journalist and columnist for major newspapers in India and abroad. She was born at Hyderabad and received education in Hyderabad and in the United States. Her parents were renowned poets. She has written several books such as Unveiling India, Night of the New Moon, Seven Sisters and Breaking the Silence.

Author Name Anees Jung
Born 1944 (age 76 years), Rourkela
Education Osmania University, University of Michigan
Occupation Writer, journalist, columnist
Nationality Indian
Anees Jung - lost spring summary in english class 12
Anees Jung

Lost Spring Theme

In this story, the author unveils the utter destitution of the ragpickers of Seemapuri and the bangle makers of Firozabad. This story describes the grinding poverty and traditions that compel the children to live a life of exploitation.

Lost Spring Short Summary in English

Saheb, the son of a migrant family from Dhaka, is a ragpicker who lives in Seemapuri, at the periphery of Delhi, and goes about barefoot rummaging around in the heaps of garbage to earn his livelihood. For the children like Saheb, a heap of garbage is like a gold mine. Thousands of such children live with their families in Seemapuri. They live in a slum with not even the basic amenities, such as water and sanitation, available to them. These families are living in utter poverty.

The children have nothing to do except ragpicking through which they earn something to eat at least. Garbage to the elders is a means of survival but for these children it is a magical wonder. In order to earn better, Saheb starts working at a tea-stall where he is paid Rs.800 per month but it seems he, after this, loses his carefreeness. He works for someone else and is no longer his own master. This loss of identity weighs heavily on his tender shoulders.

Anees Jung, then tells about Mukesh, another young boy, who wants to be his own master. He is a boy from Firozabad’s glass industry and as a family tradition he has always worked in the glass bangle factory. Here, the children work in close proximity of furnaces in such high temperatures that they are exposed to various health hazards, even losing their eyesight.

Mukesh’s family, like other families of Firozabad, are victims of poverty. His father is blind, and they live in a small half-constructed house. These people of Firozabad are exploited by the sahukars, the middlemen, the policemen, the bureaucrats and the politicians. But Mukesh is different and confident, He wants to be a motor mechanic.

In the story, the author brings out the depravity of child labour. Childhood is considered as spring of human life full of joy, pleasure and play. But ironically millions of children like Saheb and Mukesh have lost their spring, i.e. childhood by getting engaged in making a living.

A Photograph Poem Summary Analysis and Explanation by Shirley Toulson

A Photograph Poem Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. A Photograph is written by Shirley Toulson.

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A Photograph Poem Summary in English Line By Line Explanation by Shirley Toulson

About the Poet Shirley Toulson

Name Shirley Toulson
Born 20 May 1924, Henley-on-Thames, United Kingdom
Died 15th May 2014
Education B.A Literature from Brockenhurst College in London
Books The Drovers, The Celtic Year a Celebration of Celtic Christian Saints Sites and Festivals More
Shirley Toulson - a photograph class 11 Line By Line Explanation
Shirley Toulson

A Photograph Central Idea of the Poem

Shirley Toulson’s poem ‘A Photograph’ is a tribute to her mother. The poem describes three stages in the passage of time. In the first stage, the photograph shows the poet’s mother standing at the beach enjoying her holiday with her two girl cousins. She was around 12 years old at that time. The second stage takes us twenty or thirty years later. The mother would laugh at the way she and her cousins were dressed up for the beach holiday. In the third stage, the poet remembers the dead mother with a heavy heart. The photograph revives a nostalgic feeling in the poet.

A Photograph Poem Summary in English

A Photograph Stanza Wise Explanation of The Poem

Stanza 1.
“The cardboard shows me how it was
When the two girl cousins went paddling,
Each one holding one of my mother’s hands,
And she the big girl — some twelve years or so.”

Word Meanings:
cardboard – very stiff paperboard on which the photograph was pasted
paddling – walking through shallow water in bare feet
big girl – mother is referred to as the big girl as she was the eldest among the three girls

Explanation: An old photograph of the poet’s mother which was pasted on cardboard makes the poet recall the old memories of her mother’s childhood. The photograph is a depiction of her mother’s enjoyable moments at a sea-beach with her two cousins who were younger to her. They were walking in shallow water with bare feet near the beach. The mother was standing in the middle and holding hands of her two cousins, who were standing on each side. The poet’s mother was twelve years old then. It shows that the photograph was very old but the poet has kept it very carefully as it reminded her of sweet memories of her mother’s childhood. The photograph also indicates how enjoyable her mother’s childhood was.

Stanza 2.
“All three stood still to smile through their hair
At the uncle with the camera. A sweet face,
My mother’s, that was before I was born.
And the sea, which appears to have changed less,
Washed their terribly transient feet.”

Word Meanings:
still – without moving or shaking
smile through – smiling faces could be seen through their hair which was flying over their faces
terribly – extremely
transient – temporary, lasting only for a short time

Explanation: The photograph shows that all three girls – the poet’s mother and her two cousins – stood still and smiled at the camera when their uncle clicked their photograph at the sea beach. As the weather was windy at that time, their hair was flying over their smiling faces. The expression on the faces of the poet’s mother and her cousins was that of happiness and enjoyment. The mother was looking very pretty at that time and the photograph was taken a long time ago.

Everything has changed since then, her mother grew up; now she was dead and the poet was reviving her memories. The only thing that has remained unchanged is the sea which was washing the feet of all three girls. The mention of the word ‘transient’ indicates the ever-changing lives of human beings as well as the shortness of their stay on this World, in contrast to the eternality of nature. The girls’ life changed drastically during this period but the sea has not changed. The stanza beautifully explains the transient nature of human beings.

Stanza 3.
“Some twenty-thirty – years later
She’d laugh at the snapshot. “See Betty
And Dolly,” she’d say, “and look how they
Dressed us for the beach.” The sea holiday
Was her past, mine is her laughter. Both wry
With the laboured ease of loss.”

Word Meanings:
snapshot – photograph
dressed us – put on clothes
wry – disgusted
laboured – achieved after a lot of hard work, done with great effort
ease – comfort

Explanation: Even 20-30 years later the mother would look at the photograph and laugh nostalgically remembering the happy memories of her past. Mother would look at the photograph and comment on the dresses worn by the cousins Dolly, Betty and herself.

Sea holiday was her mother’s past and her mother’s laughter has become a thing of the past for the poet as her mother was now dead. The poet still remembers how her mother would laugh at the photograph remembering the sea-holiday with a fondness as well as a sense of loss because that time would never come back. In the same way poet feels nostalgic thinking about her mother and her laughter which has become a thing of the past.
The words ‘laboured’ and ‘ease’ are opposite to each other, but describe the same entity, loss.

Stanza 4.
“Now she’s been dead nearly as many years
As that girl lived. And of this circumstance
There is nothing to say at all.
Its silence silences.”

