The Address Summary in English Marga Minco

The Address Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Address is written by Marga Minco. has provided The Address extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english The Address summary in hindi, analysis, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

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The Address Summary in English Marga Minco

About the Poet Marga Minco

Poet Name Marga Minco
Born 31 March 1920 (age 100 years), Ginneken en Bavel, Netherlands
Spouse Lambertus Hendrikus Voeten (m. 1945–1992)
Awards P. C. Hooft Award, Ferdinand Bordewijk Prize
Movies Het Bittere Kruid
Nationality Dutch
Marga Minco - the address summary in english class 11
Marga Minco

The Address Theme

This story is a touching account of a girl who goes in search of her mother’s belongings after the Second World War in Holland. But even after finding what she so much wanted to touch, to see, to feel and remember, she leaves everything behind as it could not bring her dead mother back. She decides to move on and live with only memories of the former times. The address that held so much importance till she visited that place, lost its value and the girl realised that it could get her nothing but pain.

The Address About the Characters

The Daughter: She is the narrator, who returns to Holland to go to the address where her mother’s precious belongings were kept. As normalcy had returned after the Second World War in Holland, she wanted to see all possessions that were a bond between her family and herself.

Mrs S – The Narrator’s Mother: In the story, the narrator’s mother has been called as Mrs S. She was a simpleton who could not see the manipulating and fraudulent nature of Mrs Dorling, her acquaintance. She trusted Mrs Dorling and allowed her to keep all her precious belongings for the time being.

Mrs Dorling: She has been described as an old acquaintance of‘Mrs S. After a long gap, she appeared again during the war. She possessed a cunning personality. She is most reluctant to recognise the daughter and does not allow her to enter the house.

The Address Summary in English

Mrs Dorling’s Indifferent Attitude Towards the Narrator
The narrator knocked at the door of a house, but the door was opened only a little. She asked the owner if she knew her. The narrator told her that she was Mrs S daughter. But the owner of the house, Mrs Dorling, denied knowing her. Mrs Dorling’s face gave absolutely no sign of recognition and she kept staring at her without speaking any word.

The narrator thought that perhaps she was mistaken and had rung the wrong bell. Then the narrator got a glimpse of her mother’s green knitted cardigan which Mrs Dorling was wearing. This confirmed to her that she had reached the correct address. But Mrs Dorling excused herself by saying that she could not talk to the girl that day and she should come again later. Then she shamelessly closed the door.

Someone Watching the Narrator from the Window
The narrator stood for some time on the steps even after the door closed. Someone was watching her from the bay window. The girl presumed that someone other than Mrs Dorling must be watching her and must have asked why the narrator came there.

The Narrator Remembers What her Mother had Told her
After this refusal, the narrator walked back to the station thinking about her mother. Her mother had given her Mrs Dorling’s address years ago. It had been in the first half of the war. The narrator’s mother told her about Mrs Dorling, an old acquaintance.

She also informed her that every time when Mrs Dorling came, she took something home with her. The reason Mrs Dorling gave for her actions was that she wanted to save all the good things, as the narrator’s mother would not be able to save everything if they had to leave suddenly. The narrator’s mother had accepted the idea. She was rather obliged towards Mrs Dorling that she was carrying such heavy luggage every time she visited, as it was really risky during the war.

The Narrator Remembers When She Met Mrs Dorling
The narrator arrived at the station without having paid much attention to things on the way. She was walking in familiar places again for the first time since the war. She didn’t want to upset herself with the sight of streets and houses full of memories from a previous time. In the train she remembered the first time when she had seen Mrs Dorling. It was the morning after the day her mother had told her about Mrs Dorling, who was wearing a brown coat and a shapeless hat. The narrator had asked from her mother if she lived far away, as she was carrying a heavy case. Her mother told her that Mrs Dorling lived at Number 46, Marconi Street.

Initially the Narrator was Reluctant to See the Family’s Old Belongings
The narrator had remembered the address, but waited a long time to go there. Initially after the war was over, she was not interested in all their belongings lying with Mrs Dorling. She was afraid to see the things that had belonged to her dead mother. She did not want to see their belongings lying in Mrs Dorling’s house in boxes and cupboards and needing to be put back in their old places again. She was scared that the things might make her very nostalgic. But gradually her life became normal again and one day, she became curious to know about all the possessions.

The Narrator Decides to Visit Again
After her first visit did not yield any result, she decided to visit a second time. This time a girl of about fifteen opened the door, as her mother was not at home. The narrator asked about Mrs Dorling. She was told that Mrs Dorling was not at home. She followed the girl along the passage. She noticed an old-fashioned iron candle-holder which they never used. They went into the living-room.

The narrator was horrified. She found herself in the midst of their old belongings, but they oppressed her as they were kept in strange surroundings and in a very tasteless manner. She was hurt to see her family’s belongings lying in a tasteless way with the ugly furniture and muggy smell. The table cloth, the silver cudery and even the still life showing the apple on the tin plate belonged to her family.

The Narrator’s Keen Observation of Mrs Dorling’s Daughter
She was keenly observing the girl, who had a broad back similar to that of Mrs Dorling. The girl was placing tea¬cups for tea to be served. She was pouring tea from a white teapot which had a gold border on the lid and then she took out some spoons from the box. All this crockery and cudery belonged to the narrator’s family, but perhaps the girl was not aware of this fact. She cracked a joke about eating dinner in those antique plates. The narrator also found a burn mark on the table cloth. The narrator indirecdy hinted to the girl that they missed things which are either missing from their original place or have been loaned to somebody.

The Narrator Remembers About Polishing the Silver Outlay
The narrator remembers the time when her mother was alive and the narrator was at home either bored or ill. Her mother asked her to polish the silver cudery. She was surprised to hear that the cudery that they were using was made of silver and even Mrs Dorling’s daughter was surprised to hear that they were using silver cudery for everyday eating.

The Narrator’s Final Resolution
The narrator decided that she could not stay there any more. The address was correct but the narrator didn’t want to remember it any more. She felt that the objects were linked to a memory of a time which no longer existed. They had lost their value in the strange surroundings.

She comforted herself by thinking that her present house was too small to accommodate all the old stuff. She left the house, leaving all her family’s belongings behind.

The Address Chapter Highlights

  • The narrator decides to visit the address that was given to her by her mother, where all her family’s precious possessions were kept safely by Mrs Dorling.
  • The first time when the narrator visited the address, Mrs Dorling behaved in the most absurd manner. She refused to recognise the narrator and did not let her enter the house. So the narrator returns empty-handed.
  • The narrator is reminded of her mother (Mrs S) who had given this address to her years ago, when inspite of war, they were living in Holland and she saw Mrs Dorling who was introduced to her as an old acquaintance of her mother.
  • The narrator noticed many precious items missing from their places. Then Mrs S told her that Mrs Dorling was helping her by taking her table cloth, silver cutlery, antique plates, large vases and crockery to her house to keep in safe custody, in case they had to leave the house suddenly.
  • The narrator decided to revisit the house of Mrs Dorling as she felt the urge to see all her mother’s belongings. She wanted to touch them, feel them and remember them.
  • On her second visit to 46, Marconi Street, she could get entry into the house as Mrs Dorling’s 15 year-old daughter opened the door. Her mother was not at home.
  • The girl led her to the living room where, to the narrator’s dismay, things belonging to her mother were arranged in a bad manner.
  • Mrs Dorling’s daughter innocently told the narrator that they were using all the antique plates, crockery and cutlery.
  • The narrator took an impulsive decision to leave everything behind as the precious objects owned by her mother had lost their value. Also, these objects associated with her mother were now in strange surroundings.
  • The narrator decided to forget her past as it brought back bitter memories. Her mother was no more there to revive the pleasant memories.
  • The narrator walked out of Mrs Dorling’s house, deciding that she would never come back to this house to see or take away her family’s possessions as she had no place to keep all of it.

The Address Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
poignant – arousing sadness
evoke – arouse
resolves – decides
chink – narrow opening
fleetingly – for a short time
cardigan – sweater with buttons
musty – stale
bay window – large window sticking out of the wall of a house
jamb – doorpost
struck – occurred to
apparently – evidently
acquaintance – known person
turned up – appeared
antique – a collectable object, old and often valuable
table silver – cutlery (knives, forks and spoons) made of silver
lugging – carrying
crick – strain
reprovingly – with disapproval
beckoned – called
stored stuff – belongings kept in a safe place
confronted – come face to face with
endured – survived
errand – work involving going out of the house
hanukkah – used in the Jewish festival of lights
cumbersome – unmanageable
oppressed – saddened
still life – painting of an arrangement of flowers and/or fruits
fancied – desired.
pewter – tin alloy
jingling – light metallic sound
severed – cut off
shreds – tiny pieces

A Thing of Beauty Summary in English by John Keats

A Thing of Beauty Poem Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. A Thing of Beauty is written by John Keats. has provided A Thing of Beauty questions and answers pdf, extract questions, important questions, short summary of the poem A Thing of Beauty, theme, poetic devices, reference to context, A Thing of Beauty class 12 summary in hindi, figures of speech, critical analysis, poem ka meaning in hindi, poem analysis, line by line explanation, explanation stanza by stanza.

