MCQ Questions for Class 12 History with Answers PDF Download Chapter Wise

Here you will find Chapter Wise NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 History with Answers PDF Free Download based on the important concepts and topics given in the textbook. Answers of all CBSE Class 12 History MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers provided here with detailed solutions so that you can easily understand the logic behind each answer.

Class 12 History MCQs Questions with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Practicing these CBSE NCERT Objective MCQ Questions of Class 12 History with Answers Pdf will help students to attempt the exam with confidence.

Themes in Indian History MCQ Questions for Class 12 History with Answers

  1. Bricks, Beads and Bones Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. Kings, Farmers and Towns Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Kinship, Caste and Class Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Thinkers, Beliefs and Buildings Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Through the Eyes of Travellers Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. Bhakti-Sufi Traditions Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. An Imperial Capital Vijayanagara Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Peasants, Zamindars and the State Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Kings and Chronicles Class 12 MCQ Questions
  10. Colonialism and the Countryside Class 12 MCQ Questions
  11. Rebels and the Raj Class 12 MCQ Questions
  12. Colonial Cities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  13. Mahatma Gandhi and the Nationalist Movement Class 12 MCQ Questions
  14. Understanding Partition Class 12 MCQ Questions
  15. Framing the Constitution Class 12 MCQ Questions

We hope the given NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 History PDF Free Download will definitely yield fruitful results. If you have any queries related to CBSE Class 12 History MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop your questions below and will get back to you in no time.

MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Here you will find Chapter Wise NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers PDF Free Download based on the important concepts and topics given in the textbook. Answers of all CBSE Class 12 Political Science MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers provided here with detailed solutions so that you can easily understand the logic behind each answer.

Class 12 Political Science MCQs Questions with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Practicing these CBSE NCERT Objective MCQ Questions of Class 12 Political Science with Answers Pdf will help students to attempt the exam with confidence.

Contemporary World Politics MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers

  1. The Cold War Era Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. The End of Bipolarity Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. US Hegemony in World Politics Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Alternative Centres of Power Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Contemporary South Asia Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. International Organisations Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Security in the Contemporary World Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Environment and Natural Resources Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Globalisation Class 12 MCQ Questions

Politics in India Since Independence MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science with Answers

  1. Challenges of Nation Building Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. Era of One Party Dominance Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Politics of Planned Development Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. India’s External Relations Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Challenges to and Restoration of Congress System Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. The Crisis of Democratic Order Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Rise of Popular Movements Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Regional Aspirations Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Recent Developments in Indian Politics Class 12 MCQ Questions

We hope the given NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Political Science PDF Free Download will definitely yield fruitful results. If you have any queries related to CBSE Class 12 Political Science MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop your questions below and will get back to you in no time.

MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Here you will find Chapter Wise NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers PDF Free Download based on the important concepts and topics given in the textbook. Answers of all CBSE Class 12 Geography MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers provided here with detailed solutions so that you can easily understand the logic behind each answer.

Class 12 Geography MCQs Questions with Answers Chapter Wise PDF Download

Practicing these CBSE NCERT Objective MCQ Questions of Class 12 Geography with Answers Pdf will help students to attempt the exam with confidence.

Fundamentals of Human Geography MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography with Answers

  1. Human Geography: Nature and Scope Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Population Composition Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Human Development Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Primary Activities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. Secondary Activities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Transport and Communication Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. International Trade Class 12 MCQ Questions
  10. Human Settlements Class 12 MCQ Questions

India People and Economy MCQ Questions with Answers Class 12 Geography 

  1. Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Class 12 MCQ Questions
  2. Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Class 12 MCQ Questions
  3. Human Development Class 12 MCQ Questions
  4. Human Settlements Class 12 MCQ Questions
  5. Land Resources and Agriculture Class 12 MCQ Questions
  6. Water Resources Class 12 MCQ Questions
  7. Mineral and Energy Resources Class 12 MCQ Questions
  8. Manufacturing Industries Class 12 MCQ Questions
  9. Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context Class 12 MCQ Questions
  10. Transport and Communication Class 12 MCQ Questions
  11. International Trade Class 12 MCQ Questions
  12. Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems Class 12 MCQ Questions

We hope the given NCERT MCQ Questions for Class 12 Geography PDF Free Download will definitely yield fruitful results. If you have any queries related to CBSE Class 12 Geography MCQs Multiple Choice Questions with Answers, drop your questions below and will get back to you in no time.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Power Sharing

In this page, you can find CBSE Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Power Sharing Pdf free download, NCERT Extra Questions for Class 10 Social Science will make your practice complete.

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Power Sharing

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Very Short Answers Type

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions Question 1.
What is majoritarianism? Name a country which has lost peace due to this. (Imp)
Answer:
It is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority. The country named Sri-Lanka has lost peace due to this.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions Question 2.
Which language was recognised as the only official language of Sri Lanka in 1956? (Imp)
Answer:
Sinhala was recognised as the only official language of Sri Lanka in 1956.

Power Sharing Extra Questions Question 3.
Why was the tension between the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities more acute in Brussels?
Answer:
The reason was that the Dutch-speaking community constituted a majority in the country (Belgium), but a minority in the capital (Brussels).

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions PDF Download Question 4.
Apart from the Central and the State Government there is the third kind of government in Belgium. Name this government. Mention one feature of this government.
Answer:
The name of the third type of government in Belgium is community government. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German speaking. It does not matter where do they live.

Extra Questions Of Power Sharing Question 5.
What is meant by a community government?
Answer:
A community government is a type of government in which different social groups handle the affairs of their communities.

Class 10 Power Sharing Extra Questions Question 6.
What did the leaders of the Sinhala community do to establish their supremacy?
Answer:
The leaders of the Sinhala community adopted the principle of majoritarianism to establish their supremacy.

Class 10 Civics Ch 1 Extra Questions Question 7.
Where are Sri-Lankan Tamils concentrated in Sri Lanka?
Answer:
They are concentrated in the north and east of Sri Lanka.

Ch 1 Civics Class 10 Extra Questions Question 8.
What is the religion of most of the Sinhala-speaking people?
Answer:
Most of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhists.

Power Sharing Extra Question Answer Question 9.
Name the ethnic communities of Sri Lanka.
Answer:
Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, Indian Tamils and Muslims.

Extra Questions On Power Sharing Class 10 Question 10.
By 1980s several political organisations were formed by the Sri Lankan Tamils. What was the demand of these organisations?
Answer:
These organisations demanded an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

Civics Class 10 Chapter 1 Extra Questions Question 11.
What is the feature of a good democratic government?
Answer:
In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.