Word Meanings:
circumstance – situation
silences – make someone unable to speak

Explanation: The poet recalls that it is nearly twelve years since her mother died. The poet is consumed with grief but is left with no words to express her loss and pain. The poet is totally absorbed in memories of her dead mother. The painful silence of this situation leaves the poet speechless. The poet can feel the grief but is unable to express it through words. The silence caused by death makes the atmosphere gloomy, where no one is able to utter words.

A Photograph Poetic Devices Used in the Poem

Allusion: An allusion is a reference or an incidental mention of something, either directly or by implication. An example of allusion in this poem is ‘cardboard’ which actually refers to the photograph.

Alliteration: Alliteration is the repetition of the initial letter (generally a consonant) of several words marking the stressed syllable in a line of poem. Examples of alliteration in this poem are ‘stood still to smile’, ‘terribly transient’, ‘Its silence silences’ etc.

Transferred Epithet: A transferred epithet is a description that refers to a character or event but is used to describe a different situation or character. ‘Transient feet’ is an example of the transferred epithet in the poem. It refers to human feet but it is used to describe the lack of permanence of human life.

Oxymoron: In this literary device, there are two opposite ideas that are joined to create an effect. ‘Laboured ease’ in the poem is an example of an oxymoron. Laboured meaning with ‘great difficulty’ and ease means ‘comfortably’. Both words have opposite meanings but here they are clubbed together.

Personification: The example is ‘Its silence silences.’ The situation has been given the human quality of silence.

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Summary Stephen Spender

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum is written by Stephen Spender.

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An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Summary Stephen Spender

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem by Stephen Spender About the Poet

Stephen Spender (28 February 1909 – 16 July 1995) was an English poet, novelist and essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle in his work. He was appointed the seventeenth Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the United States Library of Congress in 1965.

Poet Name Stephen Spender
Born 28 February 1909, Kensington
Died 16 July 1995, Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Spouse Natasha Spender (m. 1941–1995), Inez Pearn (m. 1936–1939)
Education Gresham’s, University College, University College School Junior Branch, University of Oxford
Nominations Lambda Literary Award for Gay Fiction
Stephen Spender - an elementary school classroom in a slum summary class 12
Stephen Spender

Short An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Theme

‘An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum’ deals with the social injustice and class inequalities and attacks on the capitalistic economies in which the rich are becoming richer and even as more and more problems and miseries mire the lives of the poor. They are devoid of any opportunity and have become prey to social injustice. In this poem, Spender demands equal opportunities for education for the poor and the underprivileged.

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Summary in English

The poem starts with a detailed description of the pathetic condition of the children who study in a school located in a slum. These children are malnourished and sick. The poet compares them with rootless weeds. It seems as if their physical and mental growth had stopped.

They have no exposure to the real world. These children are unkempt, hungry, weak and emaciated. They are bony and carry the legacy of poverty and diseases. They are living in an environment of utter hopelessness. They are given a glimpse of the outside world through the pictures hanging on their classroom walls. These seem to be totally meaningless to them.

The map on the wall proclaims a world which is vast and limitless but the world of these children is limited to the slum. The pictures of Shakespeare, valleys, buildings, domes, etc. have no meaning for these slum children. All these are out of context for them.

In the last stanza the poet urges the inspectors, visitors and governors to realise their moral responsibility to these children. They must do something to unshackle these children from the bond of poverty and ensure them equal rights and opportunities. They should get good education and become part of the real world where they should be entitled to social equality.

The Adventure Summary in English Analysis and Explanation by Jayant Narlikar

The Adventure Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Adventure is written by Jayant Narlikar.

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The Adventure Summary in English by Jayant Narlikar

About the writer Jayant Narlikar

Name Jayant Narlikar
Born 19 July 1938 (age 81 years), Kolhapur
Spouse Mangala Narlikar
Awards Padma Vibhushan, Adams Prize, Padma Bhushan, Prix Jules Janssen
Known for Steady-state model, Hoyle–Narlikar theory of gravity
Jayant Narlikar - the adventure summary in english class 11
Jayant Narlikar

The Adventure Theme

This is an extract of the later half of the story ‘The Adventure” by Jayant Narlikar. It is a science fiction story in which two theories, the Catastrophe theory and the lack of determinism in Quantum theory, are tried to be explained through an imaginary set of events which would have occurred in the life of a professor of history if the result of a battle more than 200 years earlier would have been different.

The Adventure About the Characters

Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde: He is an eminent professor of history working in Pune. He has a catastrophic accident which causes him to transition to a parallel world for 60 hours.

Rajendra Deshpande: He is a mathematical and scientific expert who tries to rationalise Professor Gaitonde’s experience by applying the Catastrophe theory and the lack of determinism in Quantum theory.

The Adventure Summary in English

Earlier Part of the Story (Not the Part of Text)
Professor Gangadharpant Gaitonde was an eminent historian and a leading public figure of Pune. He was much in demand for presiding over public functions. He had just completed his 999th occasion for presiding at a function. He had decided that his thousandth appearance on the stage would be for history. That occasion was to come two weeks later at a seminar devoted to the Third Battle of Panipat.

While he was walking home, a truck on the road hit him. He lost consciousness. When he regained consciousness, he had transited to a parallel world (although he was not aware of this). He was in hospital. After recovering, he was discharged from the hospital the next morning. He tried to reach his home, but he found that it did not exist in the parallel world. He decided to go to Bombay because his son was working in a British company there. He went to Pune railway station and took a train to Bombay. The extract starts from here.

Gaitonde’s Journey to Bombay
When Gaitonde had to get a permit to visit Bombay, he was told that Bombay was British territory while the rest of India was independent. On the journey in a first class compartment of the Jijamata Express, he sat beside Khan Sahib, who would be going on to Peshawar from Delhi on business. Then he realised that there had been no partition of India (in this parallel world). On the route, the train stopped only at Lonavala, Karjat and the border town of Safhad, where the permits were checked. It did not stop at Kalyan, but finally terminated at Victoria Terminus in Bombay. While going through Bombay’s suburbs, he observed that the carriages of the local trains had the British flag painted on them, indicating that they were passing through British territory.

Gaitonde Fails to Find his Son
Gaitonde had planned out his activities on his visit to Bombay. He would try to meet his son and then go to a big library to solve the mystery of his transition. When Gaitonde stepped out of the railway station, he saw ‘East India House’, which indicated that the East India Company still existed in Bombay. Further, he found various British companies and buildings on the road. He visited his son’s office to meet him, but found that no such person worked there, although the company was the same one. This made Gaitonde realise the truth of what Rajendra Deshpande had told him earlier about the Catastrophe theory. He had really made the transition to a parallel world.