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A Thing of Beauty Poem Summary in English by John Keats

A Thing of Beauty Poem by John Keats About the Poet

John Keats (1795-1821), was one of the most prominent Romantic poets. His poetic works contain an extensive range of poetic forms from sonnet to Spenserian romance to Miltonic epic.

Poet Name John Keats
Born 31 October 1795, Moorgate, City of London, United Kingdom
Died 23 February 1821, Rome, Italy
Poems Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, To Autumn
Movies Arterial
John Keats - a thing of beauty summary in english class 12
John Keats

A Thing of Beauty Poem Theme

A Thing of Beauty’ is an excerpt from John Keat’s poem ‘Endymion: A Poetic Romance’, which is based on a Greek legend. Being a romantic poet, John Keats talks about love, beauty and youth in this poem. In fact, the poem reflects his attitude towards beauty. The poet believes that beauty is intransient and gives us the same pleasure again and again. It provides us with eternal joy and never fades away. Beauty plays a very important role in our life and helps us to remain happy and joyful in this sad, mundane world.

A Thing of Beauty Poem Summary in English

John Keats says that beautiful things make an everlasting impression on our minds. These things give us peace of mind and pleasure. Beautiful things act as a shade under which we can sleep soundly and have sweet dreams. These have the power to bind us to the earth. In spite of a life which is full of disappointments, despondence, sad happenings and tribulations, beautiful things make our life worth living by providing us with hope and enthusiasm.

The poet gives some examples of such beautiful things which give us eternal joy. These are simple things like the sun, the moon, different kinds of trees, etc. According to him, even common things like flock of sheep, daffodils, springs of water, musk roses growing in wild forest are beautiful things, which give us joy and delight. Even the legends of the ‘mighty’ dead are counted as beautiful things, because they have the same effect on the human spirit.

The poet concludes by saying that in spite of these beautiful things, beauty of nature remains incomparable. The beauty of nature is like an endless fountain pouring on us from Heaven. These are the never-diminishing and endless source of pleasure and delight and a precious gift from Heaven.

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Summary Stephen Spender

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum is written by Stephen Spender. has provided short summary of the poem an elementary school classroom in a slum, An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum question answers pdf, theme, an elementary school classroom in a slum poetic devices, an elementary school classroom in a slum summary pdf, an elementary school classroom in a slum class 12 summary in hindi, an elementary school classroom in a slum figures of speech, critical analysis of an elementary school classroom in a slum.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Summary Stephen Spender

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem by Stephen Spender About the Poet

Stephen Spender (28 February 1909 – 16 July 1995) was an English poet, novelist and essayist who concentrated on themes of social injustice and the class struggle in his work. He was appointed the seventeenth Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the United States Library of Congress in 1965.

Poet Name Stephen Spender
Born 28 February 1909, Kensington
Died 16 July 1995, Westminster, London, United Kingdom
Spouse Natasha Spender (m. 1941–1995), Inez Pearn (m. 1936–1939)
Education Gresham’s, University College, University College School Junior Branch, University of Oxford
Nominations Lambda Literary Award for Gay Fiction
Stephen Spender - an elementary school classroom in a slum summary class 12
Stephen Spender

Short An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Theme

‘An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum’ deals with the social injustice and class inequalities and attacks on the capitalistic economies in which the rich are becoming richer and even as more and more problems and miseries mire the lives of the poor. They are devoid of any opportunity and have become prey to social injustice. In this poem, Spender demands equal opportunities for education for the poor and the underprivileged.

An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Poem Summary in English

The poem starts with a detailed description of the pathetic condition of the children who study in a school located in a slum. These children are malnourished and sick. The poet compares them with rootless weeds. It seems as if their physical and mental growth had stopped.

They have no exposure to the real world. These children are unkempt, hungry, weak and emaciated. They are bony and carry the legacy of poverty and diseases. They are living in an environment of utter hopelessness. They are given a glimpse of the outside world through the pictures hanging on their classroom walls. These seem to be totally meaningless to them.

The map on the wall proclaims a world which is vast and limitless but the world of these children is limited to the slum. The pictures of Shakespeare, valleys, buildings, domes, etc. have no meaning for these slum children. All these are out of context for them.

In the last stanza the poet urges the inspectors, visitors and governors to realise their moral responsibility to these children. They must do something to unshackle these children from the bond of poverty and ensure them equal rights and opportunities. They should get good education and become part of the real world where they should be entitled to social equality.

If We Must Die Analysis by Claude McKay | Structure, Literary Devices, Summary and Analysis

If We Must Die Analysis

If We Must Die Analysis: The poet was born in Jamaica on September 15, 1889. Claude McKay travelled to Harlem, New York, after publishing his first books of poetry. He established himself as a literary voice for social justice during the Harlem Renaissance.

He published his next poems in 1917 under the anonym Eli Edwards. More poems appeared in Pearson’s Magazine and the Liberator. The Liberator poems included “If We Must Die,” which became the voice of the oppressed in no time.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

McKay turned to the United States in 1921 and committed himself to various social and political issues prevalent at that time. He operated with the Universal Negro Improvement Association and continued to explore Communism and understand its concept in depth.

McKay’s viewpoints and poetic achievements in the earlier part of the twentieth century set the voice for the Harlem Renaissance’s backdrop and gained the deep respect of younger and rising black poets of that time.

Although he was an atheist initially, he took up Catholicism in the end years of his life, retreating from his ideals of Communism. He became an official American citizen in 1940.

McKay died of a heart attack in Chicago, Illinois, on May 22, 1948.

His work has been an inspiration for the struggle of the black Americans and set the war cry for them.

If We Must Die Analysis Structure

The poem is a Shakespearean sonnet of fourteen lines. The rhyming scheme employed in the poem is of the type ABABCDCDEFEFGG. Each line consists of two beats spread across five sets.

It is made of three four-line sets and an ending couplet. A couplet is a pair of successive lines of metre in poetry that follow a rhyming scheme.

If We Must Die Literary Devices

Enjambment is a speech figure where a line of poetry carries its idea or thought over to the next line without a grammatical pause. The use of enjambment can be seen in the lines, “If we must die, let it not be like hogs/ Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,”.

Alliteration uses repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of words close to each other. Alliteration is featured in the /h/ sound in “hogs,” hunted,” and “hungry.”

Caesura is the employment of metrical pause or breaks in a verse where one phrase ends and another line begins. The use of caesura divides out the poem’s opening phrase—”If we must die”—as particularly important and so prepares the reader for the return of that same phrase in “If we must die, O let us nobly die,”.

A metaphor is used to directly referring to one thing by mentioning another. The phrase “mad and hungry dogs” is an example of the use of a metaphor. It compares the dogs to the torture inflicting white.

A simile is a way of comparing two things directly. It uses words such as “like” and “as”. The phrase “like hogs” features the use of simile.

If We Must Die by Claude McKay

If We Must Die Summary

The poet wrote this poem during the Harlem Renaissance as a voice against the violence done on the blacks. This period was marked by the severe hardships endured by the black people of America.

The poet denounces racial violence and calls the black population to raise their voice against the injustices and inequalities mated to them.

The poem argues that drastic mortal acts of revolution are the only viable option for this oppressed group to claim their freedom back with their heads held high.

The poet puts forward the idea that they will not die without putting up a strong fight. They will not be weak and take death heads on like noblemen.

If We Must Die Detailed Analysis

Lines 1-4

“If we must die, let it not be like hogs

Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot,

While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs,

Making their mock at our accursèd lot.”

The poem starts with the idea that if the oppressed black people have to die, they should not die like “hogs”. They should fight for their cause and not give in to the brutality executed on them.

Hogs or pigs have the most unfateful death since they are slaughtered mercilessly for their meat.

He further urges his community to be rebellious. He mentions that he does not wish to be mocked.

The mention of the dogs brings forward the stark difference between a hunter and a hunted. Dogs fight till their last breath and never give up. They mock their prey and know that they are easy to kill.

Similarly, the poet highlights that his race should strive for their cause and not be mocked by the ones ready to prey on them.

Lines 5-8

“If we must die, O let us nobly die,

So that our precious blood may not be shed

In vain; then even the monsters we defy

Shall be constrained to honor us though dead!”