Extra Question Of Power Sharing Class 10 Question 12.
What is the difference between prudential and moral reasons of power sharing?
Answer:
Prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, whereas moral reasons emphasise the very act of power sharing as valuable.

Extra Questions Of Chapter Power Sharing Class 10 Question 13.
Which is the major religion of Sri Lanka?
Answer:
The major religion of Sri Lanka is Buddhism.

Extra Question Of Power Sharing Question 14.
In which city are the headquarters of the European Union located?
Answer:
The headquarters of the European Union are located in Brussels.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions And Answers Question 15.
What is one basic principle of democracy?
Answer:
One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power. In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government.

Extra Question Answer Of Power Sharing Class 10 Question 16.
What is meant by power sharing?
Answer:
Power sharing means the distribution of power of the government among as many citizens as possible.

Extra Questions Of Power Sharing Class 10 Question 17.
Which are the two main social groups in Sri Lanka? (Imp)
Answer:
The two main social groups in Sri Lanka are Sinhalese (74%) and Tamils (18%).

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions And Answers Question 18.
What is the system of checks and balances in power sharing? (Imp)
Answer:
When power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, one organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.

Extra Questions On Power Sharing Question 19.
What is meant by vertical division of power?
Answer:
Vertical division of power means division of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level.

Extra Questions Of Chapter 1 Civics Class 1 Question 20.
What is meant by horizontal distribution of power?
Answer:
When power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, it is called horizontal distribution of power.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Explain the vertical division of power by giving examples from India. (Imp)
Answer:
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. In India. the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of governments i.e., the Central or Union government and the various state governments. There are certain subjects on which the Union government alone can make laws whereas there are others on which the State governments alone can make laws.

Question 2.
Describe the ethnic composition of Belgium. (Imp)
Answer:

  • The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 percent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.
  • Another 40 percent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.
  • Remaining one percent of the Belgians speak German.
  • In the capital city of Brussels, 80 percent people speak French while 20 percent are Dutch speaking.

Question 3.
What led to the tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities in Belgium during the 1950s and 1960s? Why was the tension between the two communities more acute in Brussels?
Answer:
In Belgium during the 1950s and 1960s, the minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. So, the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later resented this. As a result, tensions grew between the two communities. The tension between these two communities was more acute in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking people constituted majority in the country, but minority in the capital.

Question 4.
Describe the diverse population living in Sri Lanka.
Answer:
Sri Lanka is an island nation. It has about two crore population which is so diverse.

  • The major social groups are the Sinhala-speakers (74%) and the Tamil-speakers (18%).
  • Among Tamils, there are two sub-groups. Tamil natives of the country are called Sri Lankan Tamil (13%). The rest are called Indian Tamils. Their forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial period.
  • Most of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhists, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. There are about 7% Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala.

Question 5.
Why did the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strain over time? (Imp)
Answer:
(i) The governments in Sri Lanka followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.

(ii) The Sri Lankan Tamils got disappointed due to these policies. They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture.

(iii) They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and ignored their interests. As a result of the above reasons, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time.

Question 6.
What were the demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils?
OR
What forced the Sri Lankan Tamils to launch parties and struggles in the country?
Answer:
The Sri Lankan Tamils were fed up with the preferential policies of the governments. They wanted the governments to listen to them and stop undermining their interests. When nothing happened like this, they launched parties and struggles. Their demands included-

  • Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
  • Recognition for regional autonomy and equality or opportunity in securing education and jobs.
  • An independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

Question 7.
How is the power-sharing model accepted by Belgium different from that of Sri Lanka?
OR
How did Belgium and Sri Lanka handle demands for power-sharing in their respective countries?
OR
‘Belgium and Sri Lanka dealt with the question of power sharing differently’. Explain.
Answer:
Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies. Yet, they dealt with the question of power sharing differently

(a) In Belgium, the leaders realised that the unity of the country was possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. These arrangements were made on the principle of accommodation. So, it worked well and helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities.

(b) The story of Sri Lanka is quite different. It adopted the principle of majoritarianism in which importance was given to the majority community. It denied the Sri Lankan Tamils equal political rights and favoured the Sinhala community. By doing this, Sri Lanka undermined the unity of the country. It refused to share power by allowing a majority community to force its dominance over others.

Question 8.
How did the leaders in Belgium and Sri Lanka try to solve the ethnic problem in their respective countries?
Answer:
Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies. Yet, they dealt with the question of power sharing differently

(a) In Belgium, the leaders realised that the unity of the country was possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. These arrangements were made on the principle of accommodation. So, it worked well and helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities.

(b) The story of Sri Lanka is quite different. It adopted the principle of majoritarianism in which importance was given to the majority community. It denied the Sri Lankan Tamils equal political rights and favoured the Sinhala community. By doing this, Sri Lanka undermined the unity of the country. It refused to share power by allowing a majority community to force its dominance over others.

Question 9.
How is power shared among government at different levels in India? (Imp)
Answer:
India is a federal country. The constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government the Central or Union government, representing the Union of India and the State governments. Later, a third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. The Constitution of India clearly lays down the powers of different levels of government.

There are certain matters on which the Union government alone can make laws. There are others on which the State governments alone can make laws. There are some subjects of common interests to both the Union government as well as the State governments. These matters are handled by both the Union government as well as the State governments in their own ways. The same principle is extended to the level of municipality and panchayat.

Question 10.
What do you mean by community government? Explain some of its features.
OR
Explain the concept of community government in the context of Belgium.
Answer:
A community government is a government in which different social groups are authorised to handle the affairs of their communities. They share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage. They work together for the welfare of the common masses without ignoring the interests of any community. The community government in Belgium is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
State the main elements of power sharing model evolved in Belgium. (V. Imp)
OR
Give an assessment of the power sharing arrangements made in Belgium.
OR
What did the Belgian leaders do to accommodate different social groups?
Answer:
The Belgian leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. This came to be known as the Belgian model of power sharing. The main elements of this model are-

(i) The Belgian constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking minister shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.

(ii) Many powers of the Central government have been given to State governments of the two regions of the country. The State governments are not subordinate to the Central government.

(iii) The capital city of Belgium i.e., Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central government.

(iv) There is also a third kind of government in Belgium known as Community government. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.

Question 2.
Explain the four forms of participation in government under modern democratic system. (Imp)
Answer:
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies are
(i) Horizontal distribution of power: The division of government into the legislature, executive and judiciary is an example of horizontal distribution of power. In this power sharing arrangement, the different organs of government are placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others.

This results in a balance of power among various institutions. In a democracy, even though ministers and government officials exercise power, they are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies. In the same way, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can put a check on the functioning of executive. This arrangement is based on checks and balances.