Gaitonde Finds the Information he Needed
He visited the Town Hall building in which the library of the Asiatic Society was located. Luckily for him, it also existed in the parallel world. In the library he also found the five books on Indian history which he had written. On going through the fifth volume, which gave India’s history after the death of Aurangzeb, he found that the result of the third battle of Panipat in 1761 was written differently from what he knew, although he was the author of this book in the parallel world.

It said that the Marathas had won the battle, whereas he knew that they had lost it. From here onwards, the history of India changed, which explained what Gaitonde had been experiencing for the last few hours.

He found confirmation in a Marathi journal about how exactly the Marathas had won the battle. The Marathi journal stated that a bullet fired by the Afghans in the battle just brushed the ear of the leader of the Marathas, Vishwasrao. Gaitonde in the real world had written in his fifth volume that Vishwasrao had been killed by a cannon shell in the battle and the Marathas lost their morale and the battle subsequently, because that was what earlier historians had written. In the parallel world, Vishwasrao survived, rallied his troops and won this battle.

India’s Remaining History in the Parallel World
The remaining history of India, as recounted in the fifth volume Gaitonde was reading, can be summarised by saying that India never went under British rule. The Marathas did not allow the East India Company to expand its influence in India. In fact, its influence was limited to a few places like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. India gradually became a democracy but allowed the British to carry on in Bombay on a lease for commercial reasons. The lease was due to expire in the year 2001, 15 years after the time of this story.

Gaitonde Returns to the Real World
Gaitonde left the library when it closed in the evening, indicating to the librarian that he would come back next morning. After taking a meal, he went for a stroll to Azad Maidan. There was a lecture going on there. When Gaitonde saw a vacant presidential chair on the stage, he went and sat on it, thinking that it was for him, because in the real world he had been invited for such a seminar. The audience reacted by strongly protesting against Gaitonde sitting on the presidential chair.

The reason was that, in this world, the people had become sick of hearing long introductions, vote of thanks and remarks of the chair. They were only interested in what the speaker was speaking and had abolished the custom of having a chairman long ago. The chair kept on the platform was only symbolic.

Gaitonde got up and started speaking, but the audience pelted him with tomatoes, eggs and other objects as they did not want any remarks from him. When Gaitonde still did not stop speaking, the audience swarmed on to the stage to remove him. During the commotion, Gaitonde disappeared. Actually he had suffered another catastrophe by being knocked unconscious by the mob and returned to the real world, as he was found on the Azad Maidan the next morning with his clothes torn. He had no idea what had happened and so he returned to Pune.

Rajendra Deshpande Explains What Happened to Gaitonde
Gaitonde narrated his adventure to his friend Rajendra Deshpande, a mathematical and scientific expert. Rajendra tried to explain to him what had happened by explaining how the Catastrophe theory and the lack of determinism in Quantum theory applied to his adventure.

When Rajendra felt that Gaitonde had imagined- things because he may have been thinking about the third battle of Panipat at the time the truck hit him, Gaitonde showed Rajendra the torn-off page of the history book from the other world, about Vishwasrao escaping death. In the book in the real world, the account was given as Vishwasrao being hit by a bullet and dying. So in the real world, the Marathas had not won, the East India Company had flourished and so on.

At first, Rajendra was perplexed by this new evidence. But, after further discussion with Gaitonde, Rajendra Deshpande explained that he had come to the conclusion that there could be many ‘different worlds existing at different points of time’. They could all have a different history. Professor Gaitonde had been to another parallel world. The time was the present but its history was quite different.

Gaitonde Refuses to Chair any More Seminars
When Rajendra suggested that Gaitonde could recount his adventure at the thousandth seminar he was presiding over after a few days, Gaitonde told him that he had already declined the invitation, as he did not want to chair any more seminars. Probably he remembered the treatment he had received from the audience in the parallel world when he tried to chair a seminar.

The Adventure Chapter Highlights

Professor Gaitonde had a collision with a truck. At that time he was thinking of the Catastrophe theory and its implications for history.

He found himself in another Bombay, which looked more like England as it was much cleaner and had many big English shops). The East India Company was flourishing there.

In this Bombay, he went to the Asiatic Society library in the Town Hall to read some history books, including the ones he had himself written.

Most of the history was as he knew it in his world, but the point where the history had changed was the third Battle of Panipat. In this different world, the Marathas had won this battle.

Then the Marathas did not allow the East India Company to expand its influence in India. In fact, its influence was limited to a few places like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. India had become a democracy but allowed the British to carry on in these cities for commercial reasons.

Gaitonde wanted to find out how the Marathas had won the battle. According to one history book in the library, the Maratha army’s morale was boosted when Vishwasrao managed to escape death narrowly.

After leaving the library in the evening, he went for a stroll to Azad Maidan. There was a lecture going on. When Gaitonde saw a vacant presidential chair on the stage, he went and sat on it, thinking that it was for him, because in the real world he had been invited for such a seminar. But in this world, people were fed up of long speeches and had abolished the ’chairing’ custom. They got angry because Gaitonde would not stop talking. They threw various things at him and then got onto the stage to throw him out. But suddenly Gaitonde vanished.

He was found in the Azad Maidan, in his own familiar world. Where had he been for two days?

He went back to Pune and showed Rajendra Deshpande the proof that he had been somewhere else and was not imagining things. It was the torn-off page of the history book from the other world, about Vishwasrao escaping death. In the book in his own world, the account was given as Vishwasrao being hit by a bullet and dying. So in our world, the Marathas had not won, the East India Company had flourished and so on.

Through discussions, Professor Gaitonde and Rajendra Deshpande came to the conclusion that there could be many ‘different worlds at different points of time’. They could all have a different history. Professor Gaitonde had been to another world. The time was the present but its history was quite different.

The Adventure Word Meaning

Word – Meaning
ghat section – section of railway track in the Western Ghats, i.e. the hilly region
landscape – painting of a countryside or rural scenery
roared through – passed through with a roaring sound without stopping
racing – fast thinking
state of affairs – situation
Sarhad – border town
Anglo-Indian – An Indian of English descent or of mixed English and Indian parentage
ventured – dared to ask
Central – Bombay Central railway station
been wound up – stopped its operations
blow – setback
volume – book in a series of books
blow-by-blow account – detailed description
morale booster – event that improved their confidence and raised their morale
from the sidelines – but not taking part in it
relegated to – assigned to a lower rank or position
political acumen – political shrewdness with keen insight
pockets – areas
puppet – actually under control of another
de facto – existing
astute – marked by practical intelligence
Shahenshah – ruler
rubber-stamp – formally approve
doctored accounts – narratives changed so as to deceive
after his heart – to his liking
throng – crowd
panda1 – temporary structure
gave vent to – expressed his feelings and ideas
valiantly – courageously
dumbfounded – greatly surprised
smugly – with a self-satisfied look
Bakhar – form of historical narrative written in Marathi prose
food for thought – something that requires serious consideration
pacing – walking to and fro
catastrophic – sudden happening causing damage and/ or suffering
take issue – disagree
definitively – finally with authority
ignoramus – ignorant
trajectory – path
proceeded – carried on
speculating – guessing