These lines reiterate the message of dying with honour. The poet embarks on the idea that their blood should not be lost. They will fight for their freedom and give their lives if they need to.

They should strive towards freedom with strong determination. Even the oppressors should feel a sense of respect towards their zeal and honour them.

They should not shed even a single drop of their blood meaninglessly, and their resolution should be powerful enough to be acknowledged even by their oppressors. Their bravery should set a milestone.

Their voice and struggle should be looked up to and be the benchmark for future generations.

By referring to the oppressors as “monsters”, he depicts the severity of the torture inflicted upon them. The white population was vicious towards black Americans.

Although this period witnessed a change towards the treatment of black Americans, it was only limited in the books. The reality was far from the change and was completely different.

Lines 9-14

“O kinsmen! we must meet the common foe!

Though far outnumbered let us show us brave,

And for their thousand blows deal one death-blow!

What though before us lies the open grave?

Like men, we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack,

Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!”

The poet calls the people of his community to face the oppressors with might and conviction. Although they are more in number than the poet’s community, they should not submit to them but put up a strong fight.

He encourages them to take up the situation heads on and not be afraid. He says that if they have to die, they should die with a purpose and not get doomed in the ruins of time.

He wants his people to unite and fight together. He calls the white population a “murderous, cowardly pack” and highlights that they are inevitable and can be defeated.

The phrase “open grave” characterises the fact that the end of the struggle is inevitable death. The poet knows about the futility of the course of their struggle. He knows that the end will be met by death.

Although there is death stored for them, it should not deter them from persisting till the end.

Poems About Horse | List of 10 Best Poems About Horse

Poems About Horse: The poets portray the simple components of nature in a way that gives a new perspective to the reader. Horses have their significance in human lives in many ways for ages, and the poets, through their pen, express their love for the creatures. Here in this article, we will get to know about ten such poems about horse riding which are loved by many readers around the world.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Horse and Men in Rain by Carl Sandburg

‘Horse and Men in Rain’ by Carl Sandburg was written in 1918. The poem focuses on storytelling as the main plot of the poem. The poem tells the story of the underprivileged people of the society, such as the ‘mail carriers’ and ‘milk wagon drivers’ through images that illustrate their daily lives.

In this poem, the poet compares the misery of the lives of these people with the speaker and the listener. This three-stanza poem is not bounded by a rhyme scheme, yet it expresses the poet’s vision in beautiful images which the reader can easily imagine or visualize.

Boot and Saddle by Robert Browning

‘Boot and Saddle’ by Robert Browning is the third part of the ‘Cavalier Tunes’. In this poem, the speaker is a supporter of Charles of England, and Oliver Cromwell, Charles’s enemy, has devised a plan to attack the castle.

The speaker rides on his horse to rescue the Brancepeth Castle but, in the end, addresses that surrendering to the enemy is not an option and urges to fight.

The poem is a perfectly rhymed one and follows the AAAA rhyme scheme, and hence it has been turned into a song as the musical texture already exists in the poem.

The White Horse by D.H. Lawrence

D.H. Lawrence’s ‘The White Horse’ is a short yet influential poem with a single stanza consisting of three lines. The poem’s plot is based on a white horse and a youth and how both of them exist in their own worlds, respectively.

This poem does not follow a rhyming pattern and consists of minute details, making the reader read between the lines. The final line of the poem leaves the reader to interpret what the phrases’ so silent’ and ‘in another world’ depict.

Poems About Horse

The Undertaker’s Horse by Rudyard Kipling

‘The Undertaker’s Horse’ was written in 1885 by Rudyard Kipling in the early stages of his career, but it reflects that Rudyard Kipling was thinking about his demise when he was young.

The poem tells the story of a horse of an undertaker who carries corpses to their resting place for burial. The poet wonders about his death and whether, in his last ride to his grave, the same horse will accompany him or he will live longer than the horse.

This is an eight-stanza poem consisting of six lines in each stanza and uses lexical repetitions such as him, your, I; to highlight a significant image.

The Highwayman by Alfred Noyes

‘The Highwayman’ is a romantic narrative poem written by Alfred Noyes and was first published in Blackwood’s Magazine in 1906.

The poem is based on the life of an unknown highwayman who falls in love with Bess, an innkeeper’s daughter. Due to circumstances, the highwayman and Bess both fail to give their love a destination when alive, but in the end, they meet again as ghosts on a winter night.

The poem uses literary devices to depict the deep love that the central characters of the poem nurture. Some of the tools used are symbolism, repetition, metaphors, assonance and others.

The Old Horse in the City by Vachel Lindsay

‘The Old Horse in the City’, written by Vachel Lindsay, is a short three-stanza poem about an old horse who is tortured and ill-treated by his masters and how he wishes to escape.

The narrator of the poem is the aged horse, and he dreams of being free someday. The horse is hopeful and believes that he can ‘break the halter-rope’ and ‘smash the stable-door’ to escape from the misery he is living in.

The poet makes sufficient uses of metaphors along with other poetic tools, which makes the reader think of the significance of the situation, and the reader gets hooked on the poem.

At Grass by Philip Larkin

‘At Grass’ was written by Philip Larkin and published in the year 1955. The poem explores contrasting themes such as life and death, past and present.

This poem is divided into five stanzas, where each stanza consists of six lines. This poem is classified as a ‘lyric poem’ with a formal verse and follows an ABCABC rhyme scheme.

The poem revolves around the racehorses that once were the centre of attraction and received infinite appreciations and applauses. After they retired, they spend the rest of their lives grazing in the field as they are now forgotten as strength, beauty, wealth – nothing is eternal.

10 Poems About Horse

The Horse Poisoner by Thomas Lux

Thomas Lux’s ‘The Horse Poisoner’ is a poem about untimely and strange serial deaths of horses in the farms of a specific areaand the investigation followed by the incidents.

This poem’s structure consists of a single stanza comprising of twenty-seven lines without following a particular rhyming scheme. This narrative poem explains the incidents happening around the speaker from his perspective and how he thinks something mysterious is happening to the horses.

One of the most important poetic devices used in this poem is imagery, as while reading the poem, the reader can not only visualize the situation but also sense the mystery around that place.

Why Some Girls Love Horses by Paisley Rekdal

‘Why Some Girls Love Horses’ was written by Paisley Rekdal. This poem is a ‘coming of age’ story, where the speaker of the poem is a woman in her adulthood, and the poem talks about her journey from a young girl to a grown-up woman.

The poet beautifully uses the poetic device of symbolism, where the speaker’s horse named Dandy is presented as a symbol in the poem. The symbol tells about the importance of freedom in one’s life and how it helps to grow the person from within.

On the Horse and His Rider by John Bunyan

‘On the Horse and His Rider’ by John Bunyan is a poem about a horse and his rider and their relationship. The poem consists of two stanzas, and the poet uses a unique way of dividing the same, which is by using ‘Comparison.’ as a divider between them.

The poem emphasizes the relationship between the animal and the human, and the speaker says that the rider should know his ride and learn about the signals to ride them. Similarly, the horse should know about his companion, which is the rider and hence a healthy relationship gets developed between the horse and his ‘guider’.

Define Lyric Poems | Origin, History, Types, Classification, Examples and Other Names

Define Lyric Poems

Define The Word Lyric Poems: When the poets write any poem which is emotional and rhyming, it is called a lyric poem. Such types of poems are known to explore strong emotions, especially romantic feelings.

How To Write A Lyric Poem?

A lyric poem is a short version of a poem, which has almost songlike e features. The root word of a lyric is a lyre, which is of Greek origin and means “singing to the lyre.” The pronunciation of lyric is done as leeyr-rick. Any lyric poem is easily identified by its musical nature.

Short and high musical verses characterize a lyric poem. They can convey extremely powerful meanings. In a lyrical poem, the poets make use of literary devices like rhyme or meter. These literary devices create a songlike quality within the poem.

The feelings or emotions conveyed through the poem are most likely to be related to the poet himself’s feelings. It is one of the most common poetic forms that are still found today. The most common takeaways of lyric poems are that they convey the speaker’s emotions and are musical.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

The Origin And History Of Lyricism

The origin of lyricism in poems can be traced to Greek culture. In Greece, it was most often found that lyric poetry was combined with music and was played on lyre. A lyre is a string instrument with a U shape. The works of Sappho (610 to 570 BC) have shown lyricism most often.

In ancient Greece, there was a specific meaning ascribed to lyric poetry. The technical meaning of it was a verse often accompanied by a lyre, barbitos, or cithara.

Similar traits of lyricism were found in other parts of the world too. It was between the fourth century BC and the first century AD that lyricism came to view through the Hebrew poets’ works. These poets composed lyrical psalms, which the people sang in an ancient Jewish style.