(ii) Vertical division of power: ¡fis the sharing of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. In India. the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of governments i.e., the Central or Union government and the various state governments. There are certain subjects on which the Union government alone can make laws whereas there are others on which the State governments alone can make laws.

(iii) Power sharing among different social groups: This type of arrangement is meant to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise would feel alienated from the government. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power. A good example of this arrangement is the ‘Community government’ in Belgium. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community such as Dutch, French and German- speaking and enjoys power to make decisions on cultural, educational and language-related issues.

(iv) Power sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements: In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to choose among various contenders for power. In contemporary democracies, this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand. Instead it is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. Pressure groups and movements also have a share in governmental power. They can either participate in governmental committees or can influence the decisioninaking process.

Question 3.
How is the political system in Belgium innovative and different from other countries of the world? Explain.
OR
What measures were adopted by the Belgian leaders to accommodate regional differences and cultural diversities? (Imp)
Answer:
The Belgian leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. This came to be known as the Belgian model of power sharing. The main elements of this model are-

(i) The Belgian constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking minister shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.

(ii) Many powers of the Central government have been given to State governments of the two regions of the country. The State governments are not subordinate to the Central government.

(iii) The capital city of Belgium i.e., Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central government.

(iv) There is also a third kind of government in Belgium known as Community government. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German¬speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

Question 4.
Describe horizontal and vertical power sharing in modern democracies.
Answer:
(i) Horizontal distribution of power: The division of government into the legislature, executive and judiciary is an example of horizontal distribution of power. In this power sharing arrangement, the different organs of government are placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others.

This results in a balance of power among various institutions. In a democracy, even though ministers and government officials exercise power, they are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies. In the same way, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can put a check on the functioning of executive. This arrangement is based on checks and balances.

(ii) Vertical division of power: ¡fis the sharing of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. In India. the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of governments i.e., the Central or Union government and the various state governments. There are certain subjects on which the Union government alone can make laws whereas there are others on which the State governments alone can make laws.

(iii) Power sharing among different social groups: This type of arrangement is meant to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise would feel alienated from the government. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power. A good example of this arrangement is the ‘Community government’ in Belgium. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community such as Dutch, French and German- speaking and enjoys power to make decisions on cultural, educational and language-related issues.

(iv) Power sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements: In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to choose among various contenders for power. In contemporary democracies, this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand. Instead it is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. Pressure groups and movements also have a share in governmental power. They can either participate in governmental committees or can influence the decisioninaking process.

Question 5.
What were the reasons for the alienation of Sri Lankan Tamils? What was the effect of this on the country? (V. Imp)
OR
Mention the steps taken by the Sri Lankan government to adopt majoritarianism in the country.
OR
What were the provisions of the 1956 Act? How did it affect the Sri Lankan Tamils?
Answer:
(i) Sri Lanka became independent in 1948. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. Hence, the democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.

(ii) The government passed an Act in 1956 to recognise Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.

(iii) The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university position and government jobs.

(iv) A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. All these measures coming one after the other, gradually increased the feelings of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.

They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture. Hence, they launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity.

But their demands were repeatedly denied. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war as a result of which thousands of people of both the communities were killed.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
What caused a civil war in Sri Lanka? How did it cost the country?
OR
Under what circumstances did a civil war break out in Sri Lanka? What were its results?
Answer:
The Constitution and government policies in Sri Lanka favoured the Sinhala community and denied the Sri Lankan Tamils equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests. As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time. The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.

But their demands were repeatedly denied. This angered them and created distrust between the two communities. As a result, widespread conflict took place which soon turned into a civil war. Thousands of people of both the communities were killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. The war caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.

Question 2.
How can power be shared among different social groups? Explain giving examples from India and Belgium.
Answer:
In some countries, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in legislatures and administration.

(a) In India, seats are reserved for the people belonging to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Parliament and State legislatures. The system of reservation has been extended to other weaker sections at the district and local levels. One-third of the seats are reserved in rural and urban local bodies for women candidates. Even in government jobs, seats have been reserved for these classes. This type of arrangement has been made in order to bring socially weaker sections and women of the country in the mainstream by empowering them.

(b) In Belgium, apart from the central and the state government, there is a third kind of government, known as community government. This government provides equal representation to both the communities i.e., Dutch and French-speaking people.

Question 3.
‘The idea of power sharing has emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power.’ Explain.
Answer:
For a long time it was believed that all power of a government must reside in one person or group of persons located at one place. It was felt that if the power to decide is dispersed, it would not be possible to take quick decisions and to enforce them. But these notions have changed with the emergence of democracy. In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government. Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
Why is power sharing desirable?
Answer:
(i) Power sharing helps to reduce conflict between different social groups. It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

(ii) Imposing the will of majority community over others proves disastrous. Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive for the minority, it often brings ruin to the majority as well.

(iii) A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

Question 2.
Which values are associated with a good democracy?
Answer:

  • In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.
  • Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies.
  • People are the source of all political power. They rule themselves through institutions of self-government.
  • Everyone feels his/her worth and extends support to the government.

Question 3.
Give a comparative study of the principle of accommodation adopted in Belgium and the principle of majoritarianism adopted in Sri Lanka. Which one is based on the human values?
Answer:
The Belgian leaders followed the principle of accommodation to solve the ethnic problem. They realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. These arrangements have worked well so far. They helped to avoid civic strife between the two communities.

But the Sri Lankan leaders adopted the principle of majoritarianism to solve the same problem. They imposed the will of the majority community i.e., Sinhala on the minority community i.e., Sri Lankan Tamils. The Belgian model is based on human values.

A Letter to God Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight

In this page you can find A Letter to God Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight, Extra Questions for Class 10 English will make your practice complete.

A Letter to God Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight

A Letter to God Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Answer the following questions in 30 – 40 words each:

A Letter To God Extra Questions And Answers PDF Question 1.
(i) Where was ‘the house’ located?
(ii) Why do you think it is called ‘the’ house and not ‘a’ house?
Answer:
(i) The house was located on the top of a low hill.
(ii) It is called ‘the house’ because it is the only house on the top of the hill.

A Letter To God Extra Questions Question 2.
Why did Lencho keep gazing at the sky?
Answer:
Lencho knew that his fields needed water immediately. He was eagerly waiting for the rain, therefore he gazed at the sky.

Letter To God Extra Questions Question 3.
“Now we’re really going to get some water, woman.” Is Lencho sure that it is going to rain? Give a reason for your answer.
Answer:
Lencho was sure that it was going to rain because he kept watching the sky throughout the day. Through his experience, he knew that the clouds would certainly bring rain.