Hindi Essay (Hindi Nibandh) | 100 विषयों पर हिंदी निबंध लेखन – Essays in Hindi on 100 Topics

हिंदी निबंध: हिंदी हमारी राष्ट्रीय भाषा है। हमारे हिंदी भाषा कौशल को सीखना और सुधारना भारत के अधिकांश स्थानों में सेवा करने के लिए बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है। स्कूली दिनों से ही हम हिंदी भाषा सीखते थे। कुछ स्कूल और कॉलेज हिंदी के अतिरिक्त बोर्ड और निबंध बोर्ड में निबंध लेखन का आयोजन करते हैं, छात्रों को बोर्ड परीक्षा में हिंदी निबंध लिखने की आवश्यकता होती है।

निबंध – Nibandh In Hindi – Hindi Essay Topics

हिन्दी निबंध – Essay in Hindi – Hindi Nibandh
शिक्षा पर निबंध
खेल पर निबंध
विज्ञान और तकनीकी पर निबंध
भारत पर निबंध
सामाजिक मुद्दे और सामाजिक जागरूकता पर निबंध
विभिन्न उत्सवों पर निबंध
महान व्यक्तियों पर निबंध
रिश्तों पर निबंध
नैतिक मूल्य पर निबंध
पर्यावरण के मुद्दें और जागरूकता पर निबंध
स्वास्थ्य और तंदुरुस्ती पर निबंध
प्रकृति पर निबंध
लोकोक्ति पर निबंध
स्मारकों पर निबंध

इसलिए, यह जानना और समझना बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है कि विषय के बारे में संक्षिप्त और कुरकुरा लाइनों के साथ एक आदर्श हिंदी निबन्ध कैसे लिखें। साथ ही, कक्षा 1 से 10 तक के छात्र उदाहरणों के साथ इस पृष्ठ से विभिन्न हिंदी निबंध विषय पा सकते हैं। तो, छात्र आसानी से स्कूल और प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं के लिए हिंदी में निबन्ध कैसे लिखें, इसकी तैयारी कर सकते हैं। इसके अलावा, आप हिंदी निबंध लेखन की संरचना, हिंदी में एक प्रभावी निबंध लिखने के लिए टिप्स आदि के बारे में कुछ विस्तृत जानकारी भी प्राप्त कर सकते हैं। ठीक है, आइए हिंदी निबन्ध के विवरण में गोता लगाएँ।

हिंदी निबंध लेखन – स्कूल और प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं के लिए हिंदी में निबन्ध कैसे लिखें?

प्रभावी निबंध लिखने के लिए उस विषय के बारे में बहुत अभ्यास और गहन ज्ञान की आवश्यकता होती है जिसे आपने निबंध लेखन प्रतियोगिता या बोर्ड परीक्षा के लिए चुना है। छात्रों को वर्तमान में हो रही स्थितियों और हिंदी में निबंध लिखने से पहले विषय के बारे में कुछ महत्वपूर्ण बिंदुओं के बारे में जानना चाहिए। हिंदी में पावरफुल निबन्ध लिखने के लिए सभी को कुछ प्रमुख नियमों और युक्तियों का पालन करना होगा।

हिंदी निबन्ध लिखने के लिए आप सभी को जो प्राथमिक कदम उठाने चाहिए उनमें से एक सही विषय का चयन करना है। इस स्थिति में आपकी सहायता करने के लिए, हमने सभी प्रकार के हिंदी निबंध विषयों पर शोध किया है और नीचे सूचीबद्ध किया है। एक बार जब हम सही विषय चुन लेते हैं तो विषय के बारे में सभी सामान्य और तथ्यों को एकत्र करते हैं और अपने पाठकों को संलग्न करने के लिए उन्हें अपने निबंध में लिखते हैं।

तथ्य आपके पाठकों को अंत तक आपके निबंध से चिपके रहेंगे। इसलिए, हिंदी में एक निबंध लिखते समय मुख्य बिंदुओं पर ध्यान केंद्रित करें और किसी प्रतियोगिता या बोर्ड या प्रतिस्पर्धी जैसी परीक्षाओं में अच्छा स्कोर करें। ये हिंदी निबंध विषय पहली कक्षा से 10 वीं कक्षा तक के सभी कक्षा के छात्रों के लिए उपयोगी हैं। तो, उनका सही ढंग से उपयोग करें और हिंदी भाषा में एक परिपूर्ण निबंध बनाएं।

हिंदी भाषा में दीर्घ और लघु निबंध विषयों की सूची

हिंदी निबन्ध विषयों और उदाहरणों की निम्न सूची को विभिन्न श्रेणियों में विभाजित किया गया है जैसे कि प्रौद्योगिकी, पर्यावरण, सामान्य चीजें, अवसर, खेल, खेल, स्कूली शिक्षा, और बहुत कुछ। बस अपने पसंदीदा हिंदी निबंध विषयों पर क्लिक करें और विषय पर निबंध के लघु और लंबे रूपों के साथ विषय के बारे में पूरी जानकारी आसानी से प्राप्त करें।

विषय के बारे में समग्र जानकारी एकत्रित करने के बाद, अपनी लाइनें लागू करने का समय और हिंदी में एक प्रभावी निबन्ध लिखने के लिए। यहाँ प्रचलित सभी विषयों की जाँच करें और किसी भी प्रकार की प्रतियोगिताओं या परीक्षाओं का प्रयास करने से पहले जितना संभव हो उतना अभ्यास करें।

हिंदी निबंधों की संरचना

Hindi Essay Parts

उपरोक्त छवि आपको हिंदी निबन्ध की संरचना के बारे में प्रदर्शित करती है और आपको निबन्ध को हिन्दी में प्रभावी ढंग से रचने के बारे में कुछ विचार देती है। यदि आप स्कूल या कॉलेजों में निबंध लेखन प्रतियोगिता में किसी भी विषय को लिखते समय निबंध के इन हिस्सों का पालन करते हैं तो आप निश्चित रूप से इसमें पुरस्कार जीतेंगे।

इस संरचना को बनाए रखने से निबंध विषयों का अभ्यास करने से छात्रों को विषय पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने और विषय के बारे में छोटी और कुरकुरी लाइनें लिखने में मदद मिलती है। इसलिए, यहां संकलित सूची में से अपने पसंदीदा या दिलचस्प निबंध विषय को हिंदी में चुनें और निबंध की इस मूल संरचना का अनुसरण करके एक निबंध लिखें।

हिंदी में एक सही निबंध लिखने के लिए याद रखने वाले मुख्य बिंदु

अपने पाठकों को अपने हिंदी निबंधों के साथ संलग्न करने के लिए, आपको हिंदी में एक प्रभावी निबंध लिखते समय कुछ सामान्य नियमों का पालन करना चाहिए। कुछ युक्तियाँ और नियम इस प्रकार हैं:

  • अपना हिंदी निबंध विषय / विषय दिए गए विकल्पों में से समझदारी से चुनें।
  • अब उन सभी बिंदुओं को याद करें, जो निबंध लिखने शुरू करने से पहले विषय के बारे में एक विचार रखते हैं।
  • निबंध लेखन के मूल प्रारूप का पालन करें और निबंध को तीन भागों में विभाजित करें।
    • पहला भाग: परिचय
    • दूसरा भाग: विषय का शारीरिक / विस्तार विवरण
    • तीसरा भाग: निष्कर्ष / अंतिम शब्द
  • एक निबंध लिखते समय सुनिश्चित करें कि आप एक सरल भाषा और शब्दों का उपयोग करते हैं जो विषय के अनुकूल हैं और एक बात याद रखें, वाक्यों को जटिल न बनाएं,
  • जानकारी के हर नए टुकड़े के लिए निबंध लेखन के दौरान एक नए पैराग्राफ के साथ इसे शुरू करें।
  • अपने पाठकों को आकर्षित करने या उत्साहित करने के लिए जहाँ कहीं भी संभव हो, कुछ मुहावरे या कविताएँ जोड़ें और अपने हिंदी निबंध के साथ संलग्न रहें।
  • विषय या विषय को बीच में या निबंध में जारी रखने से न चूकें।
  • यदि आप संक्षेप में हिंदी निबंध लिख रहे हैं तो इसे 200-250 शब्दों में समाप्त किया जाना चाहिए। यदि यह लंबा है, तो इसे 400-500 शब्दों में समाप्त करें।
  • महत्वपूर्ण हिंदी निबंध विषयों का अभ्यास करते समय इन सभी युक्तियों और बिंदुओं को ध्यान में रखते हुए, आप निश्चित रूप से किसी भी प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं में कुरकुरा और सही निबंध लिख सकते हैं या फिर सीबीएसई, आईसीएसई जैसी बोर्ड परीक्षाओं में।

हिंदी निबंध लेखन पर अक्सर पूछे जाने वाले प्रश्न

1. मैं अपने हिंदी निबंध लेखन कौशल में सुधार कैसे कर सकता हूं?
अपने हिंदी निबंध लेखन कौशल में सुधार करने के सर्वोत्तम तरीकों में से एक किताबों और समाचार पत्रों को पढ़ना और हिंदी में कुछ जानकारीपूर्ण श्रृंखलाओं को देखना है। ये चीजें आपकी हिंदी शब्दावली में वृद्धि करेंगी और आपको हिंदी में एक प्रेरक निबंध लिखने में मदद करेंगी।

2. CBSE, ICSE बोर्ड परीक्षा के लिए हिंदी निबंध लिखने में कितना समय देना चाहिए?
हिंदी बोर्ड परीक्षा में एक प्रभावी निबंध लिखने पर 20-30 का खर्च पर्याप्त है। क्योंकि परीक्षा हॉल में हर मिनट बहुत महत्वपूर्ण है। इसलिए, सभी वर्गों के लिए समय बनाए रखना महत्वपूर्ण है। परीक्षा से पहले सभी हिंदी निबन्ध विषयों से पहले अभ्यास करें और परीक्षा में निबंध लेखन पर खर्च करने का समय निर्धारित करें।

3. हिंदी में निबंध के लिए 200-250 शब्द पर्याप्त हैं?
200-250 शब्दों वाले हिंदी निबंध किसी भी स्थिति के लिए बहुत अधिक हैं। इसके अलावा, पाठक केवल आसानी से पढ़ने और उनसे जुड़ने के लिए लघु निबंधों में अधिक रुचि दिखाते हैं।

4. मुझे छात्रों के लिए सर्वश्रेष्ठ औपचारिक और अनौपचारिक हिंदी निबंध विषय कहां मिल सकते हैं?
आप हमारे पेज से कक्षा 1 से 10 तक के छात्रों के लिए हिंदी में विभिन्न सामान्य और विशिष्ट प्रकार के निबंध विषय प्राप्त कर सकते हैं। आप स्कूलों और कॉलेजों में प्रतियोगिताओं, परीक्षाओं और भाषणों के लिए हिंदी में इन छोटे और लंबे निबंधों का उपयोग कर सकते हैं।

5. हिंदी परीक्षाओं में प्रभावशाली निबंध लिखने के कुछ तरीके क्या हैं?
हिंदी में प्रभावी और प्रभावशाली निबंध लिखने के लिए, किसी को इसमें शानदार तरीके से काम करना चाहिए। उसके लिए, आपको इन बिंदुओं का पालन करना चाहिए और सभी प्रकार की परीक्षाओं में एक परिपूर्ण हिंदी निबंध की रचना करनी चाहिए:

  • एक पंच-लाइन की शुरुआत।
  • बहुत सारे विशेषणों का उपयोग करें।
  • रचनात्मक सोचें।
  • कठिन शब्दों के प्रयोग से बचें।
  • आंकड़े, वास्तविक समय के उदाहरण, प्रलेखित जानकारी दें।
  • सिफारिशों के साथ निष्कर्ष निकालें।
  • निष्कर्ष के साथ पंचलाइन को जोड़ना।

निष्कर्ष
हमने एक टीम के रूप में हिंदी निबन्ध विषय पर पूरी तरह से शोध किया और इस पृष्ठ पर कुछ मुख्य महत्वपूर्ण विषयों को सूचीबद्ध किया। हमने इन हिंदी निबंध लेखन विषयों को उन छात्रों के लिए एकत्र किया है जो निबंध प्रतियोगिता या प्रतियोगी या बोर्ड परीक्षाओं में भाग ले रहे हैं। तो, हम आशा करते हैं कि आपको यहाँ पर सूची से हिंदी में अपना आवश्यक निबंध विषय मिल गया होगा।

यदि आपको हिंदी भाषा पर निबंध के बारे में अधिक जानकारी की आवश्यकता है, तो संरचना, हिंदी में निबन्ध लेखन के लिए टिप्स, हमारी साइट LearnCram.com पर जाएँ। इसके अलावा, आप हमारी वेबसाइट से अंग्रेजी में एक प्रभावी निबंध लेखन विषय प्राप्त कर सकते हैं, इसलिए इसे अंग्रेजी और हिंदी निबंध विषयों पर अपडेट प्राप्त करने के लिए बुकमार्क करें।

Silk Road Summary in English by Nick Middleton

Silk Road Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Silk Road is written by Nick Middleton.

