Indira’s Contributions To The People of India and Love For Nature

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira’s Contributions To The People of India and Love For Nature

Indira’s Contributions To The People of India

Although reserved and aloof since childhood, Indira Gandhi always mingled with common people with ease. Her shy nature never came in the way of her rapport with the masses. She inherited, from her father, the confidence in the people of India. She wanted to create an atmosphere where each and every person had self-respect and could live with dignity.

Indira loved many communities of India as she believed in secularism. She was always with minorities and urged people to feel responsible for the well-being of the weaker sections.

Indira believed that India’s future depended much on Indian women as women had a very important role to play and a country’s progress could be measured by the progress of its womenfolk. She, like Gandhi, was of the opinion that, if you educate a man, you educate an individual and if you educate a woman, you educate an entire family. Indira laid emphasis on the status of women by introducing a chapter on women’s development in the Sixth Five-Year Plan. She directed the Ministry concerned to chalk out programmes for the upliftment of women.
Indira’s Contributions To The People of India and Love For Nature 1
Indira wanted every girl in the country to be educated. She took many measures to keep women abreast of men and ahead. She gave much importance to family welfare planning programmes, child health and improvement of female nutrition.

She encouraged women organisations and social welfare institutions to spread civic sense and teach people about cleanliness. For the younger generation, she set an example by her tireless efforts. She, like her father, was very fond of children and she received many letters from children from all over the world.

She found time to respond to these letters and answered their simple questions.

Thus she did a lot for the people of India-especially the women. An intense feeling and love for the people of India always remained deep down in her mind and heart.

Her Personality And Love For Nature

Indira was beautiful, vivacious, energetic and charming lady who lived with the demands of time. There was lightness in her gait and her bright eyes were very observant that missed nothing.

She possessed a tremendous courage and fearlessness which enabled her to face criticism without faltering and as a woman of dynamic personality, she did what she believed to be right. She had unlimited energy and strong willpower and there was urgency in her nature to achieve any goal. As a child, she was afraid of dark but when she grew up, she learnt not to disclose her fears, and her confidence and moral strength overshadowed her fear. Failure or success never bothered her and she went on doing her work with dedication and devotion.
Indira’s Contributions To The People of India and Love For Nature 2
She lived only for her country and its people always fascinated her. Not only sophisticated classes were impressed by her personality but the masses were also touched by her simplicity and humility. Though she belonged to affluent family, she could adjust herself to any situation. She was never fussy. May be it was because of the days she spent in jail that strengthened her as a person. She was always dressed in a dignified manner. She used to dress according to situation and was even sporting enough to wear a tribal costume to please tribal people.
Indira’s Contributions To The People of India and Love For Nature 3
Indira had soft heart for the people who worked for her. She showed concern for her staff and colleagues. She deeply belied in the Indian philosophy of life and she was proud to be an Indian as she believed in secularism and “Secularism is the foundation of Indian unity.”

Like jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi loved nature and she was influenced by her father in her love for the environment from a young age. She was fascinated by the mountains and ever-changing beauty of nature. She told people that, “Every citizen should consider conserving nature as a social and moral responsibility.”

Such was the lady who ruled the country and guided the destiny of India’s millions and tried to lead them to a better life.

Indira Gandhi’s Last Journey

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira Gandhi’s Last Journey

Her Last Journey

In the beginning of 1984, though she was successfully running the country and was famous among world leaders for her efforts, she had to face some internal problems at home front. Congress-I lost elections in two southern state of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh which was quite unexpected.

The agitation in Assam gathered momentum and the agitators demanded that the illegal immigrants should be ousted from the state. Along with these disturbances, Indira Gandhi also faced a wave of terrorism in Punjab in the beginning of 1984.
Indira Gandhi's Last Journey 1
Sikhs were demanding separate province and the Golden Temple at Amritsar gave shelter to terrorists who were responsible for the killings in Punjab. Finally, to curb terrorism, Indira Gandhi ordered the troops to enter the Golden Temple. The Sikhs got upset as this move had hurt their sentiments. They were of the view that due to the entering of troops in the Temple, the sacred place had become impure. The Sikhs revolted against Indira Gandhi. This was the burning issue that could not be resolved.