A Letter To God Extra Question Answer Question 4.
(i) How did Lencho feel when it started raining?
(ii) What was the effect of the rain on the crops?
Answer:
(i) Lencho was excited when he came out of his house to have the pleasure of feeling the rain on his body. He compared the raindrops with coins, as he knew that a good rain would mean a good crop and a good crop would mean a lot of money.
(ii) The rain brought with it destruction. There was hailstorm for about an hour and it covered the field. The corn was totally destroyed.

A Letter To God Extra Questions And Answers Question 5.
What are the raindrops compared to and why?
Answer:
Raindrops are compared to coins. He compares big raindrops to ten-cent coins and smaller ones to five-cent coins. He knew that the raindrops would certainly be helpful in giving him rich harvest. Naturally, it would make him get more money.

Extra Questions Of A Letter To God Question 6.
Lencho had only ‘one hope’. What was it?
Answer:
Lencho was a God-fearing man and had a firm faith in the benevolence of God, who he thought would certainly help him. God was his only hope.

A Letter To God Short Questions And Answers Question 7.
Did the letter reach God? Why did the postmaster send a reply to Lencho?
Answer:
The letter did not reach God but it certainly reached the postmaster who was a God-fearing and kind-hearted man. He decided to send a reply to Lencho as he was moved by the firm faith of a farmer in God, and he did not want to disappoint him.

A Letter To God Long Questions And Answers Question 8.
Lencho describes the post office employees as ‘a bunch of crooks’.
(i) Were they ‘a bunch of crooks’?
(ii) How would you describe them?
Answer:
(i) The post office employees were really very good people who tried to help a poor farmer. They were not a bunch of crooks.
(ii) They can be described as kind-hearted, generous, helpful and God-fearing men.

A Letter to God Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Extra Question Of A Letter To God Question 1.
Describe the character of Lencho in the light of his faith and attitude towards God and man.
Answer:
Lencho was a hardworking farmer who had immense faith in God. He had such an immense faith in the existence and helpfulness of God that he started communicating with him. He wrote a letter to God requesting him to send him one hundred pesos. When he received seventy pesos, he was not surprised at all. He even doubted the integrity of the post office employees who, he thought, had stolen his thirty pesos. He was a poor judge of human nature. His attitude towards man was negative. He could not think of a help from man.

A Letter To God Class 10 Extra Questions Question 2.
Lencho called the post office employees ‘a bunch of crooks’. What does it show about his attitude towards men? Was he not A person of humility, appreciation and gratefulness? Elaborate.
Answer:
Lencho called the post office employees a bunch of crooks as he thought that they had stolen his money sent by God. He was not correct in his assessment of the employees. It shows that he had a negative attitude towards mankind. He was not a fair judge of man’s nature.

It seems he was too naive to have the sense of humility, appreciation and gratefulness. He hurt the feelings of the post office employees unintentionally. He was a simple man who had immense faith in God but could not think of any help from men. His anger and attitude towards them shows that he did not have any faith in men. He did not credit the post office employees for their help out of ignorance but he should not have called them a bunch of crooks.

Extra Questions On A Letter To God Question 3.
What kind of people were the post office employees? What do you like about the gesture of the postmaster?
Answer:
The post office employees were very generous, kind and helpful people. When they received the letter for God from Lencho, they were impressed with his faith in God althought initially they made fun of it. They did not want to hurt his feelings and shake his faith in god. They decided to help him by sending him money.

It was a noble gesture on their part. All of them contributed by giving a share of their salaries. It shows their kindness and generosity. They could have told Lencho the truth about God but their sensitivity stopped them from doing so. They did not want to hurt his feelings. They had sympathy and compassion for Lencho. The postmaster’s generosity, his sensitivity, initiative and his noble gesture make him a good human being in the eyes of the readers.

A Letter to God Extra Questions and Answers Reference-to-Context

Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Question 1.
The house — the only one in the entire valley — sat on the crest of a low hill. From this height one could see the river and the field of ripe corn dotted with the flowers that always promised a good harvest. The only thing the earth needed was a downpour or at least a shower. Throughout the morning Lencho — who knew his fields intimately — had done nothing else but see the sky towards the north-east.

(а) The house was located on the
Answer:
crest of a low hill

(b) The only thing the earth needed was
Answer:
a downpour

(c) One could see huts and the field of ripe corn dotted with the flowers from the height of the hill. (True/False)
Answer:
False

(d) Find the word from the passage which means ‘top of a hill’.
Answer:
crest

Question 2.
“Now we’re really going to get some water, woman.” The woman who was preparing supper, replied, “Yes, God willing”. The older boys were working in the field, while the smaller ones were playing near the house until the woman called to them all, “Come for dinner”. It was during the meal that, just as Lencho had predicted, big drops of rain began to fall. In the north-east huge mountains of clouds could be seen approaching. The air was fresh and sweet. The man went out for no other reason than to have the pleasure of feeling the rain on his body, and when he returned he exclaimed, “These aren’t raindrops falling from the sky, they are new coins. The big drops are ten-cent pieces and the little ones are fives.”

(a) Lencho compared the raindrops with the
Answer:
silver coins

(b) The family was happy as the rain was much needed for a good
Answer:
harvest

(c) The woman heard from Lencho that it was going to rain. (True/False)
Answer:
True

(d) Find the word from the passage which means ‘symbol of prosperity’.
Answer:
new coins.

Question 3.
With a satisfied expression he regarded the field of ripe corn with its flowers, draped in a curtain of rain. But suddenly a strong wind began to blow and along with the rain very large hailstones began to fall. These truly did resemble new silver coins. The boys, exposing themselves to the rain, ran out to collect the frozen pearls.

(a) Lencho was satisfied as the rain outside was much for a good harvest.
Answer:
needed

(b) Suddenly a strong wind began to blow and along with the rain very large began to fall.
Answer:
hailstones

(c) Very large stones that came along with the rain resembled golden pearls. (True/False)
Answer:
False

(d) Find the words from the passage which means ‘hailstones’.
Answer:
‘Frozen pearls’.

Question 4.
“It’s really getting bad now,” exclaimed the man. “I hope it passes quickly.” It did not pass quickly. For an hour the hail rained on the house, the garden, the hillside, the cornfield, on the whole valley. The field was white, as if covered with salt. Not a leaf remained on the trees. The corn was totally destroyed. The flowers were gone from the plants. Lencho’s soul was filled with sadness. When the storm had passed, he stood in the middle of the field and said to his sons, “A plague of locusts would have left more than this. The hail has left nothing. This year we will have no corn.”

