English Grammar for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12

English Grammar for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12

English Grammar: English is an easier and more interesting subject in our school life. From primary to secondary classes, one of the most important subjects is English subject. It helps students to express their feelings in a better way. Building a strong foundation in basic English Grammar Notes aids you form sentences correctly and makes it easier to develop both your spoken and written communication skills.

For CBSE Students, this English Grammar Guide for classes 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 helps you to improve your written skills in both personal and formal communication. This can lead you to score better scores in CBSE English Board Exams from Class 6 to Class 12. Refer to this guide completely and get the Basic & Advanced English Grammar Pdf for classes 6th to 12th.

Free Download English Grammar PDF for Classes 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12

Are you looking to improve Class 12 English writing skills, Class 11 Speaking and Listening Skills, and Class 10, 9, 8, 7, and 6 English Grammar, Reading & Writing skills? Then, click on the below links & practice more on English grammar to score better marks in CBSE English board exams as well as in competitive exams.

English Grammar for Class 12 English Writing Skills

CBSE Class 12 English Reading Comprehension Passages

English Grammar for Class 11 Speaking and Listening Skills

  • Listening
  • Speaking

CBSE Class 11 English Reading Comprehension/Unseen Passages Passages

CBSE Class 11 English Writing

English Grammar for Class 11

English Grammar for Class 10 Reading, Writing

CBSE Class 10 English Reading

CBSE Class 10 English Writing

CBSE Class 10 English Grammar

English Grammar for Class 9 Writing

CBSE Class 9 English Reading

CBSE Class 9 English Writing

CBSE Class 9 English Grammar

English Grammar for Class 8 Reading, Writing

CBSE Class 8 English Reading

CBSE Class 8 English Writing

CBSE Class 8 English Grammar

English Grammar for Class 7 Reading, Writing

CBSE Class 7 English Reading

  • Unseen Passage for Class 7

CBSE Class 7 English Writing

CBSE Class 7 English Grammar

English Grammar for Class 6 Reading, Writing

CBSE Class 6 English Reading

CBSE Class 6 English Writing

CBSE Class 6 English Grammar

How to Practice Learning English Grammar & Writing Skills?

One of the most common & standard tips to practice English grammar is reading English books, newspapers, and watching English movies. Instead these you can also get your hands on some interested practicing English grammar & vocabulary exercises, workbooks, games, & many more. Here are a few tips that you should follow for Learning English Grammar & become pro in it:

  1. Get a good grammar book & Read every day
  2. Learn the Parts of Speech, Phrases, Clauses
  3. Never use a long word where a short one will do.
  4. Learn thesaurus (synonyms & antonyms)
  5. Start writing small essays & edit it
  6. Check for Common errors & punctuations.

If you follow all these tips & tricks while practicing English grammar then you can definitely get proficiency in English reading, speaking, & writing. These skills will help you for sure to secure good marks in your CBSE Class 6th to 12th English board examinations.

FAQs on Basic English Grammar for Class 12th to Class 6th

1. What are the good ways/resources to learn English grammar?

We have curated some good ways/resources to learn English grammar from various appropriate sources & listed in PDF links on our page. So, click on the respective class link from 6th to 12th and become pro in English grammar.

2. How do I prepare English Grammar for CBSE Class 6 to 12 Board Exams?

Make use of our provided class 12th to class 6th English grammar resources & materials links and prepare English grammar skills fluently to score more marks in the CBSE Board Exams.

3. Where can I get CBSE Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 English Grammar, Writing & Reading Resources PDF?

Visit our website Learncram.com & get all classes English Grammar, writing, reading resources in pdf access links for free which helps you to prepare in a better way for your CBSE board exams.

4. Can I download English Grammar Pdf for Class 6 to Class 12?

Yes, you can download class 6th to class 12th English grammar materials in pdf for free from this page.

What are Modes of Communication? | Modes & Types of Communication with Examples,

Modes of Communication

10 Modes of Communication: Communication is the action of sharing and transferring data and information between two or more individuals or a group of some people. Furthermore, all the communication processes require a medium, a message, a sender, and a receiver. Message transmission also involves some emotions and various cultural significances associated with it. And due to some differences in the perception and understanding, the receiver involved in the communication might also not be able to interpret the message according to the original sender’s intentions.

Now moving on to the importance of communication, starting from the business report preparations to answering any phone call or just nodding the head in approval, communication is essential in one form or the other. Furthermore, some modes of communication are also in higher demand in sales or services, and they are also the essential eligibility criteria for applying for such jobs. Thus, for better accomplishment of many duties, modes of communication play a vital role. They are also helpful in bettering relationships in the workplace and enhancing the success chances for careers.

Gossips with friends, conversations on Television, email, and WhatsApp chatting, Chirping of birds, dogs’ barks, receiving details and facts from satellites, and others; all make the entire World a communication-centric one. Sharing all the emotions, feelings, discussing any thoughts, ideas, and opinions, and sharing facts with any individual or group of people is essential in daily life. For all these to seamlessly occur, we must have good communication skills.

Multimodal Communication

Multimodal communication is the communication mechanic that involves various ways like gestures, verbal, written, and others. There are different communication modes involved under the wider criteria of multimodal communication, and it is used widely in higher education for accentuating the students’ learning approach and experiences. There are 5 modes of communication under Multimodal Communication.

  1. Alphabetical or Linguistical Communication
  2. Gestural Communication
  3. Aural Communication
  4. Visual Communication
  5. Spatial Communication

Here is a brief on five modes of communication involved in multimodal communication.

Differences of Communication

Alphabetical or Linguistical Communication

This is among the most popular communication modes. Linguistic or alphabetical communication is referred to the spoken or written communication ways where the sender conveys the message using any written mode or by speaking. For example, audio messages, notes, lists, text messages, etc.

Gestural Communication

The major emphasis of gestural communication is on the body language and physical movements for communicating the messages. The best example of gestural communication mode is Sign Language, as the ones who cannot hear or talk can communicate effectively and easily using the gestures and have a unique set of language for conversation. This communication mode mainly involves the aural, spatial, or linguistic modes. It can be utilized individually if both receiver and sender have common meanings and references to ensure understandable communication.

Aural Communication

As suggested by its name, this communication mode uses audio mode for conveying the messages and communicating. It can use either sounds or spoken audios for communication. The speaker’s voice and pronunciation must be precise and clearer, and there must be zero background noise. For example, music, radio, audiobooks, etc.

Visual Communication

Visual communication refers to the non-verbal communication mode as it involves the visual messages from the sender to the receiver. This was among the oldest communication modes when the ancient people were unaware of any language to communicate with; they used pictures, drawings, and symbols to share their views and communicate. For example, symbols, graphs, pictures, drawings, charts, etc.

Spatial Communication

Spatial communication emphasizes the usage of physical space in texts and the entire written structures to convey different messages and meanings. The physical layout of any written text is designed precisely for making it look in a certain way and associate with any particular theme. Websites also use this unique communication mode to choose some font, design, style, and layout for making the websites user-friendly, attractive, and interactive.

Also, Read:

Three Modes of Communication

Communication is the primary process of sharing messages and information between any set of individuals using certain defined rules, symbols, behavior, and signs. There are three major modes for this process of exchanging messages and information, as briefed below.