During the eighth century, through haiku and various other forms, the Japanese poets expressed their ideals. They often expressed their emotions through lyrical poems too. Among the more famous Chinese writers, Li Po (710 to 762 AD) depicted aspects of lyricism in his work.

There was a shift from their regular epic narratives about gods and war heroes in the western world. This gave rise to lyric poetry in their domain, and in the western world, lyric poetry came with a personal tone and appeal. The poets of Europe drew their inspiration from Greece and also from Egypt or Asia.

Lyric Poetry Types

The most common categories that poetry is put into are three: Narrative, Lyric, and lastly, Dramatic. Lyric poetry is, however, the most common. It is extremely difficult to classify it, yet there is a wide range of approaches to it.

It is difficult to be classified as nearly anything, from war to love, from art to patriotism, that can be easily explored in a personal and emotional tone. Thus there are many approaches to it.

There is also no prescribed form of lyrical poetry. Some sonnets can be considered lyrical poetry, and there are also rondeaus to villanelles that are considered lyrical poetry.

Lyric Poem Classification

Many times scholars tend to categorize lyrical poetry into Lyric of Thought, Lyric of Emotion, and Lyric of Vision. But, this type of categorization is not agreed upon by many scholars.

There can be didactic poems in the Lyric of Thought type, which are usually directed at teaching. It also includes intellectual poems, like satire.

In the Lyric of Vision type, there are visual poetries like May Swenson’s “Women.” There are line arrangements and a zigzag pattern in the poem, which makes it visual. Some other poets have used colors or 3D shapes and even unusual topography for satisfying Lyric of Vision.

In the Lyric of Emotion type, some poems depict emotions and sensations. The works are usually associated with the personification of sentiments and expression of human emotions.

What Is The Reason Behind Writing It?

Lyrical poetry depicts a wide range of things, including emotions, admissions, and even confessions. They have a flowery and flowy language and are simple yet deep at the same time.

So, the simplest reason that poets resort to lyrical poems is that they can easily express their feelings and emotions through them. The audience relates to such poems easily, and it is an effortless way of understanding the nature around us.

Lyric Poems

Examples Of Lyricism In Famous Poems

Example 1: “The Wold Is Too Much With Us” by William Wordsworth

William Wordsworth (1770 to 1850) is a famous name among the English poets. It was the notion of Wordsworth that poetry is a powerful flow of feelings.

“The world is too much with us; late and soon,

Getting and spending, we lay waste our powers; —

Little we see in Nature that is ours;

We have given our hearts away, a sordid boon!”

In his poem “The World Is Too Much With Us,” he has clearly expressed his passion, which is clearly illustrated in a few statements like “a sordid boon!”. Wordsworth has condemned materialism and alienation from nature in his poem.

Although the poem depicts the essence of spontaneity, it was also carefully nurtured. In this poem, the poet has clearly expressed his outrage about the Industrial Revolution’s effects on the then economy.

Example 2: “Praise Song for the Day” by Elizabeth Alexander

The poem “Praise Song for the Day” was written by Elizabeth Alexander, a famous American poet. She wrote the poem to be read at President Barack Obama’s inauguration, the first-ever black president.

“Say it plain: that many have died for this day.

Sing the names of the dead who brought us here,

who laid the train tracks, raised the bridges,

picked the cotton and the lettuce, built

brick by brick, the glittering edifices

they would then keep clean and work inside of.

Praise song for struggle, praise song for the day.

Praise song for every hand-lettered sign,

the figuring-it-out at kitchen tables.”

Through the poem, Alexander paid tribute to the African culture that lay in the US and urged the people belonging to various races to live in peace. Although the poem does not rhyme, its rhythmic repetition of phrases creates a beautiful musical effect.

The poem serves two traditions. One, it is an occasional poem, which was written for a specific purpose, and two, it is a song for praising someone. It depicts the essence of praise for the American president. Occasional poems are quite similar to ode, as they depict passionate expressions of praise.

Example 3: “Do not go gentle into that good night” by Dylan Thomas

Dylan Thomas (1914 to 1953) has depicted lyricism through his poem “Do not go gentle into that good night.” He has used a number of literary devices in the poem.

“Do not go gentle into that good night,

Old age should burn and rave at the close of day;

Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,

Because their words had forked no lightning they

Do not go gentle into that good night.”

This poem depicts a son’s plea to his father, who is dying. He wants to explain to his father that death is the ultimate end for all. Nevertheless, they do not give up. They constantly fight for their life. The entire poem seems to be based on the line “Old age should burn and rave at close of day.”

The literary devices like alliteration and repetition of a specific line are continuously done throughout the poem. The rhyme scheme of the poem is simple and consistent, going on at ABC ABC. These features show the characteristic of lyricism throughout the poem.

Example 4: “Dying” penned by Emily Dickinson

Most of the poems by Emily Dickinson (1830 to 1886) depict the essence of lyricism.

“I heard a fly buzz when I died;

The stillness round my form

Was like the stillness in the air

Between the heaves of storm.

The eyes beside had wrung them dry,

And breaths were gathering sure

For that last onset, when the king

Be witnessed in his power.”

The poem “Dying” depicts in the way of its simple rhyme scheme, ABCB. There is also the use of Iambic meter, which is yet another feature of a lyric poem. The poet here speaks about her observations when someone is about to die.

Her poem is hypothetical in nature and expresses her sentiments about death. The poet expresses her detachment from the affairs of the world.

Some Other Popular Lyric Poems

  • “Whose List to Hunt” written by Sir Thomas Wyatt
  • “Upon Julia’s Clothes,” written by Robert Herrick
  • “The Heart Asks Pleasure First” penned by Emily Dickinson
  • “A Quoi bon Dire” by Charlotte Mew
  • “Lines Written a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey” penned by William Wordsworth.

Other Names Of Lyricism

There are other terms that often come to describe lyric poems. Some common terms that people might come across are:

  • Musical
  • Emotional
  • Melodious
  • Melody
  • Expression

Stopping By The Woods On A Snowy Evening By Robert Frost | Stanzas, Summary, Analysis, Themes, Literary Devices

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis Line by Line: Stopping by the woods on a snowy evening, a poem written by Robert frost in 1922 was published in New Hampshire in 1923. The set up of the poetry is that of a winter evening that experiences a solitary traveller’s dilemma, who, being in solitude and amidst nature, is enchanted by the charm and beauty of the same.

However, he is constantly distracted by the thought of his duty in the world that breaths its heavy breath on his shoulder and pulls him away from the woods, breaking its charm. Being raised around nature, this poem by Robert Frost is often said to have autobiographical elements.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Summary of Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

The narrator of the poem has set out for completing his daily chores, and on his way to his pre-decided destination, his path crosses with a silent, desolate and snow-clad wood.

The poem begins with the narrator contemplating the woods’ owner and settling with him being somebody he knows, whose house is in the village. Then, he says that it won’t be practically feasible for the woods owner to see him stop by, to experience his woods, in such a snowy evening.

He was there to behold the woods get wrapped by the layers of snow. According to the narrator, it was the darkest evening of the season, and his horse was baffled to find his owner stop mid-way to their destination, with no farmhouse nearby, in an odd juncture between the frozen lake and the woods. The woods were very silent and calm. The very little sounds that were occurring were reaching the narrator clearly.

There were only the ring of bells from his horse’s harness, as it was trying to wake up its owner from the trance and ask if he was making some mistake by behaving the way that he was, apart from this, the only sound was that of the flowing wind and the raining snow.

The narrator praises the features of the woods, calls them by appealing adjectives and finally conjectures that he has to leave them, as he has made promises that he needs to fulfil and reiterate in the concluding couplets that he has to traverse a long path and complete many tasks before he sleeps his final sleep.

Summary Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Meaning of The Poem Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

There are an array of underlying connotations and meanings that we can extract out of the poem. This poem portrays the inevitability of human life’s duties and responsibilities and the circuit of events that are placed as concentric layers, one after the other.

Opposed to this, the poet shows how calm, serene and pacific nature is. The poet also highlights a predominant fact in the poem: how humankind is a doit before nature’s power. Through the narrator’s character, the poet displays how some of the most sensitive souls often get enthralled and enchanted by the immense and ethereal beauty of nature and surrenders to its peace.

By employing several metaphors, the poet delineates how even one’s personal conscience, accompanied by the consistent call of duty and responsibility, is responsible for separating humans from the peace and calm of nature. One such metaphor is the horse, and the horse is the symbol of duty and realty that rings the bell to wake up the narrator. There are several embedded references to the journey of life –

“And miles to go before I sleep

And miles to go before I sleep”

Here, miles of the journey of life is indicated, terminating at the final ‘sleep’. The poem begins at a point in time that falls in between a journey of the narrator – this journey is actually that of life. It is the celebration of peace in nature against the hullabaloo of human life.