(a) Lencho exclaimed with sadness that the ………….. was getting bad as it was raining with hailstones.
Answer:
weather

(b) Lencho was worried about how his family would …………… as the hailstones had completely destroyed the cornfield.
Answer:
survive

(c) The hailstorm not only destroyed Lencho’s cornfield but also damaged the whole valley. (True/False)
Answer:
True

(d) ‘A plague of locusts’ means
Answer:
a large number of insects that can cause great damage to the crops.

Question 5.
That night was a sorrowful one. “All our work, for nothing.”
“There’s no one who can help us.” “We’ll all go hungry this year”. But in the hearts of all who lived in that solitary house in the middle of the valley, there was a single hope: help from God.
“Don’t be so upset, even though this seems like a total loss. Remember, no one dies of hunger.”
“That’s what they say: no one dies of hunger.” All through the night, Lencho thought only of his one hope: the help of God, whose eyes, as he had been instructed, see everything, even what is deep in one’s conscience. Lencho was an ox of a man, working like an animal in the fields, but still he knew how to write. The following Sunday, at daybreak, he began to write a letter which he himself would carry to town and place in the mail. It was nothing less than a letter to God.

(a) The single hope for the family was
Answer:
help from God.

(b) Lencho at last decided to write to God.
Answer:
a letter

(c) Lencho believed that God does not let anyone die of hunger. (TFue/Faise)
Answer:
True

(d) Give the meaning of the word ‘conscience’ with reference to the extract.
Answer:
a person’s moral sense of right and wrong.

Question 6.
“God,” he wrote, “if you don’t help me, my family and I will go hungry this year. I need a hundred pesos in order to sow my field again and to live until the crop comes, because the hailstorm….”
He wrote ‘To God’ on the envelope, put the letter inside and, still troubled, went to town. At the post office, he placed a stamp on the letter and dropped it into the mailbox.

(a) Lencho requested God to send him
Answer:
a hundred pesos

(b) At the post office Lencho placed a on the letter and dropped it into the mailbox.
Answer:
stamp

(c) Lencho wrote the letter to God because God will sow his field again. (iVue/False)
Answer:
False

(d) Find the synonym of the word ‘anxious’ from the extract.
Answer:
‘troubled’

Question 7.
One of the employees, who was a postman and also helped at the post office, went to his boss laughing heartily and showed him the letter to God. Never in his career as a postman had he known that address. The postmaster — a fat, amiable fellow — also broke out laughing, but almost immediately he turned serious and, tapping the letter on his desk, commented, “What faith! I wish I had the faith of the man who wrote this letter. Starting up a correspondence with God!”

(a) The postman laughed heartily because he saw the letter to God.
Answer:
addressed

(b) The postmaster became serious suddenly and was impressed to see Lencho’s in God.
Answer:
faith

(c) The postmaster was an amiable man and praised Lencho’s faith in God. (True/False)
Answer:
True

(d) Give the synonym of ‘letter writing’ from the extract.
Answer:
‘correspondence’.

Question 8.
So, in order not to shake the writer’s faith in God, the postmaster came up with an idea: answer, the letter. But when he opened it, it was evident that to answer it he needed something more than goodwill, ink and paper. But he stuck to his resolution: he asked for money from his employees, he himself gave part of his salary, and several friends of his were obliged to give something ‘for an act of charity’.

It was impossible for him to gather together the hundred pesos, so he was able to send the farmer only a little more than half. He put the money in an envelope addressed to Lencho and with it a letter containing only a single word as a signature: God.

(a) It was impossible for the postmaster together together the
Answer:
hundred pesos

(b) When the postmaster opened the letter, he needed something more than, ink and paper.
Answer:
goodwill

(c) The postmaster managed a hundred pesos from his friends. (True/False)
Answer:
False

(d) Give the synonym of ‘grateful’ from the extract.
Answer:
‘obliged’.

Question 9.
The following Sunday Lencho came a bit earlier than usual to ask if there was a letter for him. It was the postman himself who handed the letter to him while the postmaster, experiencing the contentment of a man who has performed a good deed, looked on from his office.
Lencho showed not the slightest surprise on seeing the money; such was his confidence — but he became angry when he counted the money. God could not have made a mistake, nor could he have denied Lencho what he had requested.

(a) Lencho became angry because he did not get the that he requested God.
Answer:
amount

(b) Lencho came to the post office the following to ask if there was any letter for him.
Answer:
Sunday

(c) The postmaster had performed a good deed by helping Lencho. (True/False)
Answer:
True

(d) Give the meaning of the word ‘a conscious action’ from the extract. ”
Answer:
deed

Question 10.
Immediately, Lencho went up to the window to ask for paper and ink. On the public writing-table, he started to write, with much wrinkling of his brow, caused by the effort he had to make to express his ideas. When he finished, he went to the window to buy a stamp which he licked and then affixed to the envelope with a blow of his fist. The moment the letter fell into the mailbox the postmaster went to open it. It said: “God: Of the money that I asked …. for, only seventy pesos reached me. Send me the rest, since I need it very much. But don’t send it to me through the mail because the post office employees are a bunch of crooks. Lencho.”

(a) Lencho called the post office employees ………. because he thought that they had cheated him.
Answer:
a bunch of crooks

(b) There were wrinkles on his brow because he was ………….
Answer:
angry

(c) Lencho wrote in his second letter that he received seventy pesos only. (True/False)
Answer:
False

(d) Give the meaning of the word’ “creased” from the extract.
Answer:
‘wrinkling’.

 

The Last Lesson Extra Questions and Answers Class 12 English Flamingo

In this page you can find The Last Lesson Extra Questions and Answers Class 12 English Flamingo, Extra Questions for Class 12 English will make your practice complete.

The Last Lesson Important Extra Questions and Answers Class 12 English Flamingo

The Last Lesson Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Question 1.
How was the scene in the school, on the morning of the last lesson, different from that on other days?
OR
How was M. Hamel’s class different the day Franz went late to school?
Answer:
Generally, there would be a great bustle, closing and shutting of desks, lessons repeated loudly in unison, rapping of the teachers’ ruler on the table, all of which could be heard out in the street. But that everything was quite different. There was no noise. All were in their seats, Franz walked in late and M. Hamel let him calmly. He then noticed that his sir was dressed in his best clothes and there were the elders of the village seated in the class. It was a bit later that Franz realised why the day was different. It was their last French lesson.