  1. Interpretive Communication
  2. Interpersonal Communication
  3. Presentational Communication

Interpretive Communication

This communication mode is also referred to as “one-way communication”. In interpretive communication mode, the details and information that the sender conveys are interpreted by the receiver in its original form without any alterations. The target’s role is to understand the message in both spoken and written forms while keeping various aspects in mind. For example, in any class, the learners might not completely understand every word that the teacher says but are always expected to understand the topics’ main coverage. Some major highlights of interpretative communication are:

  1. Learners start with understanding, interpreting, and analyzing the details that they hear, read, or view on various topics.
  2. This communication model involves interpreting the intents of the author or the producer.
  3. There is currently no alternative available to active negotiations of the meanings with the speakers, writers, or the producers.

Interpersonal Communication

This communication mode is the process in which people exchange data and information via verbal and non-verbal messages. This is not a mediated communication mode, occurring when anyone interacts or attempts to influence one another mutually to manage the relationships. Even though the interpersonal communication mode can involve written, oral, and non-verbal communication forms, this term is applied only and mainly to the spoken communication taking place between two or more individuals on a personal or face to face level. Here is a list of examples that interpersonal communication involves:

  1. Text messages
  2. Emails
  3. Debates
  4. Interactive sessions
  5. Telephonic conversations
  6. Personal Interviews

Presentational Communication

This is the other one-way communication mode that facilitates the interpretation by members of any other group where there is no direct opportunity for active negotiations of the said and understood meanings between members of any two groups. With this communication mode, a person speaks to the audience after being rehearsed, scripted, or pre-prepared. Some major highlights of presentational communication are given below:

  1. For ensuring that the intended audience successfully interprets the presenters’ needs and the presenter is well-versed with the language and culture of the audience.
  2. There is no direct opportunity for engagement with a larger audience base in this communication mode.

Types of Communication

Key Differences between Communication Modes

Based on Type

  • Interpersonal: This is a two-way communication model.
  • Interpretive: This is a one-way communication mode.
  • Presentational: This is also a one-way communication mode

Based on Negotiation

  • Interpersonal: There is a possibility of active negotiations of meanings between the individuals.
  • Interpretive: There is no possibility of active negotiations with any producer, speaker, writer, or author.
  • Presentational: There is no availability of any reasonable means for engaging the mass.

Based on Communication Mode

  • Interpersonal: The main modes of messages’ convey and interpretation are speaking, listening, reading, and writing.
  • Interpretive: The main modes of messages’ convey and interpretation are listening to texts, viewing, and reading.
  • Presentational: The main modes of messages’ convey and interpretation are speaking and writing.

Based on Examples

  • Interpersonal: Text messages, social media, etc.
  • Interpretive: radio news, literature, speeches, articles, etc.
  • Presentational: Reports, flyers, short stories, etc.

Importance of Three Modes of Communication

Here are the importances of Interpretive, Interpersonal, and presentation communication modes:

  1. Help in the maintenance of a smoother flow for conveying information.
  2. Help in devising any plan or strategy for reaching a pre-defined goal.
  3. Help in building soft skills and cordial relationships.
  4. They help in making the entire decision-making process more effective and lesser time-consuming.
  5. With the help of these, conflict management and problem-solving get easier.

10 Modes of Communication

Across the globe, people use various communication modes and methods for delivering their messages. Here is a brief on ten communication modes. Unlike the previous three major communication modes, presentational, interpretive, and interpersonal, the below-mentioned modes are not based entirely on human interaction during the communication. However, they are based more on the sources used for communication.

  • Only Typewriting: In this communication method, only typing serves for making communication possible. For example, messages and emails.
  • Only Handwriting: In this method, the communication from the sender and receiver ends is based solely on the handwriting. For example, teachers correcting the students’ notebooks and writing comments or remarks on them.
  • Only Voice: In this method, the communication is only done using voice. For example, a phone call or any normal verbal communication.
  • Only Video: here, all the parties involved in the communication make use of videos for communicating. For example, a video call.
  • Handwriting and typing: In this communication method, any of the communicators use handwriting for sharing their message with the other one who uses typing to relay the response.
  • Typewriting and Video: Here, any communicator uses typewriting for sharing messages, and the other uses video for the responses.
  • Handwriting and Video: Here, any communicator uses handwriting to share messages, and the other uses video for the responses.
  • Voice and Typewriting: Here, any communicator uses voice for sharing messages, and the other uses typewriting for the responses.
  • Voice and Handwriting: Here, any one of the communicators use voice for sharing messages, and the other uses handwriting for the responses.
  • Voice and Video: Here, any one of the communicators use voice for sharing messages, and the other uses video for the responses.

Cultural and Intercultural Communication Modes

Several cultural communication modes are specific to certain areas and cultures only. They can be any symbolic usage, any action, some specific body language, etc. Any person’s culture is not only about their eating habits and their outfits, but it also varies in the manner of their communication and how they convey their messages.

Cultural Difference in the Communication Ways

While making use of verbal communication, there are different cultures with different languages, dialects, and accents. Furthermore, the volume and tone of communication also differ from one place to another. For example, the tone of any native German speaker might be angrier than that of a British one, even if both of them communicate in the same language, say English.

In non-verbal communication, many differences might lead to miscommunication in intercultural discussions. Some major non-verbal communication modes that vary from place to place are:

  • TouchEye Contact
  • Gestures
  • Facial Expressions
  • Physical Space
  • Posture


Communication is the mode of conveying messages and sharing them in various ways. There are different communication modes available globally, and all of them are essential in one way or the other. Furthermore, there are also several variations and differences in the communication modes, based on the needs, place, usage, and tools considered for effective communication.

Non Technical Topics for Group Discussions | How To Prepare for Group Discussions?

Non Technical Topics for Group Discussions

Non-Technical Topics for Group Discussions: A group discussion popularly referred to as GD is a very go-to term among students and job applicants. It is used as a parameter to judge a person’s presence of mind and analytical skills.

A group discussion brings forward a person’s true nature- whether they have qualities like leadership skills or the ability to stand out in a group of people alike. It highlights a person’s communication skills and the ability to work in a team and still be distinguished. A Group Discussion is an essential aspect of various interviews for jobs and admission into certain educational institutions.

According to the type of the course or the field concerned in the job profile, group discussions vary. However, non-technical topics and topics of general interest are common irrespective of the sphere of the course. Here is a list of the non-technical topics on current affairs & potential issues you might want to consider preparing for your following group discussion.