It was the morning of Oct. 31, when Indira Gandhi stepped out of her official residence and walked riskily towards her office to give a T.V. interview to filmmaker Peter Ustinov when suddenly two of her personal guards shot at her and she breathed her last.

The glorious life that had ruled India for nearly two decades came to an end and India lost one of the greatest stateswomen of the twentieth century. The funeral took place on Nov. 3, when several world leaders paid homage to Indira Gandhi. The whole nation was in grief. She had given up her life while serving her country. She would always be remembered for her courage, inner strength and will to overcome obstacles.

Her ultimate triumph was that many observers seemed to think “India” was “Indira”. She epitomized her country, India. The journey of her life was not an easy one and she had to cross political and intellectual maze with many criticisms and obstacles. But she came out the winner in the end.

She feared no one and did not give any attention to critics as she felt that what she did was for her country’s good. The homage paid to her by common people throws light on her character as one cucumber-seller said on her death, “The poor have been orphaned, she was mother for all of us. The house I have was due to her “ashirwad”.

She was so much popular among world leaders that after her death Margaret Thatcher, then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom said that, “I shall feel greatly the loss of a wise colleague and a personal friend.” Ronald Reagan, President of the United States paid her homage by saying that, “Mrs. Gandhi was a source of global leadership. Her determined efforts to promote peace, security and economic development throughout the world will serve as a constant reminder of Mrs. Gandhi’s commitment to protect the shared values of democratic nations.”

Indira’s Last Term As Prime Minister and World Figure

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira’s Last Term As Prime Minister and World Figure

Indira’s Last Term As Prime Minister

Back in power, Indira started working with fresh zeal. This brief interruption in her career had profound meaning for Indira as she again started shaping politics according to the style of her own. With a comfortable majority in Parliament, she took the task left unfinished by Janata Party boldly and confidently.
Indira’s Last Term As Prime Minister and World Figure 1
When she became Prime Minister for the fourth time, everything in the country was topsy turvy as there was inflation, no law and order was there and there was the scarcity of commodities. Indira promoted the Green Revolution, which was to help farmers in many ways. She helped agriculture with many inputs.

These included modern agricultural machinery tested scientific techniques of farming, better seeds, and better high yielding crops, improved irrigation practices, etc. This helped in increasing the production of food grains which kept steadily rising and reached well over 130 million tonnes in 1984.

The growth of the small industries became sixfold due to the efforts of the Prime Minister that in turn increased the exports. The industries also provided employment on a large scale.

But suddenly Indira faced a great blow when she lost her favourite son Sanjay in a plane crash on June 23, 1980. She was shattered but it never reflected on her face. She embraced this tragedy with incredible calm. She directed her elder son Rajiv Gandhi who was a pilot in Indian Airlines, to quit the job and help her in politics.

Rajiv Gandhi was married to Sonia Gandhi who was reluctant to come to India and let Rajiv enter the politics. But due to sense of duty towards his mother, Rajiv Gandhi entered politics which gave strength to Indira Gandhi and she reverted to her work.

To encourage the feeling of oneness and friendship not only amongst her countrymen but all people of the world, Indira hosted the Ninth Asian Games in New Delhi in November, 1982. Although being criticized by opposition for wasting money, organising of Asian Games was crowned with success and brought fame to India.

Indira As A World Figure

Although Indira Gandhi was wholly Indian, but like Jawaharlal, her heart reached out to the world. Indira’s thoughts were influenced by the teachings of her father who was one of the founders of the world peace movement. She travelled extensively attending world meetings and represented the spirit of tolerance, moderation and understanding for human development.
Indira’s Last Term As Prime Minister and World Figure 2
She was in the favour of the working of UNO and attended its meetings. In Sept. 1970, Indira was one of the speakers at the Silver Jubilee session of the UNO. She also visited U.S.A. who was inclined towards Pakistan and she made her position clear to U.S.A by confirming that she was not in favour of war but earnestly desired peace.