Thereby, it talks about how the exhausted human souls pine for obliterating the thought of reality and merging with the solace that nature provides them. The narration, which tells how the narrator had stopped in between his course of work to observe snowing in the woods, hint that nature and its agents act as agents that intervene in the humans’ monotonous daily, provides some respite and disappears suddenly. In contrast, humans have to continue their cycle of life.

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Poem Speaker

The speaker of the poem is a traveller who is drawn by the woods covered in winter snow and is shown to be occupied by conflicting thoughts of choosing to stay back in the lap of nature or go ahead with his pre-conceived obligations.

The poet does not give any name to the speaker of the poem, and this shows that he is trying to talk about the common man, and this poem can thereby, be treated as a microcosm of the wider world, and the speaker, the representative of the many other common men facing similar issues.

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis Symbols

There is many symbols or insignias employed by the poet in the course of the poem. ‘sleep’ over here is a symbol of death or eternal sleep, the horse here stands for human conscience and the reality, and the bell that it rings is the grim bite of reality that obstructs the trance of the narrator. The woods over here stands as the massive entity of nature, and the journey of the traveller refers to the journey of life.

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis Structure and Form

The poem is written in the Iambic tetrameter and abides by a regular flow in the rhyming characteristic of the form called the Rubaiyat stanza. The whole poem follows the AABA rhyme scheme.

Literary Devices Used in Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis

Some of the literary devices employed by the poet in the poem are,

Metaphor: The poet has used several metaphors along the length of the poem. ‘Sleep’ signifying death or eternal sleep or the final sleep, the journey of the traveller indicates towards the journey of life, the event of the horse’s movements causing the bells to rings and eventually the narrator’s calm to disrupt signifies the knock of reality on the door of conscience.

Imagery: The poet has crafted a synesthetic experience for the readers and aroused all the senses of threaders equally in the poem’s experience. The ‘easy wind’ touching the skin, the ringing of bells reaching the ears, the sight of the beautiful woods before the eyes and the smell of nature, all these agents have cumulatively worked to cause the effect. The poet has also illustrated the woods’ image and its calm very delicately so that the readers can see it all and sense it all intimately.

Personification: The horse over here has been personified and ascribed with humane traits. The woods, too, has been given a spirit of their own that also gives it the power to attract distressed travellers and distract them from the course of their lives.

Alliteration: The ‘sound’s the sleep’ is the usage of alliteration in the piece.

Euphony: The poet has studded some elements in the poem that causes auditory pleasure to the readers. The ease of the wind, the ‘downy flakes’ and the ring of bells are some of the examples that set the auditory sensations to act.

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Themes

Some of the subdivisions of the many themes of the poem are,

Nature against Humans: The poem displays how nature is the superpower, and humans’ power stands at no place before that. Eventually, the humans subjugate to nature after being drained by their own constructs.

Personal Yearnings Against Social Responsibility: The narrator’s experience as narrated through the poem clearly elaborates how humans are compelled to let go of their individual to fit the social. The traveller’s internal want was to remain within the lap of nature. However, the socially ascribes responsibilities drove him away from him a recluse.

Indecisiveness, Doubt, Settlement And Decision: Since the poem’s commencement, we see how the speaker suffers from indecision about following his heart’s desire and abiding by his mind’s dictates. However, we also see how he settles with one end of the spectrum and makes a decision.

Significance of the Poem Title

“Stopping by woods in a snowy Evening” – the title encapsulates the entire journey that the poem offers for the readers. The poem is about a traveller who stops by the woods on a sudden evening when the woods were wrapped in snow.

Meaning of The Poem Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis, Stanza by Stanza

“Whose woods these are I think

I know.

His house is in the village


He will not see me stopping


To watch his woods fill up with


In stanza 1 of the poem, we are introduced to the traveller, who has stopped by random woods while on the way to his destination. He observed the woods and declared that although he is familiar with the owner of the woods, the owner will not be able to know that he had stopped by his woods to see the snow cover it- This declaration implies that he does not want anybody to know this because humans are not allowed to get distracted and digress from their singular tone of life. Therefore, he intends to see the woods fill up with snow, hiding from the rest of the world as well as his duties.

Stanza 2

“My little horse must think it


To stop without a farmhouse


Between the woods and frozen


The darkest evening of the


In stanza 2, the narrator elucidates how his act of stopping in front of the woods has looked ‘queer’ to his horse because that is always only used to stop in front of farmhouses for business. However, this time, the narrator has broken the usual rule and stopped mid-way, in the way between the lake frozen in winter, and the woods. This implies that he recognizes the abnormality in his action – something that will be looked at with eyes of awe by not only his fellow harbingers of humanity but also his little horse.

“He gives his harness bells a


To ask if there is some


The only other sound’s the


Of easy wind and downy flakes”

Stanza 3

In stanza 3, the narrator describes the serenity of the woods, where there is practically no sound, apart from the easy flowing wind and the snow that is streaming down – this environment of the woods crafted by the poet creates the essence of the woods as relaxed, soft and calm. Opposed to this, the horse, which is symbolic of reality and duty, is characterized by restlessness, as it rings the bell of its harness, calling the narrator back to consciousness and disturbing the peace of nature.

“The woods are lovely, dark and


But I have promises to keep

And miles to go before I sleep

And miles to go before I sleep”

Stanza 4

In stanza 4, the narrator delineates the beauty of the woods with adjectives like ‘lovely’. He also calls the dark of the woods intensified by the darkest evening of the season. However, at the concluding lines of the poem, the narrator reaches a decision, where he recognizes that he has made promises earlier that must be kept.

Therefore, he has miles to travel, fulfilling the many promises before he ‘sleep’ or breath his last with the termination of life and all obligations or death.

Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis Historical Context

In 1923, when the piece was published, society saw a certain trend in society’s growth and evolution. Individuals were allowed the liberty to think their way, express their way and not subscribe to the pre-set traditions.

The ideologies of intellectuals, philosophers, and social activists such as Marx, Freud etcetera, did not remain restricted to just the elite class and erudite, but percolated to society’s various layers and were discussed everywhere.

Every sector of society followed this trend in society, so did the sector of literature. Several composers started several forms and revolutions of their own challenging traditionalism in writing and thinking in literature.

This trend of thoughts that arose after world war one was born out of the sense of alienation that the war had caused to the people, which gave them a wider and split view of human existence. These triggered a sense of distance between the people affected by war and the traditions that bound them to their society all the while.

This caused them to easefully sever all ties with the bound of tradition and liberate their individual ideas about the thing – this eventually gave birth to new philosophies that they expressed in their selective, personal ways. These humans who had abjected society and the human manifestations, ceded to nature, and enjoyed its company and introspected its ways – this led to the birth of multiple pieces of literature.

Another kind of alienation came from the industrialization, and the poets, thinkers and composers who came up from regions of agriculture and nature were pushed towards industrialized city life, something that they could not adjust – this often led them to retrospect the good times that they had spent in the lap of nature.

Personal Commentary

The poem is a voice for the many others who are victims of similar sorts of events. The traveller is a prototype of multiple others like him. All them, who are compelled to be a slave of industrialism and capitalism and are driven by the societal coercions of reaching the destination, often yearn for the glorious past that they had spent.

However, they cannot express their innate desire out in the open before the society because they will be criticized by the society and considered abnormal – much like the traveller in the poem, who wants to enjoy the mirth and calm from the woods in secrecy, hidden from any human eye, and the horse – an instrument of human domination finds this behaviour ‘queer’ much like his fellow humans.

Similar Poetry’s of Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening Analysis

Some other poems that hold similar essence as stopping by the woods are :

I Wander’d Lonely as a Cloud by William Wordsworth:

This poem, composed by William Wordsworth upon his developed theory of emotions recollected in tranquillity, tells about another traveller who comes across a bunch of ‘golden daffodils’ and is enthralled by the beauty of those, which are swaying to the tune of the wind, are dancing and making mirth as a bunch.

The daffodils were sprinkled all over the land and looked as if they stretched till endless land limits. The narrator of this poem says that he will remember the daffodils’ beauty every time he feels ‘vacant’ and ‘pensive’. Therefore, in this poem, too, we see how nature has provided respite to tired souls, charmed them with its beauty and instilled energy and will in them that has motivated them to continue in life.