Must Refer: Career Objective for a Fresher 

To know more click the below links:

List of Non Technical Topics for Group Discussions on Environment

Here comes the first list of Non Technical Topics for Group Discussions based on Environmental issues:

  • Air Quality
  • Are Dams a Disruption to the Natural Flow of the Rivers?
  • Cutting of Hills and Clearing of Forests to Level the Land
  • Deposition of Waste in the Flow of the Rivers
  • Effects of Dumping E-waste into Landfills
  • Harmful Effects of Blaring Music
  • Importance of Sanitation
  • Revival of Groundwater Reservoirs
  • Save Wildlife and Environment
  • Shift to the Renewable Sources of Energy
  • Should Burning of Fodder be Made Illegal?
  • Should Bursting of Firecrackers be Banned?
  • Swacch Bharat Mission
  • Usage of Fossil Fuels in Household Chores
  • Vehicular Pollution

Do Check: Declaration in Resume for Freshers

Non Technical Topics for Presentation or Group Discussions

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Media
  • Air Pollution
  • Child Labour
  • Chromatography
  • Classroom Management
  • Climate Change
  • Communication Skills
  • Covid-19 and its Impact on World Economy
  • Cyber Crimes
  • Disaster Management
  • Ecosystem
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Food Engineering
  • Hypothesis
  • Identity Theft
  • Impact of Technology in Crime Prevention
  • Impact of Technology on Teaching and Learning
  • International law
  • Internet & Traditional Media
  • Inventory Management
  • Juvenile Justice System
  • Land Pollution
  • Leadership
  • Logistics Management
  • Marine Pollution
  • Marketing Strategy
  • Mass Media
  • Materials Management
  • Natural Resources
  • Noise Pollution
  • Online Learning: Benefits, Challenges, and Opportunities
  • Operations Management
  • Organic Farming
  • Principles of Management
  • Radioactive Pollution
  • Social Media and Social Businesses
  • Soft Skills
  • Sources of Water
  • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Teamwork
  • Technology & Medical Science
  • Thermal Pollution
  • Water Pollution

List of General Non-Technical Topics for GD

  • Importance of entrepreneurs over managers
  • Importance of GD in campus placements
  • Should capital punishment be banned?
  • Do rehab centers help criminals and transform them?
  • Co-ed, a boon or bane?
  • work-life balance is merely a myth
  • effect of the year 2020 on 2021
  • death penalty- punishment for rape
  • EVM- a better option than paper ballots
  • Films- a cause for social evils
  • The right to die
  • Seniority or merit- criteria for promotion
  • Right to privacy- an absurd demand
  • Indian television- a source of idiocy
  • India- the next potential superpower
  • India- still developing

Non Technical Topics On Current Affairs List

  • Is E-learning the future?
  • Is E-learning as effective as classroom learning?
  • Work from home- hampering work-life balance
  • India does not have enough infrastructure to endure a cashless economy
  • Virtual learning s affecting a child’s creativity
  • Web series over films
  • Can women be in a combat role?
  • Artificial intelligence- a bane for jobs
  • Cryptocurrency- the best mode to invest in
  • Indian reality shows
  • Nuclear war- the next big thing
  • News channel- truth or exaggeration
  • The government should do away with Reservation based on
  • Water scarcity- cause for World War III
  • No relaxation in punishment for juvenile rapists
  • Ram temple – a source of work

Political Topic for Group Discussions

Political & Social Issues for Group Discussion

  • Good relations between India and Pakistan- a myth
  • Aadhaar card linkage is absurd and
  • Democracy- a harsh lie in today’s India
  • Bi-party system in India
  • NOTA- a vote wasted
  • Parliamentary rule vs Presidential rule
  • Parliament ticket to ministers with criminal records- biggest irony
  • Bureaucrats and politics
  • Politics- a necessary evil

Economic Topics for GD

  • Indian IT industry is a significant boon for the US economy
  • Unemployment allowance- advantages and disadvantages
  • GST- successful or unsuccessful
  • Illiteracy- root cause for poverty in India
  • Privatization of public sectors
  • Cryptocurrency- relevance in future
  • E-commerce- the reality of all the discounts offered by various online shopping sights
  • Online shopping- a threat to small and local business
  • Mission Mars- wastage of a huge capital
  • Economic reforms required to transform India
  • India- the next financial giant
  • Job or Entrepreneurship- the better option

Abstract Group Discussion Topics

  • Justice delayed is justice denied
  • Dictatorship in India- the harsh future
  • Do deadlines kill creativeness?
  • Blood is thicker than
  • Borderless world- a reality?
  • Change- the only constant
  • Clever work vs Hard work
  • It is intelligent to be a little dumb
  • Rich is synonymous with success
  • Selfie mania- a severe syndrome
  • Ignorance is bliss
  • Beauty contests- setting demanding beauty standards
  • Is there always a second chance?
  • Modernization- an end to the world
  • Insanity is an essential gd topic
  • Unconditional love- a myth?

General Non Technic Topics

How To Prepare for Non-Technical Topics for Group Discussions?

  • The best and most effective way to break the ice is by having a short session where everyone introduces themselves.
  • To stay a step ahead of others, you have to be aware of the current affairs around Reading newspapers should be included in the daily routine.
  • Intense eye contact is a symbol of confidence. When you speak in a group discussion, make sure to maintain eye contact with the other speakers- it will bring forward your spirit and help you put on your point with firmness.
  • Take the initiative to start the group discussion. It is an indication of the leadership quality you Make a start on a positive note and give a brief overview of the topic.
  • Be loud and Do not repeat the same points over and over again. Be clear with what you want to speak. Do not beat about the bush and arrive straight at the topic.
  • Do not speak about things that are not in alignment with the topic to buy
  • Give others a chance to speak. Make a note of the points others say and, if possible, elaborate those points in your Be a good listener and add to the facts.
  • Using examples is always a better option to explain the given topic rather than going into
  • It is always a great option if you are the one to conclude the group discussion. Please consider all the points spoken by your fellow speakers, merge them with your issues, and end the session with
  • Although first impressions are not always the last impressions, they do considerably affect the Take care of your grooming. Wear ironed clothes and have a polished look. A shabby and dirty look will add a negative aspect to your presentation.
  • Last but not least, be confident with what you are speaking and nail your group

FAQ’s on Group Discussion Topics 2020 – 2021

Question 1.
Is the MBA essential to survive in the business world?

Having an MBA degree is always an added advantage. Compared to a bachelor’s degree holder, a person with an MBA degree is more successful. It broadens the career aspects and boosts your chance of survival in the business world. However, many people have been no less successful without an MBA degree. Ultimately, what matters is your determination to reach the pinnacle of success. Degrees will merely open doors for you. Whether you want to enter through the door is entirely up to you to decide.

Question 2.
Sport is an essential aspect during the growing years of a child.

” All work and no play make Jack a dull boy.” is a common saying and very relevant in today’s world of the rat race. I completely agree with the statement. With the pressure of studying increasing day by day, a child is presented with failure and success from a very young age. They tend to lose their innocence. The best place to learn all life lessons is the sports field. When a child plays a game, they know qualities like endurance. It increases the fitness level of a child and boosts their thinking capabilities. In other words, sports play a significant role in building the character of a child.

Question 3.
The government should take measures to stop the brain drain.

In India, the brain drains a significant cause of concern. The concerned authorities should address the causes first to stop this. One of the grounds is the lack of opportunities and interference of political leaders at every single step. The recruiting agencies should give all the skilled people the proper importance to stop them from migrating to other countries and help India from growing from a developing to a developed country.

Question 4.
Elaborate your views on the relevance of the topic ” Rules are meant to be broken ” in current circumstances.