On June 14, 1972 Indira attended the plenary session of the UN Conference on Human Environment where she stressed that life was one and the world was one. The environmental problems were interlinked and she wanted to tackle these problems with the help of other countries.

She was concerned about population growth not just for India but for the world. At the World Health Assemble on May 6, 1981, she appealed to all governments of the world to take serious measures for checking population growth and providing basic health care to the people.

She wanted to be in contact with other countries not just politically but culturally. She always sent cards on the National Days of the small countries as a friendly gesture. She became an integral part of the organisations such as FAO, WHO, NAM and she worked for the downtrodden people.

She had a vision that, “I wish that the world would regard itself as one and not be divided into one, two, three, four.” She knew that the major threat to human race was the global war that could destroy the entire human race so she undertook the task of bringing together all those nations which were in favour of peace.

The non-aligned countries had much faith in Indira and she, on her part, struggled for a better future for people by linking herself to the drive against poverty, hunger and inequality. As long as she lived, she continued struggling for the cause of peace. She considered the non-aligned movement to be history’s greatest peace movement.

She was truly a world figure as she always said that, “No country can afford to take a narrow view of its own interest as it has to live in a world that is closely interlinked.”

In March, 1983, the Seventh Non-Aligned Summit was held in New Delhi and at the concluding session, she said, “Born for the universe, we cannot narrow our loyalties. Belonging to human kind, nothing human can be alien to us.”

On March 7, she was nominated the Chairman of the Non-Aligned Meet. She succeeded President Fidel Castro of Cuba.

She severely criticised the tension created by the superpowers. She told the developed countries that they should remember that they had to depend on the smaller countries for necessary products, so it was better to solve the problems by negotiations rather than by conflicts. She clarified that India’s foreign policy laid stress on the importance of unity.

India’s policy was not rigid but flexible and aimed at world peace and unity. Indira always fought for freedom and human dignity and she strongly condemned the South African government policy which had no regard for human rights. She was in support of the struggle of Namibian people to achieve freedom. Thus Indira was respected by all the other peace-loving nations and she was the embodiment of peace and stability.

1977 Elections And Indira Gandhi’s Defeat

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

1977 Elections And Indira Gandhi’s Defeat

1977 Elections And Her Defeat

Suddenly on Jan. 18, 1977, after the advice of her close associates, Indira Gandhi released the opposition leaders and announced fresh polls to be held on March 19, 1977. This move increased people’s anxiety and they had doubts if fair polling would be there. As emergency was still prevalent, the press is censored, the truth couldn’t be found and the nation was in a state of confusion.
1977 Elections And Indira Gandhi's Defeat 1
There was visible inclination towards the opposition and the state of Indira Gandhi was quite pathetic. Although Indira Gandhi toiled hard for the upliftment of Indian women but the same women, rural women in particular, turned against her because of forcible sterilizations of their men done during Emergency. So as a result, in the general elections to Parliament, the ruling Congress was impressively defeated by the Janata Party which combined many opposition parties.

A Janata Party Government under Morarji Desai came into office. Indira Gandhi resigned, as Prime Minister, on March 22, 1977. In ten years of her Prime Ministership, since 1 966, Indira Gandhi had proved her worth and an intense feeling for her country and its people always remained deep down in her mind but after defeat she became withdrawn and an aloof person but not for long.

Politics grew within her and she couldn’t live without it. She matured with experience.” An intense love for her country and people always urged her to go on doing something for the country. Someone analysed her:” Her capacity to delink herself from even the most tension-fraught moments is what gave her the tremendous energy she possessed.” And with this renewed energy and enthusiasm she again started visiting people as she knew that the Janata Party had won because the sentiments of people were hurt due to wrongs done during Emergency.