Nutting by William Wordsworth:

“I came to one dear nook

Unvisited, where not a broken bough

Drooped with its withered leaves, ungracious


Of devastation; but the hazels rose

Tall and erect, with tempting clusters hung,

A virgin scene!- A little while I stood ,

Breathing with such suppression of the heart

As joy delights in; and, with wise restraint

Voluptuous, fearless of a rival, eyed

The banquet”

Over here, the poet describes the beauty of virgin nature and how even a little boy who has seen very little of beauty is encaptivated by the grace and natural beauty and fins peace amongst nature.

However, the poem ends with a description of how human’s nature is to destroy and mutilate virgin nature. Despite that, the little kid is shown guilty of his act and is shown repenting for his own actions. This kid is typically the sort of people who grow up around nature.

Ode to a Nightingale – John Keats

“What thou among the leaves hast never


The weariness, the fever, and the fret

Here, where men sit and hear each other


Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs,

Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies”

Over here, the poet talks about the ills of human flesh and the difficulties of human life and pitches it against the lives of the nightingale. The poet uses the nightingale as an agent of nature, who lives in the utopian world that is devoid of the problems of the human world, and the poet wants to fly away to their world of permanence and perfection, leaving behind the cage of skin as well as the problems of human life. Here too, we see how the narrator acquires respite from the song of the nightingale, which is an agent of nature itself.

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver | Summary, Analysis, Poetic Techniques and Structure

Wild Geese Mary Oliver

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver Meaning: Mary Oliver was an American poet who was born in 1935. She was an inspiring poet who won the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize. She was honoured with the title of Country’s Best-Selling Poet in 2007. She is popular for her unique style of writing inspired by the natural wonders of the world. Her style is very straightforward.

Wild Geese was a poem published in 1986 in her seventh collection of poems called Dream Work. She has written numerous other poems. Her poems are known to be a love for nature as it urges readers to accept the beauty of nature and enjoy its wonders.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Wild Geese shows the characteristic interest of the poet in the co-existence of nature and humans. Other famous works where she explores nature and its relationship with humanity include “Poppies”, “Morning Poems”, “Sleeping in the Forest”, and “The Black Walnut Tree”.

Summary of Wild Geese

The speaker tells the readers to stop aspiring for perfection. She instead wants the readers to look around the beauty of the world and realize that no matter how deceived you feel about yourself, the wonders of nature will never cease to amaze humanity. Thus, do not necessarily crave perfection, but be yourself.

The speaker preaches that you(reader) do not have to walk on your knees for a hundred miles and repent your sins. You need to be easy and kind to yourself and let your soul love what it wants. The speaker asks the reader to tell about your despairs and sadness; in turn, the speaker will tell you her own.

While you share your sorrows with the speaker, you must realize that however lonely you are, the world and nature are playing their strings of the instrument, doing harmonious wonders. She says that the sun and the crystal rain are moving across the landscapes of the prairies, deep forests, mountains and rivers.

Meanwhile, the wild geese are heading home, announcing your place in the family of this world. The central theme of this poem is motivation. The poet wants to motivate a dried soul so that it blooms the way nature blooms.

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver Structure

The poem is written in one stanza, comprising of eighteen lines. The style is free verse, and no significant use of rhyming words are found. The poem is simple in narration without any complicated use of words or expressions.

We can see one simile in the last lines of the poem- like the wild geese. The poet uses subtle half-rhymes to make the reading smooth. The words such as prairies and deep trees, exciting and things, etc., are carefully used to make the reading smooth and straightforward.

These structural methods used in the poem make it a soulful read.

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver Poetic Techniques

The poetic techniques involved in the poem are repetition, alliteration, half-rhymes, anaphora and enjambment. These are the standard techniques that are used by poets to highlight the aesthetic of a poem.

Repetition technique is the simple repetition of words or a cluster of words in different consecutive lines. The explicit use of repetition can be noticed in the first two lines, where Oliver uses “you do not have to” repeatedly. The significance of this poetic technique in this poem is “assurance”. The speaker wants the reader to believe that you really don’t have to make yourself suffer.

Alliteration is the repetition of words beginning from the same letter. A poet can use this technique for two or multiple words to make the tone rhythmic. In Wild Geese, the poet uses alliteration in two instances. In the eleventh and twelfth lines, we notice mountains and meanwhile to be alliterations. Following this high and heading home is another use of alliteration.

Half rhymes are another poetic technique that is used to give a subtle rhythm to the poem. The poet uses this technique in several lines with the words rains and prairies, exciting and things.

Anaphora or repetition is somewhat similar. The difference between the two is that the technique repetition means repetition of any word. Anaphora is the repetition of a word or a cluster of words at the beginning of lines. Such as “you do not have to” and “meanwhile” in the poem is an excellent example of anaphora.

Enjambment is the quick transition of incomplete sentences. The poetic technique does not give the reader time to register one line and quickly jumps to another. This technique is a primary contributor to the thrill in a poem. We can witness the use of enjambment in lines eight, nine, sixteen and seventeen.

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver Summary

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver Breakdown Analysis

Line 1-3

You do not have to be good.

You do not have to walk on your knees

for a hundred miles through the desert repenting.

The first three lines of the poem tell the reader to not strive towards retention. The poet says you do not have to be good or best. You do not have to give yourself pain and walk on your knees for a hundred miles in a desert because some source demands you to repent. The poet wants the reader to be carefree and liberated of the notion of perfection.

Line 4-5

You only have to let the soft animal of your body

love what it loves.

The poet, through these lines, preaches to the reader that you have to let your soul love what it wants to love. The poet wishes the reader to be unapologetic and fearless in loving what he/she wants to love. The poet means that you don’t have to strive towards perfection but love what you want to love.

Line 6-11

Tell me about despair, yours, and I will tell you mine.

Meanwhile, the world goes on.

Meanwhile, the sun and the clear pebbles of the rain

are moving across the landscapes,

over the prairies and the deep trees,

the mountains and the rivers.

The poet wants you to speak about your sorrows to her, and she will talk hers to you. The poet urges you to realize that the world is going on with its beauty while you are speaking your despairs. The world is making every arrangement to make things fall into place. While you talk, the sun and the pebbles of the rain are moving across the beautiful landscapes.

The sun and raindrops are moving over the prairies and the deep forests, the mountains and the rivers. The world is moving on with time.

Line 12-13

Meanwhile the wild geese, high in the clean blue air,

are heading home again.

While the reader converses his/her despairs to the poet, the landscapes are changing, and the wild geese are returning back home after having a day. The poet uses the reference of a wild bird who is going back home, indicating that winter is gone. It’s the season of autumn and happiness.

The poet wants the reader to feel happy and assured that all your despairs would be gone one day. Nothing lasts long.

Line 14-18

Whoever you are, no matter how lonely,

the world offers itself to your imagination,

calls to you like the wild geese, harsh and exciting –

over and over announcing your place

in the family of things.

The poet says that it doesn’t matter who you are, where you come from or what you do and how lonely are you; the world offers its wonders to you in the most unexpected and exciting ways. The world calls to you loudly like a wild goose, over and over again. The world lets you know your place in the family no matter who and how you are.

Thus, through this poem, the poet wants the readers to know that pain and despair are temporary. You, the reader, do not have to punish yourself for your pain and troubles. You must let yourself grief as long as you want to. As you grieve, the world moves on and creates its special beauty for you in the form of nature.

In the end, everything will fall into place, and you will see the beauty of this world through its blooming clouds, trees, mountains and birds.

Wild Geese by Mary Oliver Historical Context

No significant historical context can be seen in this poem. The poem is a philosophical and free verse text that reminds readers of how beautiful the world is.

However, the poem was reproduced in 2004 when America had just suffered from the rages of war and violence. As Mary Oliver was born in 1935, she was a witness to the environmentalist revolution when people started to realize that nature is essential to exist. Instead, human beings and nature must co-exist to maintain harmony and balance.

This era of accepting nature as an essential part of survival is considered to be the inspiration for Oliver’s literary pieces. Most of Oliver’s poems are rich with references to the natural elements of this world and its beauty. Through her poetry, she inspires and urges humanity to experience nature as much as they can, for it is the only truth that delivers peace,

Cinderella by Anne Sexton | Summary, Analysis, Stanzas and Meaning

Anne Sexton Cinderella Analysis

Anne Sexton Cinderella Analysis: The poem “Cinderella”, authored by Anne Sexton, is a retelling of the classic fairy tale. Anne Sexton’s fifth book of poems, Transformations, consists entirely of all repurposed children’s tales.

Mostly known for her first-person confessional style (she’s often compared to Sylvia Plath), Sexton’s “Cinderella” might seem totally different in subject matter from a lot of her other work.

However, it still has a close, talkative style and darkness of theme that is the hallmark of Sexton’s work. “Cinderella” is a retelling of the fairy tale’s Grimms’ version—not Disney’s.