In the present scenario, with the COVID rapidly clawing its way into our society, the statement fails to hold any ground. If we stop abiding by the rules, we will only make the situation worse and difficult to survive. Wearing masks and maintaining a social distance should be our top priority. Maintaining proper hygiene and taking sanitization measures should be elaborated. We must follow the rules unless we want to invite our doom’s day.

Question 5.
What are your views on the effect of the cinema on the youth?

The youth constitute a significant population of our country. The future of our country is hanging on the young generation. However, few films negatively impact the young minds, and the youth is swayed away. The kind of violence shown in the movies is not a good thing for the young audience. At the same time, some film positively influences them. Every coin has two sides. Similarly, the effect of cinema on the youth is two-fold.

Question 6.
What is the need for good leaders in India?

India is potentially the next superpower. To make this possibility a reality, India is in dire need of good leaders who will lead her into becoming a superpower to whom all other countries will look up. For becoming an economic giant, she needs the guidance of educated and selfless leaders who will put her before themselves. With the help of good leaders, India will undoubtedly be the next big thing in no time.

Best ASL Topics List | Tips and Tricks for Listening and Speaking Test

ASL Topics

It is necessary for us to acknowledge the fact that in order to groom students properly it is advisable for them to be both good speakers and good listeners. In a Multilingual Country like India, the common mode of communication when it comes to language in all kinds of Business in English. This is the reason CBSE introduced and made ASL compulsory for all those who pass out from the board.

Assessment of Speaking and Listening is a subject added in the CBSE Curriculum and evaluates the students listening and speaking skills in English. ASL Test created is to check the critical and analytical reasoning skills of a student through various questions. By going through the complete article, you will have an Overview of the ASL Test and What are Topics you need to prepare for.

ASL Test Overview

ASL Test comprises two sections of language with regards to communication such as listening and speaking. Let us discuss in detail to understand the mechanism followed.

Listening Test

Students are made to sit in an audio-visual-enabled room and two videos will be played. In which, one is based on a conversation and the other includes a speech. Examiner will play the audio twice and you need to solve certain questions based on that. Remember the audio can’t be paused so you need to be attentive. There is no negative marking for incorrect answers.

Speaking Test

In this test, students are randomly paired. They need to prepare for a speech from one of the ASL Topics with the students allocated to them by the teachers or with the students chosen by themselves. Both the students will present the topic when their turn comes and the examiner will post a few general questions. Answers are recorded on voice recorders and students will be given a chance to ask questions to each other on the respective topics.

ASL Topics List


Topics created around Technology can test students’ general awareness of things happening around him/her and emphasizing the use of the right terminology throughout the content. Below is the list of some of the Important Topics on Technology and they are as follows

  • Educational Technology
  • Future of technology in India
  • Online classes during a lockdown
  • Teens on social media
  • Online social networking for elders
  • Smartphones vs smart people
  • Searching answers on google
  • Open Book Exams
  • Mandatory CBT for IIT-JEE
  • Are smart classes smart enough?
  • Positive Effects of Gaming
  • Augmented Reality vs Virtual Reality
  • Social media ethics
  • E-sports
  • Online Games: Good or Bad?
  • The Future of Gaming

Based on Human Rights

Social Topics are useful in diverse fields such as Interviews, Group Discussions, Presentations. These can reveal the perception of students and often reveal their political or ideological stance while giving an insight into student’s oratory skills.

  • LGBT rights
  • Child marriage
  • The true idea of feminism
  • Child labor
  • Human trafficking
  • Article 370
  • Right to Vote
  • Right to Education

Current Education System in India

Education Topics is a practical way to know the student’s take on the current Education System and the ways to improvise it. Students having a strong sense of awareness can be good at these kinds of topics. Below is the list of questions asked on the Education System in India.

  • Should the education ministry regulate with the government or should it be an independent entity?
    Modern Education System
  • Digitization of classes in India
  • Need for caste-category based reservation in 2020
  • Advantages of Co-education in India
  • The rat race of competitive exams
  • New Education Policy 2020
  • Exam pressure on teenagers
  • Curbing the distance between urban and rural schools
  • Online Exams: Merits and Demerits

Student Life

From the below-listed topics, one can know the students take on their perceptive towards lives. This is a major topic as it appears most of the time in the ASL Spoken Test. Some of the popular questions asked on this topic are as such

  • Coping with exam pressure in an effective way
  • Uniforms: Compulsory or Optional
  • Rising cases of harassment in schools
  • War against ragging by seniors
  • Importance of Value Education
  • Handling peer pressure
  • Drug abuse
  • Regulating the use of Social Media
  • Are parent-teacher meetings necessary?
  • Improving the student-teacher relationship

ASL Topics Based on India

Some of the major India Based ASL Topics are presented below. You can get Topics relevant to the Social, Political, Economic Environment of India. They are along the lines

  • Make in India
  • Indian Tourism
  • Corruption in India
  • Digital India
  • My Dream for India
  • Poverty in India
  • India: The Land of Great Personalities
  • Film Censorship in India
  • Your Views on Ideal India
  • The Changing Face of India
  • Problem of Piracy in India

Topics on Global Affairs

Global Affairs is an insightful topic and needs a higher level of acquaintance with both international affairs and recent environment development. Few of the Popular Topics include

  • Global Warming
  • Possibility of World War-III
  • Regulation of international trade
  • Inflation and Recession
  • Distribution of the commonwealth
  • Countries minimizing the intake of foreign employees

Environment and Sustainable Development

Environmental Issues are the commonly asked topic in the ASL Tests. Go through the following ASL Topics on Environment beforehand.

  • Environment Conservation
  • Alternative Sources of Energy
  • Sustainable Development
  • Sustainable Management of Natural Resources
  • Essay on Environment
  • Save Environment
  • Save Water
  • Environment and its Importance
  • Save Electricity
  • Climate Change
  • Preservation of Wildlife
  • Problem of Overpopulation
  • Environment and Ecotechnology
  • Australian Forest Fires

Media and Society

Media is the third pillar of society and is considered the watchdog of society. Popular ASL and JAM Topics on Media and Society are in the below fashion

  • Impact of Media on Technology
  • Importance of Media
  • Role of Media in a Democracy
  • Censorship in Media
  • Issue of Fake News and Misinformation on Social Media
  • Importance and Role of Media in Crime Prevention
  • Relevance of Newspapers
  • Media Trial: Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Mass Media and Stereotypes
  • Social Media and News
  • Advantages of Social Media
  • Sensitization in Media
  • Traditional Media vs Online/Digital Media

Motivational and Inspirational ASL Topics

In addition to the above-cited topics, there are various motivational and inspirational topics for ASL. The most recurring topics in school depending on proverbs, general knowledge, creative topics, and innovative ideas are as under. Here are some of them

  • Overcoming Fear
  • Importance of Reading Books
  • Lessons to be learned from great personalities
  • Hard work vs smart work
  • If I were a Millionaire
  • A friend in need is a friend indeed
  • Value of Discipline
  • A Memorable Day of My Life
  • Importance of Yoga in a Student’s Life
  • Hard work is the key to success or is it?
  • Generation Gap
  • Importance of Time Management for Students
  • Importance of Mental Health
  • Greatest Inventors and Inventions in the History of Humankind

Also, Check:

ASL Tips & Tricks to Keep in Mind

Spontaneous Speaking can be overwhelming for students at the school level. Understanding of the Topic and prior knowledge on the topic are of greater importance in an ASL Test. However, to make your presentation impactful you need to follow certain points in mind and they are as follows

  • Do take regular pauses so that it shows your confidence and helps you look well-versed.
  • Don’t fumble while speaking and keep pronunciation in mind.
  • Better use simple words while keeping the ASL Spoken Language concise and clear.
  • Use Voice Modulation so that content doesn’t sound monotone.
  • Ask relevant and unique questions to create interest.
  • Do remember it is a discussion, not a debate. It can be a negative indicator if you get defensive during question rounds.