Learncram.com has provided Silk Road extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Silk Road summary in hindi, analysis analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

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Silk Road Summary in English by Nick Middleton

About the Author Nick Middleton

Author Name Nick Middleton
Born 1960 (age 60 years), London, United Kingdom
Books Going to Extremes, Global Casino, Rivers: A Very Short Introduction
Awards The Royal Geographical Society’s Ness
Nick Middleton - silk road summary in english class 11
Nick Middleton

Silk Road Theme

This chapter is part of a travelogue about the author’s travel along the ancient trade route called ‘Silk Road’ regions as they are now. This account of the Silk Road, with its contrasts and exotic detail, describes the challenges and hardships the author faced while journeying to Mount Kailash on a pilgrimage.

Silk Road About the Characters

The Author: He is a Professor of Geography at Oxford University and an environmental consultant.

Tsetan: He is the owner of the car hired by the author for the journey, as well as being a tourist guide.

Daniel: He is an interpreter from Lhasa who travelled part of the time with the author.

Norbu: He is a Tibetan working at an academy in Beijing who wants to carry out the pilgrimage to Mount Kailash.

Silk Road Summary in English

Departure from Ravu
The author left Ravu along with Daniel, an interpreter, and Tsetan, who was a tourist guide. Before leaving, Lhamo, the lady who had provided them accommodation at Ravu, gave the author a gift of a long-sleeved sheepskin coat, as they were going to Mount Kailash, where it would be very cold. Tsetan knew a short cut to reach the mountain. He said the journey would be smooth if there was no snow.

They Saw Drokbas on the Way
As they passed through the hills, they saw individual drokbas (nomad shepherds) looking after their flocks. Both men and women were seen. They were wearing thick woollen clothes. They would stop and stare at their car, sometimes waving to them as they passed.

Encounter with Tibetan Mastiffs
As they passed the nomad’s tents, they saw some Tibetan mastiffs, which were dogs used by the shepherds. When the car came close to their tents, they would bark furiously and fearlessly. They would chase the car for some distance and would then go back. In earlier days, Tibetan mastiffs became popular in China’s imperial courts as hunting dogs. They were brought along the Silk Road as a tax payment from Tibet.

Ice Blocks the Road
The turns became sharper and more difficult as they climbed. The author started getting a severe headache. Suddenly snow started falling and soon blocked the route. Daniel and the author got out of the car to reduce its load on sharp bends. The altimeter watch on the author’s wrist indicated that they were at a height of 5210 metres above sea level. The icy top layer of the snow was dangerous, as the car could slip off the road. When they reached a height of 5515 metres, which was the top of the pass, the atmospheric pressure became so low that Tsetan had to open the lid of the petrol tank to release the evaporated fuel.

Back on the Highway
By late afternoon, they had reached the small town of Hor on .the shore of Lake Manasarovar, which was on the old trade route between Lhasa and Kashmir. Daniel returned to Lhasa from there. Tsetan got the flat tyre of the car repaired there. Hor was a grim, miserable place. There was no vegetation whatsoever, just dust and rocks. There was accumulated rubbish everywhere. Unlike the past, the place no longer appeared holy.

By 10.30 PM they reached Darchen, where they found a guesthouse to stay in. It was the end of the road. The author had a very troubled night. His nostrils were blocked and he was not able to get enough air into his lungs. Most of the night he sat up, as he was unable to sleep.

The next day Tsetan took the author to the Darchen Medical College. The doctor told him it was just the cold and the altitude which were giving him trouble. The doctor gave him some medicine and that night the author was able to sleep well.

Tsetan left the author in Darchen and went back with the car to Lhasa. He did not mind if the author would die in Darchen. He was a good Buddhist and believed in life after death. However, he was worried that the author’s death could affect his business, as he may not get more; tourists who required to be accompanied till where the road ended.

The Author Looks for a Companion and Meets Norbu
Like Hor, Darchen was dusty and a lot of rubbish could be seen all around. The town appeared to be sparsely populated. There were no pilgrims there, as the season had not yet started. He had reached there too early. He actually wanted to reach Mount Kailash to do kora to get a feel of what a pilgrimage was like. But he didn’t want to do it alone. He was looking for someone who could speak or understand English.

When he was sitting in the only cafe at Darchen, Norbu, a plump Tibetan working in Beijing at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, saw him reading an English book. So Norbu introduced himself to the author. He also was there to do kora, although he was not a religious person. So both of them decided to do kora together.

Silk Road Chapter Highlights

  • The author left Ravu with a gifted long-sleeved sheepskin coat accompanied by Daniel and Tsetan. Tsetan said that the journey would be smooth if there was no snow on the way.
  • As they passed by the hills, they could see the lonely drokbas looking after their herds.
  • As they passed the drokba tents, their guard dogs, which were Tibetan mastiffs, chased their car for some distance.
  • Soon the turns became sharper and bumpier as they climbed.
  • The sudden and unexpected fall of snow blocked their way a number of times.
  • After passing through the top of the pass, they went down to reach the small town of Hor, on the shore of Lake Manasarovar, by late afternoon.
  • It was a grim, miserable place without any vegetation; it only had a lot of accumulated rubbish, dust and rocks. Daniel went back to Lhasa from there. They repaired the puncrured tyres and carried on.
  • They reached Darchen at 10:30 PM and found a guesthouse to stay in.
  • The author had a very troubled night because of the cold. So the next morning, Tsetan took him to consult a doctor at the Darchen Medical College.
  • The doctor gave some medicine and that night he was able to sleep well.
  • Tsetan left the author in Darchen and went back with the car to Lhasa.
  • As the pilgrim season had not started, the author felt lonely. He was looking for someone who could speak or understand English as well as accompany him to do kora.
  • Then he met Norbu, a Tibetan who understood English and was there to do kora at Mount Kailash.
  • Both of them decided to go together.

Silk Road Word Meaning

Word – Meaning
French loaves – thin loaf of French bread commonly made from basic lean dough
ducking back – quickly going inside
kora – pilgrimage (in Tibetan language)
drokba – nomad shepherd (here it means, “You look like a nomad shepherd.”)
Changtang – plateau in Western Tibet
gazelles – small antelopes
void – empty spaces
kyang – wild asses
pall – cloud
en masse – together
manoeuvres – exercises involving a large number of animals
billowed – swelled out and went
mastiff – large and strong breed of dog
tribute – payment for tax
clogged – jammed
meanders – winding curves or bends of the river
daubed – spread on the surface
hunks – large pieces
snorted – made a loud sound by forcing breath through a nostril
exited – came out of
swathe – long strip
petered out – gradually came to an end
wristwatch – a watch having an altimeter eworn on the wrist
negotiated – went around
four wheel drive – having a transmission system to provide power directly to all four wheels
lurching – moving unsteadily
cairn of rocks – pile of stones marking a special place
festooned – ornamentally decorated
careered down – descended
salt flats – areas of flat land covered with a layer of salt
brackish – slightly salty
vestiges – remains
a hive of activity – full of people working hard
as smooth as my bald head – totally worn out
grim – bleak or dreary
refuse – rubbish
venerated – respected
cosmology – ancient history
headwaters – streams forming the source
striking distance – a distance from which it can be easily reached
draught – current of air
spread the grease around on – cleaned
solitary confinement – loneliness
sanctity – holiness
hallowed – holy
prone – inclined
kicking around – passing time aimlessly
set off – started
nocturnal – happening at night
power – breathing
drifting off – going to sleep
disappearing into the land of nod – going to fall asleep
put my finger on – pinpoint
paraphernalia – dress identifying his profession
screws of paper – small paper packets
derelict – run down
pool – game similar to billiards
supremely
incongruous – totally out of place
babbled – flowed with a babbling sound
cavernous – like a cave
struck up – started
escaped from the library – removed themselves from academic work
tempered – weakened
envisaged – thought of
yaks – Tibetan ox
prostrating – stretching and lying down with face down
tummy – stomach