Even though this poem is somewhat different from the work for which the poet is best known, careful readers can still find the dark, emotional, and feminist elements which make Sexton one of the best poets of the 20th century.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Anne Sexton Cinderella Summary

The poem “Cinderella” begins with a series of small “example” stories about lucky people who go from being in unfortunate circumstances to becoming very wealthy through some instance of luck, by winning the sweepstakes, or collecting on insurance, or becoming the love object of royalty.

From there, the poet moves on to the actual story of Cinderella. The story revolves around the Grimms’ version of the tale. After her mother’s death, Cinderella is relegated to being a housemaid by her evil stepmother and stepsisters.

Her father lavishes his stepdaughters with beautiful gifts, whereas he brings Cinderella only a twig. Cinderella places the twig on her mother’s grave, and it grows into a magical tree on which a magical dove sits. Anytime Cinderella wants something, she only asks for it, and the dove throws it down to her.

In Sexton’s version of the tale, as in the Grimms’, the famous Prince’s ball is a three-day-long event, and Cinderella gets dresses and shoes from the dove for all three event nights.

On the final night of the event, the Prince gets tired of not knowing where his beloved has gone and covers his palace’s steps with wax. As she’s running off the ball on the last night, Cinderella’s shoe gets stuck, leaving the Prince with his important piece of evidence.

In trying to find the woman who will fit into the shoe, the Prince (as portrayed in the Disney version) comes to Cinderella’s house. The stepsisters attempt to get their feet into the shoe. Contrary to the Disney version, in the Grimm or Sexton version, each sister cuts off a part of Cinderella’s foot to fit it into the shoe.

The blood that pours out of the shoe gives her away. Cinderella, in the end, tries on the shoe, it fits without any bloodletting, and she gets married to the Prince. At the wedding ceremony, the dove pecks out the stepsisters’ eyes. The Prince and Cinderella then live happily ever after, as portrayed in the poem.

Anne Sexton Cinderella Analysis Themes

Anne Sexton Cinderella Themes

Women and Femininity 

Anne Sexton Cinderella Feminist, The narrator of the poem “Cinderella” has an extremely dim view of certain tendencies of women. Between the nursemaid who uses her looks to get ahead, Cinderella uses the white dove to marry the prince.

The stepsisters’ gruesome acts of self-mutilation—all done to get a husband—the narrator paints a super-cynical view of femininity and womanhood.

Anne Sexton, like Sylvia Plath, had tortured relationships with gender, gender roles, and the place of women in society, so this theme crops up not only in “Cinderella,” but in a ton of Sexton’s work.

Women are showcased as foolish, superficial, and single-minded in this poem. The way the narrator snidely makes fun of the women in “Cinderella” shows us that she doesn’t think women should be like this.


The entire poem of “Cinderella” pivots on the idea of wealth. Also, women’s pursuit of wealth is the main thematic element of the literary piece. The example “Cinderella stories” all involve cold, hard, and Cinderella get to the ball by way of having beautiful, presumably pricey clothing, even though she manages to get it magically and for free.

When the stepsisters are given riches and jewels, Cinderella gets a twig, signifying that her life is miserable. Getting married to the prince is of utmost importance to everyoneand not, according to the poem, because the prince is handsome.

Being married to a prince has almost always been associated with having all kinds of dollar, dollar bills — not necessarily being married to someone you actually love. So throughout “Cinderella,” the theme of wealth is used to illustrate how incredibly superficial people can be and the crazy things that money propels some people to do.

The Supernatural Power

In the poem “Cinderella,” the magical tree and bird are Cinderella’s magical friends. Supposedly she’s a “good” and “devout” girl, so maybe she deserved this supernatural help.

However, Cinderella would have been nothing in this poem without the constant help of magic. The poem uses the supernatural power as a kind of extended metaphor for how frustrating Cinderella stories are. Practically everything is being handed to the heroine with no work involved on her part.

Good vs Evil 

Almost every fairy tale involves a fight between good and evil, and this one is no exception. The interesting part about how Sexton retells the story is that it’s not quite clear in “Cinderella” that the title character is outstanding.

She’s certainly not bad, but she’s also kind of passive. She doesn’t really do anything throughout the entire story. We get no character development for her. It’s just that her mom passes away, she has a magical tree, and she’s been wronged by her stepfamily.

On the other hand, the prince isn’t portrayed as exactly charming either. So while “good” wins out at the end, one of the important questions in the poem has to do with what “good” and “bad” really are in fairy tales.

The poem might also suggest that it must be re-evaluated what makes a protagonist “the good guy” in many of our favourite childhood stories.

Good Fortune 

The poem “Cinderella” bubbles with sarcastic anger, a bitterness regarding people who get something for nothing. It is what everyone wants — to win the lottery, to marry a rich person, and never to have to worry about money or bills again.

Cinderella has been blessed with one good fortune after another, aided by her magical tree and bird. The most significant examples of the speaker’s annoyance towards Cinderella stories come initially, with a short little example of people who happen to have stumbled into their wealth through certain circumstance just barely under their control.

What the poem wants to tell the readers is that our notions of luck and fortune are misguided. Even having everything we want does not guarantee that we’ll be happy or even really alive.

Anne Sexton Cinderella Analysis

“Cinderella”, authored by Anne Sexton, retells the traditional version of the fairy tale but gives it a sarcastic twist. The poem appears in Transformations, which is a collection of poems in which the speaker, introduced in the first poem, “The Gold Key,” is a “middle-aged witch” and author of “tales/ which transform the Brothers Grimm.”

As fitting with oral storytelling, the speaker opens the poem with a direct address to the reader and undermined Cinderella’s rags-to-riches story in four short stanzas which give examples of modern success stories:

  • The nursemaid marries her employer’s son.
  • The plumber “who wins the Irish Sweepstakes.”
  • The charwoman who collects the insurance from an accident.
  • The milkman is able to make his fortune in real estate.

Three of the examples are followed by the sarcastic abstain “That story,” which mocks the happy ending of this fairy tale and perhaps its hopeful readers as well.

Anne Sexton Cinderella Stanzas

The following six stanzas retell Grimm’s tale keeping faithful with its details for the most part. However, the narrator’s occasional observations tell readers to pay attention to an essential part of the story or comment on the characters or plot.

In the fifth as well as sixth verses of this poem, Cinderella becomes a maid to her stepmother and stepsisters and plants a twig, given to her by her father, on the grave of her mother. On the tree which grows from the twig rests a dove who grants all of Cinderella’s wishes.

The sixth and seventh verses continue with the familiar story. When Cinderella has to pick a bowl of lentils out of the ashes before she can go to the ball, the white dove comes to her rescue. The dove not only picks up the lentils but also provides her with a golden gown and slippers that match.

The prince dances only with her during the event. The poem continues in the next three verses to describe the prince’s escorting Cinderella home, where she disappears into the pigeon-house, until the fateful third day when, by covering the palace steps with wax, the prince successfully captures Cinderella’s slipper.

When the prince comes looking for Cinderella and decides he would marry the girl whose feet fit into the slipper, the eldest stepsister cuts off her toe, and the youngest one her heel so that they can fit into the slipper and thus win the prince.

However, in each case, the dove alerts the prince about the trail of blood which gives away the sisters’ move. At last, the prince puts the shoe on Cinderella, and she fits into it. The stepsisters attend their royal wedding, where the avenging dove pecks out their eyes.

In the concluding verse of the poem, which echoes the tone and structure of the opening stanzas, the narrator reveals that “Cinderella and the prince/ lived, they say, happily ever after,” ending the poem with the sardonic refrain “That story.”

Anne Sexton Cinderella Analysis Meaning

Although the poems included in ‘Transformations’ are a departure from the confessional mode for which Sexton is so well known. Several poems in this collection, including “Cinderella,” are, like the confessional poems, concerned with family and relationships issues between the sexes.

The dark humour and structure of “Cinderella,” as well as its contrast between the magical details of fairy tales and the mundane realities of daily life, are characteristic of the poems in ‘Transformations’, which show the influence of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud as well as feminism.

“Cinderella,” particularly, pokes fun at the willingness of believing in the lucky break, which will transform ordinary life, as well as the willingness to idealising love and marriage. The fairy tale’s happy ending is depicted as insignificant and stultifying, an emotional and psychological death.

However, by inference, actual married life fares no better. Petty annoyances and quarrels characterise it as the once-young married couple becomes overweight and middle-aged.

The poem explores the tension between the ever-popular Cinderella tale and reality. In the experienced and cynical middle-aged witch’s personality, Sexton enters the debate on marriage and the relationship between women and men, encouraging readers to view the marriage plot with a mixture of scepticism and humour.