 FAQs on ASL Topics

1. What is the fullform of ASL?

ASL stands for Assessment of Speaking and Listening.

2. What are some interesting Motivational and Inspirational ASL Topics?

Some of the Motivational and Inspirational ASL Topics are outlined below. They are as such

  • Overcoming Fear
  • Importance of Reading Books
  • Lessons to be learned from great personalities
  • Hard work vs smart work
  • If I were a Millionaire
  • A friend in need is a friend indeed
  • Value of Discipline
  • A Memorable Day of My Life
  • Importance of Yoga in a Student’s Life
  • Hard work is the key to success or is it?

3. How do you end in ASL?

You can end your ASL Speech by providing a strong and relatable quote along with a life lesson that can help others.

Poetic Devices With Examples | Definitions, Uses, Different Types, and Reasons of Poetic Devices

Poetic Devices

Poetic Devices Meaning: What are poetic devices? Poetic devices are colloquially known as literary devices which are used in the writing of poetry. Most of the poems are created with the help of these poetic devices along with other structural, grammatical, rhythmic, metrical, verbal, and visual elements. These poetic devices are usually used to create a unique rhythm in the lines of the poetry and also to enhance the true meaning of the poem.

Often it is visible that due to the use of these devices, the mood or the feelings that the poet wants to express in the poem is further intensified to another level altogether. For any poetry to become a masterpiece, what is most important is to bring about lucidity in the tone and pattern of writing. Be it a free verse type of poetry or a sonnet, to bring out the best essence of poetry writing, one has to make sure the writing is soothing and rhythmic.

Must Refer: Branches of Linguistics

The good news is that with the help of simple poetic devices, one can easily make writing more pragmatic. It is a known fact that any kind of craft demands serious attention and skilled craftsmanship. The case is just the same for poetry writing, as well. For making the poem more expressive, it is important to add further flavour and texture to the technique of writing. The use of poetic devices is a source of adding these flavours and textures to bring out a better sense of expression through one’s poetry.

What are Poetic Devices? All About Poetic Forms and Devices

Poetic devices are a form of literary devices which are used in poetry. By using the different types of poetic devices, poetry can be created. The elements that are used in poetry are such as structural, grammatical, rhythmic, metrical, verbal, and visual elements. These poetic devices are the essential tools applied by poets to create rhythm, enhance a poem’s meaning, or intensify a mood or feeling represented in the poem.

For better knowledge about poetic devices continue your read and get deeper insights on types of poetic forms and devices and why we use them in creating a poem.

Why is it Essential to Use Poetic Devices?

Although the use of any poetic device is optional, it is considered to be very important because these poetic devices are used to intensify the emotion that the writer tries to bring about in the poem. Besides this, these poetic devices are also responsible for adding an exciting rhythm to the poem, which in turn makes the poem more meaningful.

When these poetic devices are used in an interesting manner, they tend to add a visible sense of beauty to the poems. These devices also intensify the true meaning of the poems by boosting the style of writing and making it more dramatic and intimidating. The use of these devices brings out the emotions hidden in the poem in the best manner, which often leaves the reader in a sheer sense of mesmerization.

Types of Poetic Devices

Important Reasons for Using Poetic Devices

  • Poetic devices are known to add beautiful rhythm and tone to the writing style of poetry. This involves the use of rhyming words and interesting sound effects, among others.
  • These poetic devices are also known to boost the ideas and imagery present in the poems. This involves the use of similes, metaphors and other natural imagery expressing techniques, among others.
  • Poetic devices are also responsible for improving or intensifying all the feelings and emotions which the writer wants to express through the poem. It boosts the all-over essence of the poem. This involves the use of devices like personification and irony, among others.
  • Any kind of poem consisting of any kind of theme becomes more meaningful when some or the other poetic device is used to make the wordplay more enjoyable. This process includes the use of different poetic devices such as similes, metaphors, allusions, among others.
  • Such poetic devices also act as a guideline for adding structural patterns to the style of writing poetry. These devices also help to derive the form of the poem, which might either be a sonnet or a ballad or any other type of poetry.

Different Types of Poetic Devices

Poetic devices can be of three different types depending on the kind of words that are being used. Each of these poetic devices can be used for different purposes to bring out the best in a poem. The three different types of poetic devices are as followers:-

  • Poetic Devices Based On The Sound Of Words: Such poetic devices depend completely upon the sounds of the words that are being used. Some examples of this type of poetic device are alliteration, assonance, consonance, and cacophony, among others.
  • Poetic Devices Based On The Meaning Of The Words: Such poetic devices completely depend upon the meanings of the words which are being used by the poet in the poem. Some examples of this kind of poetic device are allegory, allusion, irony, and metaphor, among others.
  • Poetic Devices Based On The Arrangements Of The Words: Such poetic devices are related more to the structure of the poem rather than the tone or the style. They completely depend upon the arrangement pattern of the words used by the poet in the poem. Examples of these kinds of devices are verses and rhyme schemes.

Also Read: 50 Difficult Words with Meanings 

20 Poetic Devices You Should Know!

The list of the 20 most commonly used Poetic Devices is here. Interested persons can check & try these interesting poetic devices with examples in English literature:

  1. Alliteration
  2. Allusion
  3. Assonancer
  4. Consonance
  5. Irony
  6. Metaphor
  7. Similes
  8. Ode
  9. Repetition
  10. Rhyme
  11. Onomatopoeia
  12. Stanzas
  13. Word Play
  14. Calligram
  15. Imagery
  16. Personification
  17. Refrain
  18. Kenning
  19. Couplets
  20. Rhythm

Poetic Devices Based on the Sound of Words

10 Poetic Devices With Examples are as follows:


Alliteration is referred to the multiple repetitions of a consonant which happens to be the first letter of multiple words. This repetition takes place multiple times in close syllables within the same group of words. This technique is actually used by the poet to guide the reader’s attention towards a single part of the text. This technique also adds a sense of rhythm to the writing as the same sound is repeated over and over again to represent a particular connotation.


  • Fast and Furious
  • Kim’s kid kept kicking like crazy
  • The woods are lovely dark, and deep
  • Andrew patted the pony
  • Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
  • Live and let Live


Assonance refers to the repetitive sound of a vowel that is present in words in the same sentences. These words might either be together or near to each other. This poetic device basically refers to the sounds that are accented or stressed more in a particular line. This device is also used to focus the mind of the reader on a particular area of the text. This device stresses more on a particular feeling or an expression making it stand out among other parts of a poetry.