In order to rectify her deeds, she again started establishing contacts with the masses. In the meantime, the constituents of the Janata Party developed internal conflicts. The Party also did a great blunder in arresting Indira on charges of the misuse of power but soon she was released abruptly as the charges couldn’t be proved. This move tarnished the image of the Janata Government and people started becoming sympathetic towards Indira.

As luck would have it, the Shah Commission of Enquiry against her also had bad effect on the image of the Janata Party. She was even imprisoned in 1978 and was taken to Tihar Jail but she never lost her fighting spirit and after every crisis, she emerged stronger than before.

As was evident, because of internal fights, the Janata government fell. Morarji Desai resigned and a “Caretaker” government under Chaudhary Charan Singh functioned until the country went to the polls again for elections to Parliament in January, 1980 in which Indira Gandhi won with an overwhelming majority. These elections again proved the abiding faith of people in Indira Gandhi.

Indira Gandhi’s Declaration of Emergency

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira Gandhi’s Declaration of Emergency

Declaration of Emergency

Indira Gandhi always gave priority to national interest and when this was involved, she never compromised. So in June 1975, Indira Gandhi was forced to declare a state of internal emergency in India which she thought would be beneficial to the national cause. It was all due to the opposition which was teaming up against Indira because of her growing popularity and these opponents were hurting the sentiments of people and had no thought for the country’s welfare.

At this juncture, Indira had no choice but to declare Emergency. She wanted to defeat the “forces of disintegration”….”Communal passions” that threatened the country. She told people in a broadcast that it was time for “unity and discipline” and she hoped that “people in towns and village will give us their full support so that the country will be strengthened.” During this period, fundamental rights were curtailed and the press was censored as Indira felt that the country needed a “dose of bitter medicine” to recover its health.

But she was wrong and her actions were not completely right. Although she declared emergency for the welfare of nation but it was misused and at lower level, the police did so much wrong to the people that the nation retaliated. Many opposition leaders including Jai Prakash Narain were arrested during this period. People were stunned by the action but due to strictness, their shouts reduced to mere whispers. The nation was in a state of shock as people thought that their freedom was curtailed.
Indira Gandhi's Declaration of Emergency 1
On July 1, 1975, Indira announced the 20-point programme which laid stress on the Govt’s programme of assistance to landless, labourers, small and marginal farmers, artisans, slum- dwellers. Many policies of this programme were very useful for the good of the nation and Indira Gandhi designed this comprehensive programme so as to benefit the middle class and the unemployed; tax evaders, smugglers and law- offenders were subjected to punishment and bonded labour was declared illegal.

The first few days of the launching of this programmed proved very beneficial to people of the nation as corruption decreased, crimes against women declined, communal riots almost became negligible and prices came down. Every person became disciplined because of the fear of the police and the office-goers became punctual. All smugglers were put behind the bars and the general overall economic condition improved.

But the misuse of this programme led to her downfall. People slowly moved away from her and the ruthless treatment of the Govt, decreased her popularity among people and she became friendless, aloof and withdrawn. All her friends who were supportive of her, stamped her as being dictatorial.

Things didn’t work quite the way Indira Gandhi had intended. Done for the good of the people, her actions reversed and she was blamed by the people for being ruthless. Threatened by the people belonging to fanatic factions, she became fearful but she never disclosed her fears. Her confidence and moral strength stood by her throughout her life- during her Vanar Sean days and 1947 partition riots days and also during this period of emergency when some people were believed to have pledged to finish her off.

In this desperate time, she turned to her second son, Sanjay Gandhi for advice and support as her elder son Rajiv Gandhi was not interested in politics but depending on Sanjay was a big mistake as it is believed that Sanjay was behind the excesses done during Emergency.

Although from childhood, Sanjay Gandhi had shown the potential of an active person but his energy got diverted into wrong direction and as he grew up, he developed an aggrassive passion for getting things done. He would get restless, over enthusiastic to achieve his goal and the path which he used to take, was of no consequence. From Jan. 1976, Sanjay launched a 5-point programme tackling the issues of family planning, dowry and casteism but the biggest mistake of Indira Gandhi was to have blind faith in his immature ways.