Question 2.
How does M. Hamel pay a tribute to the French language?
OR
What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?
Answer:
M. Hamel went on to talk about French language. He told that it was the most beautiful language of the world. It was the clearest and the most logical of all languages. He asked the people to guard it among themselves and never forget it. As long as people ‘hold fast to their language, they have the key to freedom’.

Question 3.
One order from Berlin changed the scenario of the school. Comment.
Answer:
The order from Berlin led to the announcement that French would not be taught anymore, and instead, German would be taught by a new master. This was to be their last French lesson. The class was quiet as it was a Sunday morning with no hustle and bustle. The teacher, M. Hamel was patient and calm but inwardly emotional. He was in his special dress. The sad villagers were sitting on the last benches like the other students and the teacher explained the lesson very patiently.

Question 4.
“What a thunderclap these words were to me!” Which were the words that shocked and surprised little Franz?
Answer:
M. Hamel said, “My children, this is the last French lesson I shall give you. The order has come from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. The new master will come tomorrow. This is your last French lesson. I want you to be attentive”. These words of his teacher were a thunderclap for Franz.

Question 5.
Who did M. Hamel blame for the neglect of learning on the part of boys like Franz?
Answer:
M. Hamel blamed the parents for the neglect of learning of French language as they engaged the boys in farm work. He also blamed himself to some extent as he too assigned the work of gardening to boys like Franz. He also gave them a holiday whenever he wanted to go for fishing.

Question 6.
“This is your last French lesson.” How did Franz react to this declaration of M. Hamel?
OR
How did Franz react to the declaration that it was their last French lesson?
Answer:
The announcement made by M. Hamel left a great impact not only on Franz but all the other citizens. Franz was shocked to hear that M. Hamel was leaving and that it was his last lesson. He realised that he would not be able to read and speak his own mother tongue and regretted his lack of interest and carelessness.

Question 7.
How did M. Hamel say farewell to his students and the people of the town?
Answer:
M. Hamel looked very pale and tall when he stood up in his chair. All the students were quiet. The village people old Hauser, the former Mayor, the former postmaster and several others were present in the schoolroom. The teacher told the villagers that French was the most beautiful language in the world. He ended the lesson by writing Vive La France on the blackboard. He made a gesture with his hand to indicate that the school is dismissed and students could go home.

Question 8.
Why had the bulletin board become a centre of attention during the last two years?
Answer:
For the past two years, the news of lost battles, the draft and the orders of the commanding officer were displayed on the bulletin board. People thronged the bulletin board to read all this information. This was the reason why it had become a centre of attention.

Question 9.
What was tempting Franz to keep away from school ‘that morning’?
Answer:
Franz was supposed to learn participles as part of his schoolwork, which he had not done. Therefore, he was afraid of being scolded by M. Hamel. Also, he wanted to spend the day outdoors as it was warm and bright. The sight of the chirping birds and the Prussian soldiers drilling appealed to him more than the rules of participles.

Question 10.
What was unusual about M. Hamel’s dress and behaviour on the day of his last French lesson?
Answer:
Whenever Franz arrived late, he was met by an angry teacher. This time however, he was astounded when he was welcomed by a kind and polite M. Hamel. This was quite contrary to his nature. Moreover, he was dressed in his best clothes, a beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and an embroidered black silk cap, which he wore only on inspection and prize days.

Question 11.
Why had M. Hamel put on his fine Sunday clothes? Why were the old men of the village sitting there in the back of the classroom?
OR
Who occupied the back benches in the classroom on the day of the last lesson? Why?
Answer:
The back benches were occupied by the people of the village. Old Hansar, who had his three cornered hat, the former Mayor, the former post master and several other elders. They had come to express their respect and regard for M. Hamel and sorrow that he had to leave from their midst.

Question 12.
How did Franz perform when his turn came to recite? How did M. Hamel react?
Answer:
Franz’s name was called and he was asked to recite. Despite his best efforts, he got mixed up on the first words. He stood there holding on to his desk. His heart beat fast. And he did not dare look up. M. Hamel told him in a polite tone that he would not scold him as he was not the only one who neglected learning French. Many others in Alsace shared his fate because of procrastination. He said that every one had a great deal to reproach themselves with.

Question 13.
“We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with.” Why did M. Hamel blame the parents and himself too for not showing due attention and care to the learning of French?
Answer:
M. Hamel did not hold Franz responsible for neglecting the learning of French. Most people of Alsace only pretended to be Frenchmen. But they could neither speak nor write their own language. The parents were not anxious to have them learn. They preferred to put children on a farm or at the mills to earn a little more money. He . even held himself responsible as he often sent his students to water his flowers instead of learning their lessons. He also used to give a holiday whenever he wanted to go fishing.

Question 14.
What does M. Hamel say about French language? What did he urge upon his students and villagers to do?
Answer:
M. Hamel talked at length about the French language. He considered French to be the most beautiful language in the world. It was the clearest and the most logical language too. He urged his students to guard it among themselves and reminded them never to forget it.

Question 15.
How does M. Hamel prove to be an ideal teacher?
Answer:
M. Hamel brings home the message of importance of love of mother tongue and patriotism. He explains things well and asks students to continue learning French even when he is gone. Hence, he proves to be an ideal teacher.

Question 16.
How was M. Hamel dressed differently that day? Why?
Answer:
M. Hamel wore a green coat, frilled shirt and black silk cap to the class. He announced that it was their last lesson in French and that German will be taught in the school in the future. He was proud of being French and was upset by occupation of Alsace by Germans. He was very attached to the town, the school and its people.

Question 17.
What had the narrator counted on to enter the school unnoticed?
Answer:
The teacher’s rap of the ruler, the banging of the desks, and the lessons repeated would be so loud that it could be heard in the street. The author thought this background would be a shield and he could enter the school unnoticed.

Question 18.
What changes did the order from Berlin cause in the school?
Answer:
The order from Berlin directed schools in the districts of Alsace and Lorraine in France to teach German instead of French.

Question 19.
Why were the elders of the village sitting in the classroom?
Answer:
The elders of the village came to the classroom to attend the last lesson of French in the school as a mark of respect to the French teacher, Mr Hamel who had been teaching there for the last forty years. These elders had not studied well, and could not read and write their mother tongue, French and so as it was the last opportunity for them, they came to attend the class.

Question 20.
How did Franz react to the declaration that it was their last French lesson?
Answer:
Franz was shocked and sad when he heard this news. Suddenly, he developed a liking for his language and was keen to learn French. He was remorseful for not learning well in the past and was sad that his teacher, Mr Hamel would go away.

Question 21.
What did Franz wonder about when he entered the class that day?
Answer:
He wondered why the classroom was still with no great bustle, the sound of desks opening and closing, lessons being repeated in unison, very loudly and M. Hamel’s great ruler rapping on the table.