  • The cat is out of the bag
  • Goodnight, sleep tight, don’t let the bedbugs bite
  • Winner winner chicken dinner
  • Motion of the ocean
  • That solitude which suits abstruser musings
  • On a pound round cloud in white high night

Consonance – Consonance as a poetic device is very similar to assonance. In assonance, the vowel sound is repetitive, whereas, in consonance, the consonant’s sound is repetitive. These consonants are a part of words that are together are a part of the same whole sentence. In this case, the syllables are known as the consonants and are placed at the end of each word that is being used. Like most of the other poetic devices, which are based on sound, the purpose of consonance is also to focus the attention on the reader in a particular area or segment of the text.


  • Boats into the past
  • Cool Soul
  • He struck a streak of bad luck
  • When Billie looked at the trailer, she smiled and laughed

Cacophony – Cacophony is a very interesting poetic device that is known to create a state of chaos or a sense of unpleasantness in the mind of the readers. It refers to the use of an unmusical series of weird and unpleasant sounds, which actually stands for a disorder or discomfort. This type of poetic device is usually used by the poet to bring about the essence of discomfort or a discordant situation in the minds of the readers. This technique works in such a way that it actually creates a sense of unpleasantness in the reader’s mind. The most important part of using this technique is to use the correct kind of words.


  • “I detest war because the cause of war is always trivial.”
  • “Where spouting pillars spoor the evening sky.”
  • “Of dynamos, where hearing’s leash is strummed…”

Euphony – The word euphony has been derived from the Greek word called euphonious, which in normal terms means sweet voice. Thus euphony is a poetic device that is usually used to bring about a very sweet and melodious sound effect to the style of writing. This device tends to give a pleasing and soothing effect to the readers by using repetitive sounds of vowels and smooth consonants. Most of the time this poetic device is used with other poetic devices like rhyme, assonance or alliteration to create a better and more soothing effect on the writing style. This device is also known to bring about a peaceful and pleasant feel in any piece of literary work and convey the expression or message more efficiently.


  • Seasons of mists and mellow fruitfulness.
  • Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;
  • Success is counted sweetest by those who ne’er succeed.
  • Courage!’ he said, and pointed towards the land,
  • ‘This mounting wave will roll us shoreward soon.’

Rhyme – Rhyme is an interesting and fun technique that refers to the use of words which has similar sound effects at the end of each sentence. This technique is known to bring about a sense of musicality to the poems. The use of this poetic device is known to differentiate poetry from prose and is known to create a pleasing effect in the poem. Rhyming sentences actually makes it easier for people to learn the poems swiftly and makes the poems much more fun and enjoyable.


  • Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall

Humpty Dumpty had a great fall.

  • Baa Baa black sheep, have you any wool?

Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full!

  • Mary had a little lamb its fleece was white as snow;

And everywhere that Mary went, the lamb was sure to go.

Uses of Poetic Devices

Poetic Devices Based on the Meanings of Words

Allegory – Allegory is a very effective poetic device that actually represents the abstract ideas that the poet wants to put forward in the form of characters, events, and figures. This particular device is not restricted to poetry but can be used in any part of prose as well. Allegory’s fundamental work is to narrate a story or express the essence of the plot. In the case of poetry, it helps to narrate the idea on which the entire plot is based. Most of the time, the primary idea behind using an allegory to put forward a moral lesson.


  • The Pilgrim’s Progress by John Bunyan
  • The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser

Allusion – Allusion primarily refers to indirect references made in a piece of literary work. These references might include a reference to a particular place, person, or idea. These ideas might be either political or historical, and cultural. An allusion is known to be a very brief reference and does not discuss anything with proper details. It might be compared to a passing comment; it touches the idea but does not explain it. When such allusions are used, the reader is expected to understand the idea with the knowledge they have.


  • “Don’t act like a Romeo in front of her.” – Here the word “Romeo” is a reference to one of Shakespeare’s famous characters from Romeo and Juliet. The reader is expected to know and understand this fact without any explanation. Here “Romeo” also refers to a compassionate lover as it was in Shakespeare’s work.
  • “This place is like a garden of Eden.” Here the garden of Eden refers to the garden of God in Genesis. The reader is again expected to know and understand this fact without any explanation.

Irony – Irony is a very interesting poetic device that is used to represent a contradictory situation. Such kinds of situations are expected to end in one manner but actually ends up in some other manner. Irony is known to make the difference between reality and appearance clearer to the readers. An Irony is used to bring about a more defined style of writing in the poem which in turn further develops the reader’s interest. The use of this poetic device intrigues the reader’s mind and compels them to imagine and assume the hidden meaning.


  • Water, water, everywhere,

And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any drop to drink.

Metaphor – A Metaphor primarily refers to a comparison in between two very unlikely things. This device is used to bring about the resemblance between two things that are known to be completely different from each other. However, the comparison stated in such cases is absolutely direct and is not hidden, and does not need to be assumed. But such comparisons are very different from a simile.


  • If music be the food of love, play on.
  • Adults are just obsolete children and the hell with them.
  • Time is a drug. Too much of it kills you.
  • Hope is the thing with feathers.

Oxymoron – Oxymoron basically refers to the use of two contradictory ideas which are put together one beside the other or as a part of a sentence to create an interesting effect. These types of devices make the writing more interesting and engaging.


  • Good night, good night! parting is such sweet sorrow,
  • That I shall say good night till it be morrow.
  • Stop all the clocks, cut off the telephone,

Prevent the dog from barking with a juicy bone,
Silence the pianos and with muffled drum
Bring out the coffin, let the mourners come.

Personification – Personification is another very interesting poetic device that is used to give an animal, an idea or a particular thing a human-like characteristic. When any non-human object is defined as a human being, the entire concept is referred to as personification. This device makes any writing very impactful and interesting.


  • The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.
  • The run-down house appeared depressed.
  • The first rays of morning tiptoed through the meadow.
  • She did not realize that opportunity was knocking at her door.
  • He did not realize that his last chance was walking out the door.
  • The bees played hide and seek with the flowers as they buzzed from one to another.

Simile – A simile refers to different types of direct comparisons which are made in literary texts. It puts forward the difference between two things that have no similarity with each other. Words like “like” or “as” are used to draw comparisons.


  • During the house fire, my Dad was as brave as a lion.
  • Sunday is a cleaning day. By the time we’re done, the house is as clean as a whistle.
  • That teacher was as dull as dishwater.
  • I think my grandfather is as old as these hills!
  • This house of cards is as sturdy as an oak.
  • My best friend sings like an angel.
  • After I received that “A” on my spelling test, I thought I might soar like an eagle.
  • Gah! Her voice sounds like nails on a chalkboard!
  • In our eighth-grade pageant, we shone like stars.

Poetic Devices Based on Arrangements of Words

These types of poetic devices can be divided into two types. The first type is verse. Verse stands for either a single line of a poem or a specific paragraph, or a stanza. The verse can be further divided into two types, namely free verse and blank verse. A free verse refers to a style of writing that does not have a set manner. The lines in such verses are not rhythmic or rhyming. Whereas a blank verse also does not offer any rhyming pattern but has the use of iambic pentameter.