Old Man at the Bridge Summary Analysis and Explanation by Ernest Hemingway

Old Man at the Bridge Story Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Old Man at the Bridge is written by Ernest Hemingway.

Learncram.com has provided Old Man at the Bridge questions and answers, story short summary pdf, theme, message, critical appreciation, line by line explanation, point of view, character sketch, word notes and explanations, treasure trove chief seattle speech summary in hindi, title, characters, about the author and story, short answer questions, comprehension passages, assignment.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Old Man at the Bridge Story Summary in English by Ernest Hemingway

Old Man at the Bridge About the Author

Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in America. He was a novelist, short story writer and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He published seven novels, six short story collections, and two non-fiction works. Additional works, including three novels, four short story collections, and three non-fiction works, were published posthumously. The Old Man and the Sea is considered classic of American literature.

Ernest Hemingway

Old Man at the Bridge About the Story

All about the Story Old Man at the Bridge:
The story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ is in the form of conversation between a soldier and an old man. The writer takes the ordinary detail and transforms it into a powerful story about the tragedy of war. The old man in the story becomes a symbol of countless civilians who perish in war.

The story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ is related through a conversation between a soldier and an old man who had to leave his hometown during the Spanish Civil War. During the war there was panic and anxiety all around. Everyone was aware of the impending death. An old man with spectacles sat exhausted by the side of a road near a pontoon bridge that crossed the river. The soldier got engaged in conversation with the old man. During the conversation he came to know that the old man was worried about his animals that he had left behind. The old man told the soldier that he had the charge of two goats, a cat and four pairs of pigeons. He said that a captain had told him to leave the town and the animals because of artillery fire. He had no family but he expressed concern about what would happen to his animals. He said that the cat would be all right because cats could look after themselves, but he did not know what would happen to his other animals.

The soldier was concerned about the old man’s safety whereas the old man was concerned about his animal’s safety. He told the soldier that he was an old man of 76 and had come 12 kilometers and was too tired to walk up the road and catch a ride on a truck to Barcelona. The old man thanked the soldier for his concern for his safety but he continued to express his concern over the fate of the animals he had left behind. The old man remained obsessed with the thought about the safety of his animals. At the end of the story the soldier felt pity for the old man and thought “There was nothing to do about him.” He realized that he could not remove the old man’s concern about the safety of his animals. The story reflects the theme of depression and impending death.

Old Man at the Bridge Summary in English

The conversation between a soldier and an old man
The story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ is related through a conversation between a soldier and an old man who had to leave his home town during the Spanish Civil War. During the war there was panic and anxiety all around. Everyone was aware of the impending death. An old man with spectacles who had walked 12 kilometres from his hometown sat exhausted by the side of a road near a pontoon bridge that crossed a river. Carts, trucks and men, women and children were crossing the bridge. Peasants, refugees and Republican soldiers laden with munitions and supplies fled the advancing Fascist army. The narrator, who said that his mission was to cross the bridge and find out how far the enemy had advanced, did so. He saw the old man sitting beside the bridge when he crossed toward the enemy. He found him still sitting there when he crossed back. He began talking to the old man and came to know that his hometown was San Carlos. He was the last person to leave the town, as he was anxious about his animals.

Old Man at the Bridge Summary
Old Man at the Bridge Summary

The narrator asks the old man about his animals
The narrator, who was nervously awaiting the advent of the Fascist army and the ensuing battle between the armies, asked the old man about his animals. The old man said that he had charge of two goats, a cat and four pairs of pigeons. He said that a captain had told him to leave the town and the animals because of artillery fire. He also told the narrator that he had no family. He, then, expressed concern about what would happen to the animals. He said that the cat would be all right because cats could look after themselves, but he did not know what would happen to the other animals.

Old man’s Political Views
The narrator, who was more concerned for the old man’s safety than those of the animals, enquired what the old man’s .politics was. The old man replied that he had none. He told the narrator that he was an old man of 76 and had come 12 kilometres and was too tired to go further. The narrator told him to walk up the road and catch a ride on a truck to Barcelona.

The old man expresses his thanks to the narrator
The old man thanked him, but continued to express his concern over the fate of the animals he had left behind. The narrator reassured him, saying the animals would be fine. The narrator told him that the pigeons would fly away, but the old man continued to worry about the goats. The narrator told him that it was better not to think about them and that he should get up and walk to the trucks and leave that place. He thanked the narrator and got to his feet, swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust. He reflected his obsession about the fate of his animals when he remarked that ‘he was only taking care of animals’. The narrator felt pity for the old man and remarked that there was nothing to do about him. He thought that the old man’s only luck was that cats could look after themselves and that the day was overcast, so the Fascists were unable to launch their planes.

Old Man at the Bridge Word Notes and Explanations

pontoon – a temporary floating platform
staggered – walked with unsteady steps
plodded – walked slowly
mysterious – strange
artillery – heavy guns moved on wheels
hurrying down – moving down quickly
blankly – disinterestedly
cage – a structure made of wires in which animals are kept
fascist – a person who supports an extreme right wing political system
Ebro – the name of a river

Old Man at the Bridge Theme

The story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ deals with the themes of resignation, depression and impending death. This theme is reflected in a conversation between a soldier and an old man who had to leave his hometown during the Spanish Civil War. The old man is gripped by panic and anxiety. He is a fatalistic hero of the story who is resigned to his fate as a casualty of war. When the soldier who is concerned about the safety of the old man tells him to walk up the road and catch a ride on the truck to Barcelona, he tells him that he is an old man of 76 and is too tired to go further. So he resigns himself to his fate. Then the soldier reflects that he is sure to be killed once the Fascists advance to the bridge across the Ebro. His life is prolonged by the fact that the day is overcast and the Fascists cannot launch their planes. His mind is eased by the fact that cats can look after themselves, but aside from that the soldier says that nothing can be done for him and his death seems certain.