Question 22.
Why was Franz not scolded for reaching the school late that day?
Answer:
Franz was not scolded that day as the situation was different than the other days. It was the last lesson in French by M. Hamel, who taught for forty years there. He regretted neglecting his classes earlier and wanted to compensate on the last day, before he left.

Question 23.
How were the parents and M. Hamel responsible for the children’s neglect of the French language?
Answer:
Parents were never keen or anxious to make their children learn French. They rather made them work in the fields or mills. Mr Hamel also lacked sincerity. He made the children water his garden during class hours or dismissed his class when he wanted to go for fishing.

Question 24.
“We’ve all a great deal to reproach ourselves with”, said M. Hamel. Refer to the context and explain what he wanted to convey to his students.
Answer:
M. Hamel wanted to convey to his students that still no loss has caused. If they desire, they can do a lot. Further, he advised them to move on and not to look back. He boosted the morale of his students by saying that though they have to blame themselves for not attending the school and he himself had to blame and disgrace himself for giving the holiday to students but hoped that they could mend their ways.

The Last Lesson Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
What is ‘linguistic chauvinism’? Analyse the order from Berlin in this light. How do you justify M. Hamel’s views about French and the new-found love of the people towards their language?
Answer:
Carrying pride in one’s language too far leads to ‘linguistic chauvinism’. We can analyse the order from Berlin in this light. It is nothing but a pure example of linguistic chauvinism. The imposition of German language over the French-speaking population can’t be justified at all. It is the worst kind of colonialism.

M. Hamel’s love for French is genuine. The shocking order from Berlin arouses patriotic feelings in him. He loves French and feels it to be the most beautiful language in the world. He calls it the clearest and the most logical language too. He regrets that the people of Alsace did not pay much heed to the learning of this great language. He asks the people to safeguard it among themselves.

It is the key to their unity and freedom. The people of Alsace, particularly the village elders, suddenly realise how precious their language is to them. Students like Franz too are not immune to patriotic feelings. Franz feels sorry for neglecting the learning of French. He hates the idea of German language being imposed on them. He remarks sarcastically, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” The last lesson was so impactful that it helped to revive the love for the language among the people of Alsace.

Question 2.
How can you estimate M. Hamel as a man with a ruler and as a man with a gesture?
OR
How does M. Hamel prove to be an ideal teacher?
Answer:
In ‘The Last Lesson’, Alphonse Daudet presents M. Hamel’s character with due sympathy and respect. Initially, he is presented in the mould of a traditional schoolmaster. He used his terrible ruler under his arm. Everyone could hear the rapping of the ‘great ruler’ on the table even outside in the street. Franz reminds us ‘how cranky’ M. Hamel was. The students used to dread their schoolmaster. Franz was scared of being scolded as he had not prepared his lesson on participles. For a moment, he even thought of running away from school. Mr Hamel was a hard task master. He maintained discipline in the class.

The other side of Mr Hamel’s character is seen after the order from Berlin came. He had been transformed now. He became soft and gentle towards his students. He didn’t scold Franz for coming late. He did not even use his ruler when little Franz got mixed up and confused when his turn to recite came. He declared that it was his last lesson in French as from the next day German would be taught in the schools of Lorraine and Alsace. He would leave the next day. A new teacher would come in his place. He wore his best dress in honour of the last lesson.

M. Hamel was given respect not only by his students but even by the village elders. He was totally dedicated to the cause of teaching. He had been teaching for forty years in the same school. The village elders came to pay their respect to such a grand teacher. They sat on the back benches to listen to his last lesson.

M. Hamel loved France and French from the depth of his heart. He regarded French as the most beautiful language in the world. He told the people to guard it among themselves and never to forget it. On hearing the sound of trumpets of the Prussian soldiers under his window, patriotic feelings overpowered him. He mounted the chair and tried to speak, however something choked him. He wrote “Vive La France” with a piece of chalk on the blackboard and dismissed the class.

Question 3.
Write a character sketch of Franz.
Answer:
Franz was a student of a school in Alsace. His schoolmaster was M. Hamel. Franz was not brilliant. Franz enjoyed spending time out of doors. He liked the warm and bright day, and loved to listen to the chirping of the birds and watching the drilling of the Prussian soldiers. He preferred this instead of being in the classroom. He didn’t prepare his lesson on participles. When he was asked to recite, he got mixed up and confused. He was not excited to go to school and did not show any interest in M. Hamel’s teaching.But he was scared of M. Hamel’s scolding. He always dreaded the great ruler that M. Hamel kept under his arm. Franz knew how ‘cranky’ M. Hamel was.

However, Franz was forced to change his opinion about M. Hamel. An order came from Berlin pronouncing that German language would be taught in the schools of French districts of Alsace and Lorraine. On knowing that it was the last lesson that Mr Hamel was going to deliver, his views about him changed. He started respecting the man who had spent forty years in the same school. He felt sorry for not learning French.

He shared M. Hamel’s views about French. It was the most beautiful language in the world. Franz sarcastically remarked, “Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?” After the last lesson, his views about French took a patriotic turn. He listened to M. Hamel’s last lesson with rapt attention and dignity, and regretted having been careless and inattentive.

Question 4.
Our native language is part of our culture and we are proud of it. How does the presence of village elders in the classroom and M. Hamel’s last lesson show their love for French?
OR
Our language is part of our culture and we are proud of it. Describe how regretful M. Hamel and the village elders are for having neglected their native language, French.
Answer:
M. Hamel told the students and villagers that henceforth only German would be taught in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Those who called themselves Frenchmen would neither be able to speak nor write it. He praised French as the most beautiful, the clearest and the most logical language in the world. He said that for the enslaved people, their language was the key out of prison. Only then the people realised the importance of their language. This shows people’s love for their own culture, traditions and country. Pride in one’s language reflects pride in motherland.

When Franz jumbled while it was his turn to answer, M. Hamel expresses regret at the pathetic state of the language among the folks of Alsace. He regrets the fact that everyone chose to procrastinate. Also, he felt that the parents preferred their children worked in the farms for that extra income. He worried that the Germans would ridicule them for being incapable of speaking and writing their language. He blames everyone including himself for being careless, lazy and Lackadaisical (unenthusiastic and lack of determination).

Question 5.
Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. Comment.
Answer:
Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. There was a general sadness about not being able to utilise the opportunities of learning French when it was easily accessible. Franz wished that he had attended classes more often and regretted not being attentive in his classes earlier. He suddenly found his lessons more interesting and easy. The villagers, who were sitting at the usually empty back benches and had come to show their respect and gratitude to M. Hamel, regretted not going to school more than they did.