A Rhyme Scheme is known to add a rhyming effect to a poem by utilization of words that almost sound similar. When this device is added to poetry, it sounds more musical and rhythmic. There are many different types of verses that can be used. Some of them are alternate rhyme, ballade, monorhyme, couplet, triplet, enclosed rhyme, terza rima rhyme scheme, limerick and villanelle, and Keats odes rhyme scheme.

Must Check: Modes of Communication

Conclusion on Poetic Devices with Examples in English Literature

Want to take your zest for literature to the next level but not sure of where to pursue such programs? Need not worry! Visit our site ie., LearnCram.com, and take some guidance from the experts, and pick the best university to complete the documentation process without any trouble.

Best Online Word Generator: Unscramble Words from the Given Letters

Are you looking for a tool that generates words for your games like scrabble, and word with friends? Whether you play a word game or challenge your friends, the solution to win is a word solver or word generator. This word generator is the perfect tool to create new words. If you are searching for random words or searching for a scrabble word, this tool will generate all possible words with the given set of letters. Using this tool is also very easy. Whatever letters you give to this generator turn into new words. Are you eagerly waiting to know how these word generators work? Let’s find it out.

In this article, we are going to discuss what is this word generator, how it works, and when to use it. And also check the other articles we have on our unscrambleguru.com website.

What is a Word Generator?

Word Generator is the ultimate tool that helps you to find new words easily. Once you give the letters you need then automatically it generates a list of new words easily and you need to pick the answer you need for your game or anything. People use this word solver or word generator for various reasons. And it is user-friendly and free of cost. You no need to use paid tools for your games like scrabble as we have many free tools online.

Word Finder Unscramble Guru

Unscramble Words from the Given Letters

Words List by Length

How Does this Creative Word Generator Tool Work?

We are going to provide the guidelines in detail on how to use this word generator tool. Check it out carefully to use it easily.

  • If you are playing any word game and stuck with some letters, give the letters as input in the allocated box.
  • And then, click the search button, that provides you with the perfect list of words in a fraction of seconds.
  • If you are trying to make new words or playing a game, just decide the letters to give as inputs and then you can also decide starting letter, ending letter, and middle letter and you can also give the length of it that gives you an exact answer that you need.
  • And all these words used by the word generator are taken from the  English dictionary as it was approved by the government.

Why Do you Need this Phrase Generator?

All these word finder tools are very useful for daily online word game users, and here we are going to discuss why and when you need to use these tools and where they will be useful.

  • Many people will have a lot of confusion when naming babies or pets. More than simply thinking of names, use this word generator tool to name your baby. Simply give the letters that you have or like and make the new word. It will be a unique and easy way.
  • The main reason to create these word generator tools is only for word games, for every word game we have a specific word generator. For example, if you are playing scrabble you have a scrabble cheat, and if you want to unjumble words we have a jumble solver.
  • And also many people like to use this word generator tool as an anagram solver. In this, we will give the word to the word generator and based on the letters we have given will make a list of new words from the dictionary.

Frequently Asked Questions on Word Generator from Letters

1. How many letters do we need to use in this word generator tool?

There is no limit, it is our wish to use those many letters we need.

2. What is the best word finder tool?

The word generator tool is the best word finder tool.

3. Which website is best for a phrase generator tool?

Unscrambleguru.com is the best website for phrase generator tools.

Reported Speech: Direct and Indirect speech

Reported Speech: Whenever you are quoting someone else’s words, you use two kinds of speeches – Direct or Indirect speech. In this chapter, we will learn all about Direct and Indirect speech and how to convert one into another.

Reported speech- How does it work?

Reported speech- How does it work

Whenever you report a speech there’s a reporting verb used like “say” or “tell”. For example:

Direct speech: I love to play football.

Reported speech: She said that she loves to play football. (Note 1 : Assume a gender if not mentioned already.

Note 2: Using “that” is optional. This sentence could also have been written as “She said she loves to play football.”)

The tense doesn’t have to be changed in this case of reported speech. But of the reporting verb is in the past tense, we do change the tense of the sentence.

Reported speech- Play of the tenses:

Direct speech tense Indirect/Reported speech tense
Simple present simple past
present continous past continuous
simple past past perfect
past continuous past perfect continuous
present perfect tense past perfect tense
past perfect tense past perfect tense

This is a summary table that will be crystal clear to you as you read further. Just come back to this table after this section and use this as a summary table:

Tense Direct speech Reported speech Changed tense
Simple present I like to swim in the ocean She said she liked to swim in the ocean Simpe past
Simple present I live in New Orleans He said he lived in New Orleans Simpe past
Past simple I went to school in the morning She said she had gone to school that morning Past perfect
Present continuous I was going to the Himalayas He said he was going to the Himalayas Past continuous
Past continuous I was walking near the beach She said that she had been walking near the beach past perfect continuous
Present perfect I have caught a few fishes She said she had caught a few fishes past perfect
Past perfect I had trekked the Himalayas this time last year He said he had trekked the Himalayas this time last year Past perfect

Some word transitions from direct to reported speech that will come in handy:

  • Will becomes would
  • Can becomes could
  • would stays would
  • should stays should
  • must stays must or had to(matter of choice)
  • shall becomes should

Exception: A present tense in direct speech may not become a past tense in the reported speech if it’s a fact or something generic we are talking about in the sentence. For example-

Direct speech: The sun rises from the East.

Reported speech: She said that the sun rises/rose from the East.

Reported speech- Handling questions:

What happens when the sentence we are trying to report was actually a question? That’s something we are going to deal with in this section. Reported questions- It’s quite interesting. let’s get into it:

Well the good news is that the tense change you learnt above stays the same in reported speech for questions. The only difference is that when you report a question, you no more report it in the form of a question but in the form of a statement. For example:

Direct speech: Where do you want to eat?

Reported speech: She asked me where I wanted to eat.

Notice how the question mark is gone from the reported speech. The reported speech is a statement now. Keep that in mind as you read further.

Remember the tense change? Let’s apply that to a few questions now.

Direct speech Reported speech
Are you going to my house? She asked me if I was going to her house.
Where were you going? He asked me where I was going.
Where have you been? She asked me where had i been.

Now these are questions that have wordy answers to them. What about the questions that has yes/no answers to them? In these type of questions just add “if” before asking the question. For example:

  • Direct speech: Would you like to eat some cupcakes?
  • Reported speech: He asked me if i would like to eat some cupcakes.
  • Direct speech: Have you ever seen the Van Gogh paintings?
  • Reported speech: She asked me if I had ever seen the Van Gogh paintings.
  • Direct speech: Are you eating your vegetables?
  • Reported speech: She asked if I was eating my vegetables.

Reported speech- Reported requests:

Well not all questions require answers. Some questions are polite requests. Remember? Could you please try to remember? And then there are request statements. Let’s see how do we convert these into reported speech.

Reported request = ask me + to + verb or requested me + to +verb

Just add this rule to your reported speech and you have what is called a reported request.

Direct speech Reported speech
Could you please shut the door? She asked me to shut the door.
Can you please help me? She requested me to help her.