AnneSexton Cinderella Analysis

Anne Sexton Cinderella Analysis Symbols


Traditionally doves are symbols of goodness, peace, and divine blessing. With their white colour and ability to fly, they are the animal kingdom’s angels. The poem is a white dove – white symbolising innocence and purity – which perches on the tree which has grown on Cinderella’s mother’s grave.

The dove magically steps into Cinderella’s life not only to grant her wishes but to make sure that she marries the prince. After all, the white dove points out to the unaware prince that the woman he intends to marry had to cut off part of her foot to make the shoe fit.

The dove is the illustration of Cinderella’s mother’s supernatural intervention in her daughter’s life. However, its presence in the Grimm story and Sexton’s poem calls the traditional symbol of associating a dove into question.

Both mothers in this poem ultimately have the same goal – to make sure their daughters achieve security by getting married to rich men. The dove, therefore, doesn’t fully symbolise peace and blessing for Cinderella in this poem.

An eternally pasted-on smile seems slightly better than abuse and servitude, but the speaker is sceptical about Cinderella’s future happiness in her marriage. The speaker’s doubt clouds the dove’s traditional meanings of peace and blessing. The dove, in the end, violently blinds the stepsisters as if to underscore this point.

A Beautiful Dress

All Cinderella needs to get married to a rich husband, it seems, is a beautiful dress. As the poem portrays, clearly, the prince would not have even considered her a possible match if she had arrived at the event dressed in her everyday clothing. She needed to have certain clothes and a certain look that signalled she was worthy of a prince’s attention.

The dress symbolises the fundamental classism (prejudice against a certain social class) present in the Cinderella story. It also symbolises how women are objectified and not seen as individuals but as frames to put beautiful clothing.

The prince charming fails at recognising the women he allows to try on the shoe. He has to devise the shoe scheme as he doesn’t actually see women as individuals

Readers often wonder if the prince would have paid any mind to Cinderella if not for the dress. The answer to that would be no. As a woman, Cinderella’s fabricated appearance is by far the most important thing about her.

The Golden Shoe 

The golden shoe symbolises the lengths to which women have been expected and pressured to “fit” into some predetermined mould of acceptability and availability. It is the device allowing Cinderella to escape her circumstances and marry the prince.

However, it also provides a gory detail of what a woman will go through to please a man – and is expected to go through to please a man. The eldest stepsister cuts off a toe to fit in the shoe without any second thought.

The other stepsister cuts off her heel, again without any fuss. These are the normal behaviours of a woman who wants to catch a husband, as showcased in the poem.

The shoe is also, however, a symbol of justice.

The poem says the stepsisters were pretty enough and “had lovely feet.” But the shoe doesn’t fit; it is not their fate to marry the prince. Instead, the same magical dove manifesting Cinderella’s wishes doles out punishment to the stepsisters for their wickedness. Their self-mutilation is pointless, and Cinderella gets a little bit of revenge.

Poems About The Holocaust | List of 9 Poems About Holocaust

Poems About The Holocaust

Emotional Poems About The Holocaust: The poems included in the following list have been written from various perspectives, and they explain the tragedies and experiences of the affected ones during the Holocaust. These poems depict the guilt, fear, hope and memory of the ones who were lost and those who survived during this occurrence.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

List of 9 Poems About Holocaust

The famous Holocaust poems included in the list are:

  • First They Came by Martin Neimöller
  • Death Fugue by Paul Celan
  • Do not stand at my grave and weep by Mary Elizabeth Frye
  • Never shall I Forget by Elie Wiesel
  • A Poor Christian Looks at the Ghetto by CzeławMiłosz
  • The Survivor by Primo Levi
  • The Butterfly by Pavel Friedmann
  • Fear by Eva Picková
  • September Song by Geoffrey Hill

First They Came by Martin Neimöller

This is the poetic form of a post-war confession by German Lutheran pastor Martin Neimöller. The themes of guilt, persecution and responsibility have been highlighted in this poem through the German confession. The poem portrays the cowardice of particular sections of the German population during the second world war as the Nazis were eradicating people from their own country.

The poet includes himself in that group when he was captivated and sent to Dachau by the Nazis. Later on, after the war, he became the German people’s voice demanding peace in the post-war scenario. This poem is a concession speech that he delivered in 1946 at the Confessing Church in Frankfurt.

Death Fugue by Paul Celan

Written in 1945, this poem was titled ‘Todesfuge’ in German, and Fugue is a type of musical composition where one or more voices occur simultaneously throughout the poem. This is a thirty-six long poem based on the camps and the Final Solution. This poem speaks of many emotions, mainly love, fear and pain.

Paul Celan, a prisoner himself, very beautifully portrays the emotions and experiences of the others as he has observed during the war. The poem depicts the love for a family member who was killed or captivated. It also metaphorically speaks of the fear of a commandant who apparently “plays with snakes” but dreads the war’s terror.

Lastly, the poem portrays the intense pain, misery and unwillingness of the captives to survive. This is a thirty-six long poem based on the camps and the Final Solution.

Do Not Stand At My Grave And Weep by Mary Elizabeth Frye

Although the poem’s background is not very clear, it is generally thought that this poem was written in 1932, before the darkest time of the Holocaust in Germany. This period is considered the era of growing antisemitism in Germany.

The poet speaks of death in a welcoming tone as she comforts people who will mourn her demise. She has seen death not just as an end to life but also as a beginning. She had taken inspiration from the life and hardship of a young Jewish woman, Margaret Schwarzkopf, who could not return to Germany to see her mother before she passed away.

Never Shall I Forget by Elie Wiesel

This poem is a part of Wiesel’s memoir ‘Night’, where he recounts his experience of the first night in a camp in Birkenau. The poet deflects from his general writing style and writes about this particular night’s experience, which has changed his life forever.

He has used multiple repetitions, seven times to be exact, to intensify the pictures of the smoke, the stillness and the silence. Of the lines, most important is: “Never shall I forget those moments that murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to ashes”. This reflects his trauma and experience of that night that has led to his transformation as a whole.

A Poor Christian Looks at the Ghetto by CzeławMiłosz

This is a famous poem by the Nobel Prize winner CzeławMiłosz where the poet depicts the condition of the Warsaw Ghetto after being demolished by the Germans. Particularly, the first two stanzas reflect the destruction of the ghetto, depicted with natural images implying a dark and complex history.

The speaker portrays the collapsed walls and roofs as the houses were burnt and only a leafless tree remains. The poem also speaks about ‘Patriarch’ as the ‘guardian mole’ finding its way between the corpses. The poem has been narrated through the experience of a survivor who is a ‘Jew of the New Testament’. He blames himself as he sees the heinous scene of corpses and the destructed Ghetto.

The Survivor by Primo Levi

Primo Levi, best known for his short stories collection, The Periodic Tablespeaks about his experiences in the concentration camps and his survival. He was a part of the Italian resistance and was arrested along with the comrades and was sent to an internment camp.

The poet remembers his “companions’ faces” as they are darkened by uneasy sleepless nights and the fear of death. He expresses deep guilt over his own survival and mourns for lost who tried to find peace.

The Butterfly by Pavel Friedmann

Pavel Friedmann wrote this poem at the Theresienstadt concentration camp in 1942. The poet later died in Auschwitz in 1944. In the poem, he describes the “last” butterfly and its movements through the air. It symbolises life, freedom, and hope. The yellow colour of its wings is used as a contrast against the darkness.

The poet depicts the fear and terror of the new world that he has found himself in. Living in a ghetto in Nazi Germany, the speaker has seen his last butterfly, symbolising freedom loss. The poet finds darkness all around him.

Fear by Eva Picková

One of the lesser-known poems on this list, ‘Fear’, was written by Eva Picková, a twelve-year-old girl from Nymburk as she experiences the dreadful holocaust. She was deported to a Nazi concentration camp in 1942 and died in Auschwitz just over a year later.

The poet speaks about the impact of typhus on her community for the ones she cares for as she sees them suffering and dying around her. The poem reflects the terror and the fear that she regularly experiences in the detention camp.

In the third stanza, she considers whether it would be better to die than to continue on this way but quickly changes her mind decides that she, along with her friends and family, needs to make the world a better place. The poet reflects upon death, fear, family and requests God to save her loved ones.

September Song by Geoffrey Hill

‘September Song’ is a haunting poem written in the form of a sonnet and depicts a young child’s death, whose birth and death dates begin the poem. The poem does not have a rhyme theme or metrical pattern. Here the poet laments the loss, memory and terror that went around in Germany during the time of the Nazis.

The poet has used enough allusions and imageries like marching, military night, memory. The lines imply the difficulty of the poet who has faced all these events during the Holocaust.

List of 9 Poems About Holocaust