The soldier seems more affected by the inevitability of the man’s probable fate than by the old man. On the other hand, the old man is worried about the fate of his animals. He can’t get rid of the thought of safety of his animals. This gives him depression. When the soldier tells him that it is best not to think about his animals, he is unable to stop thinking about them. This leads him to depression.

At the close of the story the narrator bemoans the old man’s impending death. He asks him to walk and catch a ride on the truck to Barcelona, but the old man expresses his inability to walk due to fatigue. The soldier begins to feel pity for him and says, “There was nothing to do about him.”

Old Man at the Bridge Title

The title of the story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ is very appropriate because the story revolves around the old man who has left his hometown during the Spanish Civil War and has arrived at the bridge for safety. It is at the bridge that the narrator engages the old man in conversation. The old man expresses his concern about the safety of his animals that he has left behind. He thinks that the cat will be all right, but he is worried about the safety of the other animals. The narrator is worried about the safety of the old man whereas the old man is worried about the safety of his animals. The narrator asks the old man not to think about his animals and to get up and walk to the trucks and leave that place, but the old man who has already walked 12 kilometers on foot expresses his inability to walk due to fatigue. He remains at the bridge. Thus the story has an apt title.

Old Man at the Bridge Message

In this story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’, the author wants to convey his opposition to war because war spreads panic and anxiety all around. Everyone becomes aware of the impending death.

Confusion and chaos prevail everywhere. During the Spanish Civil War, an old man with spectacles sits exhausted by the side of a road near a pontoon bridge. The soldier gets engaged in conversation with the old man. During the conversation the soldier comes to know that the old man is worried about the fate of his animals that he had left behind. The soldier is concerned about the safety of the old man whereas the old man is concerned about the safety of his animals. He tells the old man to get up and catch a ride on a truck to Barcelona.

He wants the old man to save his life. But the old man who is 76 and has walked 12 kilometers tells the soldier that he is too tired to walk and catch a ride on a truck. The old man thanks the soldier for his concern for his safety, but he continues to express his concern over the fate of his animals that he had left behind. At the end of the story, the soldier feels pity for the old man and thinks, “There was nothing to do about him.” The story reflects that war brings depression, anxiety and scare of death. So the author expresses his opposition to war. He conveys a message that war should be opposed and avoided.

Old Man at the Bridge Character Sketch

THE OLD MAN

  • 76 years old, healthy and physically fit
  • leaves his hometown due to the Spanish Civil War
  • no family, but loves his animals, worried about the safety of the animals during war
  • not worried about his own safety
  • a fatalist
  • obsessed with the thought of his animals’ safety
  • victim of war
  • reconciles himself with his impending death

The old man, the protagonist of the story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’, is a healthy and energetic old man of 76. He is physically fit and agile. During the Spanish Civil War, he has to walk 12 kilometers from his hometown to the bridge. He has to leave his place because a captain told him to leave the town because of artillery fire during the Spanish Civil War.

He has no family but he loves his animals. He has the charge of two goats, a cat and four pairs of pigeons. He is forced to leave his farm and animals behind. But he is worried about the safety of his animals. During his conversation with the soldier at the bridge, he reveals that he is not worried about the safety of his own life because he is a fatalist; but he expresses his deep concern about the safety of his animals. He tells the soldier that he is not worried about the cat because cats can look after themselves, but he is worried about the fate of other animals. He cannot get rid of the thought about the safety of his animals. This thought makes him depressed and sad.

The old man symbolizes the men and women who have to leave their homes as victims of war with which they have nothing to do. The old man is a victim of the war like the goats because the goats, unlike the pigeons, can’t fly.

He reconciles himself with his impending death. When the soldier asks him to catch a ride on a truck to Barcelona to save his life, he refuses to do so. The soldier takes pity on him and says “There was nothing to do about him”. Thus he is worried more about the safety of his animals than his own safety.

THE NARRATOR

  • a scout and dutiful soldier
  • engages himself in conversation with the old man
  • worried about the safety of the old man during the war
  • advises the old man to leave the place and save himself
  • feels pity for the old man
  • expresses his helplessness to do anything about the old man
  • bemoans the old man’s impending death

The narrator in the story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ is the soldier who comes in contact with an old man at the bridge where people are crossing to flee from the Spanish Civil War.

The soldier is a scout whose duty is to cross the bridge and find out how far the enemy has advanced. He engages himself in conversation with the old man.

During conversation, he comes to know that the old man is worried more about the safety of his animals whom he has left behind in his home town than his own safety. On the other hand, the narrator is worried about the safety of the old man. He tells the old man to take a ride on a truck to Barcelona, and save himself but he refuses to do so. The narrator feels sad about the inevitability of the old man’s fate and feels pity for him, saying “There was nothing to do about him”. He bemoans the old man’s impending death. The conversation reflects the old man’s fatalism and the narrator’s despair in a subtle manner.

Old Man at the Bridge Critical Appreciation

Conversational Form
The story ‘Old Man at the Bridge’ is related through a conversation between a soldier and an old man who had to leave his hometown during the Spanish Civil War. The conversation takes place at the bridge where the soldier is performing his duty.
The story conveys the problems faced by people as victims of war in the form of a dialogue. The conversation advances the story further and takes it to its logical conclusion. The theme of the story and the characteristic traits of the two characters involved in the conversation are revealed through conversation.

First Person
The story is written in the first person and narrated by a nameless soldier whose duty is to observe the advancing of the enemy. The soldier has captured the atmosphere of war and the helplessness of the people as victims of war in
his conversation with the old man who was forced to leave his hometown and animals behind. He has explored the region and the situation by suggestive hints. The first person narrative helps the reader to identify with the scene of threat and helplessness.

Metaphors and Symbols
The story abounds in metaphors and symbols. One of the symbols is the bridge which represents uncertainty and dangers. The pigeons symbolise peace and harmony and the fact that they fly away, from the war, may be a reference to the refugees who flee from the war to a safer place. The cat is a symbol of independence who does not need anybody to survive, but the goat is often used as a sacrificial animal and this probably represents the old man who reconciles himself with his impending death.

Language
The story is narrated in a conversational form and the language used is simple. But several simple words are symbolic in significance. The style is lucid and intelligible. The dialogue between the soldier and the old man takes the story forward. The simple conversation reveals the characteristic traits of the speakers and reflects the theme of the story.

FAQs on The Old Man At The Bridge Summary

Question 1.
Why does the old man express his worry about his two goats

Answer:
The old man expresses his worry about the two goats because he knew that the cats could look after themselves

Question 2.
What is the message of the story old man at the bridge?

Answer:
“The Old Man at the Bridge” by Ernest Hemingway is the tragedy of war. The author’s intention is to illustrate the way wars disrupt the lives of innocent people who are caught up in the middle, but also the way it frustrates those who cannot do anything about it (0bservers and foreigners)