The order also brought about a great change in the feelings of the people towards their country and their native language. M. Hamel regretted sending his students to water his flowers instead of learning their lessons. He also regretted giving holiday to students whenever he wanted to go on fishing.

Question 6.
What changes did the narrator find in the school when the order from Berlin came?
Answer:
The order from Berlin prohibited teaching of French in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine. Instead, German was to be taught in the schools. Franz was late for school that day. He noticed that the hustle and bustle was missing. There was no opening and closing of desks, no repetition of lessons or rapping of the teacher’s ruler on the table could be heard. It was all very quiet and still.

Franz was further surprised because, instead of meeting an angry teacher, he was welcomed by a kind and polite teacher, who was dressed in his best clothes, a beautiful green coat, frilled shirt and an embroidered silk cap, which he wore only on inspection and prize days. The back benches were occupied by the village people who never came to school, as they were more concerned about their livelihood. He was further astounded to know that M Hamel was going to teach his last lesson that day.

Question 7.
Justify the title of the story, ‘The Last Lesson’.
Answer:
The title of the story, ‘The Last Lesson’ is self-relieving. The whole story revolves around the title. The beginning of the story serves as preparation for it. The title also conveys the central theme of the story—the fact that sometimes even the most precious things in our lives are taken for granted. The people of Alsace never gave much importance to the mother tongue, French.

They did not even insist their children to pay any attention to their language. They did not encourage regular attendance of their children in French classes. They preferred their children to work and earn, instead of studying. The order from Prussians made them realise the importance of their mother tongue. So they attend M. Hamel’s last lesson altogether. Thus, the title, ‘The Last Lesson’ is justified.

Question 8.
Write a character sketch of M. Hamel as a teacher.
Answer:
M. Hamel was a true French man who has been teaching French in the districts of Alsace and Lorraine for forty years. He loved his profession and was proud of his language, French. He had a deep sense of respect for his mother tongue. He considered French to be the most beautiful language of the world. As a teacher, he was very particular and strict in imparting knowledge to his students. When France was overtaken by Prussians, he was depressed because French was banned from being taught in the schools. While taking his last lesson, he tried his best to remain calm and composed.

His sorrow was evident in the way he was sitting in the class while his students were completing their writing assignment. He felt tormented at the fact that people had become indifferent to learning French and appealed to them to keep their language alive. He was a true patriot. He believed that mother tongue is a means of holding one’s identity and self-respect. At the end of his last lesson, he writes ‘Vive La France!’ on the blackboard. This shows his love and concern for the people and the language of his country.

Fire and Ice Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight

In this page you can find Fire and Ice Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight, Extra Questions for Class 10 English will make your practice complete.

Fire and Ice Extra Questions and Answers Class 10 English First Flight

Fire and Ice Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Question 1.
How can fire destroy the world?
Answer:’
Fire’ symbolizes passion or hatred. It will lead to conflicts and ultimately result in the destruction of the world. Fire represents desire that is fervent, consuming, always wanting more. Ice represents hatred that ¡s hard and cold.

Question 2.
What message does the poet wish to convey through the poem ‘Fire and ‘Ice’?
What is the central idea of the poem ‘Fire and ‘Ice’?
Answer:
The poet presents two possibilities about the end of the world. It will be either due to ‘Fire and ‘Ice’ he prefers the first as he believes the world will end in fire but the ice will not go away.

Question 3.
What does the poet think about the end of the world?
Answer:
The poet thinks about the end of the world that people think fire is the main cause of destruction. But by the end of the poem he says that both Fire and Ice are equally destructive. Both have the same power of causing destruction.

Question 4.
What do ‘Fire’ and ‘Ice’ symbolize in the poem ‘Fire’ and ‘Ice’?
Answer:
‘Fire’ and ‘Ice’ are symbolized here. ‘Fire’ stands for conflict, fury, intolerance, insensitivity while ‘Ice stands for greed, avarice, lust, rigidity, coldness, indifference, hatred, etc.

Fire and Ice Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
It is a Hobson’s Choice that the poet faces in the poem ‘Fire and Ice’. Illustrate this thought, with the help of examples from the poem.
Answer:
The poem talks about the end of the world by fire, which symbolizes greed in humanity. Others feel that the end will come about by ice, which symbolizes hate. Thus humanity faces a choice which is really no choice, because the end result is destruction in both cases. The choices are illustrated on a personal level, as both of them affect individual destruction equally.

The poet uses a tight and clipped method of presenting the choices to emphasize the importance of his message of there being no alternatives. The theme of the poem, based on destruction through greed and hatred, illustrates the proverb Hobson’s Choice, gives the poem a profound and meaningful undercurrent.

Question 2.
Today’s world is conflict ridden. People fight over various issues and there is no peace in the world. Explain/Describe based on your reading of the poem ‘Fire’ and ‘Ice’.
Answer:
Hatred is a predominant issue in today’s world. Neighbour hates his neighbour, brother hates his brother None is willing to forgive each other or tolerate each other As a result of the hatred we live in a very fragmented world. If hatred continues to rule our lives and world, nothing will remain intact. All our achievements will perish and the world will come to an end If we have to save the world we need to learn how to forget and forgive. For this we need to have enormous amount of love and compassion and be willing to tolerate the differences and learn to get along with each other

Fire and Ice Extra Questions and Answers Reference-to-Context

Read the stanza given below and answer the questions that follow:

Question 1.
Some say the world will end in fire
Some say in ice.
From what I’ve tasted of desire
I hold with those who favour fire.

(a) The above stanza debates whether the world will end in
Answer:
fire or ice

(b) Both the elements mentioned in the first stanza have one similarity i.e. both can
Answer:
end the world

(c) The poet favours those who believe that fire would cause final destruction. (True/False)
Answer:
True

(d) The word that rhymes with ‘fire’ is ……………..
Answer:
desire

Question 2.
But if it had to perish twice,
I think I know enough of hate
To say that for destruction ice
Is also great And would suffice.

(a) ‘Ice’ in the above stanza refers to feelings of ………..
Answer:
coldness/hatred

(b) Both ice and fire will be enough for ………..
Answer:
destruction

(c) The poet wishes that the world should end twice. (True/False)
Answer:
False

(d) Pick up the antonym of ‘inadequate’ from the above stanza.
Answer:
‘suffice’.

Chemistry MCQs for Class 12 Chapter Wise with Answers PDF Download

Chemistry MCQs For Class 12 Chapter Wise With Answers Pdf Download

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