Reported speech- Reported orders:

Well, not everyone is going to be polite. Sometimes, we get orders. Now how will you report them? Unlike the request, the reporting verb isn’t ask but told or tell. Also, when in orders, sometimes subjects are omitted but while reporting we have to revive the subjects. Let’s see a few examples:

  • Direct speech: Sit down!
  • Reported speech: She told  me to sit down.
  • Direct speech: don’t worry!
  • Reported speech: She told me not to worry.

Reported speech- Time transitions:

Direct speech Reported speech
now then / at that time
today yesterday / that day / Tuesday / the 27th of June
yesterday the day before yesterday / the day before / Wednesday / the 5th of December
last night the night before, Thursday night
last week the week before / the previous week
tomorrow today / the next day / the following day / Friday

With that, you have everything it takes to understand reported speech. you are all se to change the direct to reported speech. Go ahead and try a few examples. All the best!

Types of Sentences: Declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory

You come across so many sentences every day. And all of these sentences can be categorized into 4 types of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory; each with its own specific purpose. Punctuation also plays a role in differentiating between these types. Let’s understand the types of sentences.

Types of Sentences:

Declarative sentences:

As the name suggests, a declarative sentence simply declares a statement or an opinion. A declarative sentence has a neutral tone, meaning it ends with a period mark “.” A few examples of declarative sentences:

  • I live at 24, East street.
  • I like ice-cream.
  • The wind is blowing from the west.

Notice how both these sentences declare some feelings but not very strong feelings, feelings like ” I absolutely love ice cream!”. This sentence becomes an exclamatory sentence ending in the exclamation mark – “!”

Exclamatory sentences:

As the name suggests, exclamatory sentences express strong feelings and excitement or extreme dislike. These sentences are quite loud, in the sense that they explain full emotions. These are declarations just like declarative sentences but with much stronger emotions. That’s why they end in the exclamation mark.

  • Wow, she must love scuba diving!
  • Red sea blue holes are out of this world!
  • I can’t believe she ran that fast to grab the bone!

Imperative sentences:

Whenever a demand is expressed, it’s an imperative sentence. It could also be instructions, requests, a wish or demands. Basically anything you want to make happen can be expressed in what we call, imperative sentence.

  • Come to the ball dance with me! (Expressing an invitation)
  • Sop moving in circles! (Expressing a command)
  • Move in circle just once a day. (Expressing an instruction)
  • Have fun at the ball dance! (Expressing a wish)
  • Please get out of the room! (Expressing a command)

Notice how imperative sentences above are expressing something to happen, maybe strongly or mildly followed by an exclamation mark or a period respectively. Remember this while forming imperative sentences. Depending upon the sentence’s mood, the sentence is followed by an exclamation mark or a period. Very strong emotions are of course followed by an exclamation mark.

Important note: Do not confuse imperative sentences with exclamatory sentences. One clear cut difference is that there’s always a command in the imperative sentence whereas there never will be a command in the exclamatory sentence. Exclamatory sentences are declarations but really strong ones. Both sentences have exclamatory marks at the end, but they are two different ones.

Interrogative sentences:

Interrogative sentences as the name suggests, express e=interrogation or questions and naturally end in the question mark – “?” Remember that these sentences have which, when, where, how and what in them.

  • When do you get off work?
  • Who do you trust the most in the world?
  • Where do you live in California?
  • Which city is your favourite?
  • How can I get to this karate teacher?

It may not contain the “wh” questions but could simply be a yes/no question.

  • Is she a student of Arts?
  • Do you like to eat ice-cream?

Now you should just identify the following sentences:

  • Where is her house?
  • Wow, she swims like a fish!
  • I would love to take you to the dinner!
  • She is sitting on the couch.

Let’s see if you can identify these. Have fun!

Order of Words: Basic Rules with Examples, Concepts, Questions, Videos

Compare the two sentences- ‘English is an easy language’ and ‘language English is an easy’. Definitely, the first sentence is a winner here. What’s the problem with the second sentence? Just like every language’s grammar, English grammar also follows an order of words.

Basic English Order of Words
In English grammar, the rule of thumb is that the subject comes before the verb which comes before the object. This means that most of the sentences conform to the SVO word order. Note that, this is for the sentences that only have a subject, verb and object. We’ll discuss more complex sentences and their order of words afterwards, but for now, we need to remember that for any type of sentence, we normally put the verb and object together. Some examples are:

I (S) am cleaning (V) the house (O).

He (S) loves (V) the cold breeze (O).

Basic English Order of Words

Now as we know about the basic word order used in simple sentences, we need to step our game up and learn about complex sentences. These sentences can contain, adverbs of place, time, two verbs, an indirect object, etc. The most used word order is:

Subject + Verb + Object + Adverb Of Place + Adverb Of Time

Again note that the verb and object are placed next to each other. An important thing to realize is that the time usually comes after the place. Hence the adverb of the place is kept before the adverb of time. Try to understand this with the help of the following example :

He (S) meets (V) George (O) at the park (Adverb of place) every day (Adverb of time).

We can also use the adverb of time at the beginning of a sentence in the order of words (except early and late). For example,

Every Monday he goes to the orphanage.

Note that there are some adverbs that can be used before the verb in the sentence. Always, also, sometimes, probably, often, never, rarely, almost, definitely, only are some examples.

Some sentences contain more than one verb, i.e. a formal verb and other informal verbs. In such cases, we usually put the adverb after the first verb which is the finite verb. To recall, a finite verb is the main verb in the sentence that directly relates to the subject of the sentence. Let’s have a look at some examples of such sentences:

I like (Finite verb) a lot (Adverb), when it rains (verb) in the morning(Adverb of time).

You may speak (Finite verb) slowly (Adverb) to the judge when we ask(Verb) you to.

Indirect objects

Lastly, there are certain sentences that have an indirect object couples with a direct object. Regardless of this, the sentence stays true to the SVO word order. In such cases, we follow the SVOI or the SVIO word order. A key point to remember is that if the indirect object is a noun or a pronoun we follow the SVIO order. On the other hand, if the indirect object is preceded by a ‘to’, then we follow the SVOI word order. We can understand this with the help of the following examples:

She gave her mother the present. ( SVIO)

She gave the present to her mother. (SVOI)

A Solved Example for You

Q: Arrange the following sentences:

  1. she/there/ every day/to work/goes.
  2. in this world/ looking/everybody/for happiness.
  3. a movie/was/I/when you called/watching.


  1. She goes there to work every day.
  2. Everybody is looking for happiness in this world.
  3. I was watching a movie when you called.

Business Correspondence and Reporting: Formal Writing and Reporting

A business goes hand in hand with networking. Although networking is all about exchanging ideas and information, this exchange must be formal when business matters are involved. And, correspondence and reporting are the pillars of formal communication. Thus, having a knowledge of basic rules involved and their application in formal communication becomes of paramount importance. Which is exactly what we are going to learn here!

  • Communication
  • Sentence Types and Word Power
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension Passages
  • Note Making
  • Introduction To Basic Writing
  • Precis Writing
  • Article Writing
  • Report Writing
  • Writing Formal Letters
  • Official Communication
  • Writing Formal Mails
  • Resume Writing
  • Meetings