She thought that she would tame him but she was wrong and sadly she realised, too late, that his destructive energy had become uncontrollable. Sanjay was President of the Youth Congress and taking advantage of his position, he enforced family planning measures so strictly that people were afraid of his high-handedness and this eventually led to Indira Gandhi’s defeat in 1977 elections.

Indira As Prime Minister After Elections Using Nuclear Power For Peace

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira As Prime Minister After Elections Using Nuclear Power For Peace

As Prime Minister After Elections

Between 1971 and 1977 two important happenings marked her term as the Prime Minister. One was the birth of Bangladesh and the other was imposition of National Emergency. In Aug.1971, Indira signed a 20-year treaty of peace, friendship and co-operation with U.S.S.R. After this to clarify her stand, she toured U.S.A. and a few European countries to explain the horroble condition of the refugees who had fled from East Pakistan and had flooded Eastern India.

Indira made U.S.A. and other countries understand the “tragic and agonizing plight” of the refugees. At a speech delivered in Calcutta on Dec.3, she clarified, “I do not want war. I earnestly desire peace. I will be the last person to start a war. But if a war is thrust upon us, we are prepared to fight in defence of our freedom and our ideals. Even Prime Minister Nehru, who was a passionate believer in peace, knew that a nation has sometimes to use force to defend what it cherishes most.”

In this way Indira defended herself in supporting East Pakistan and fighting a war against West Pakistan for a free Bangladesh. The war lasted for an entire year and in the end although being helped by U.S.A. and China, Pakistan declared cease-fire and Bangladesh emerged a free nation. Although the war was won by India, but Indira Gandhi was in favour of peace, so she tried to maintain amicable relationship with Pakistan.

Thus Indira kept her priorities by upgrading India’s defence technology and this came to the fore when she dealt with the Pakistan War- she gave India a great military victory. Indira was conferred with “Bharat Ratna” by the President V. V. Giri. In March 1972, Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman signed a joint treaty to safeguard peace, security and integrity of the subcontinent through joint efforts.

Using Nuclear Power For Peace

The Pakistan war proved that the strength of country depended upon advancement in science and technology. Thus Indira Gandhi gave much importance to science and technology and used it in upgrading the defence machinery. She was in favour of peaceful use of nuclear energy and was against the misuse of science-“Science is very important and it has brought a better life ………….. But we are using it for destruction. And those countries which have more money, Indira As Prime Minister After Elections Using Nuclear Power For Peace 1
India successfully demonstrated her first peaceful nuclear explosion at Pokhran in Rajasthan on May 18,1974. But Indira Gandhi clarified, “We have no intention to make nuclear weapon we want to make the desert bloom and not to make the world a desert.”

One of the most important achievements in the field of nuclear science was launching of India’s first space satellite “Aryabhatta” with the help of Soviet carrier system and was designed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It was launched on April 19,1975.

In August, India launched the SITE-SatelIite Instructional Television Experiment- Programme which helped in taking television to the villages through Satellite. In Feb. 1977, India’s second Earth Satellite Communication Station was inaugrated by Indira Gandhi at Dehradun which felicitated Overseas Communication. On July 18, 1980, the second experimental satellite launch vehicle SLV-3, putthe35-Kg. Rohini satellite into a 90-minute orbit around the earth which was a very great achievement.

Indira Gandhi dedicated this national satellite system to peace and service of the people. Thus she imaginatively and spiritedly improved India’s Nuclear Science department and although using nuclear power for peace purposes, she went on to strengthen the nation’s defence declaring that “the people of India, no doubt are peace-lovers, but will meet aggression with fortitude and determination, and with discipline and utmost unity.”

Indira Emerging As A Winner In 1971 Election

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira Emerging As A Winner In 1971 Election

Indira Emerging As A Winner In 1971 Election

Indira’s growing popularity and her fearless functioning caused uneasiness among the opposition and they were determined to remove her. All other parties- the business community, right-wing politicians-joined hands with Congress (O). They started questioning her motives and her decisions but Indira did not falter. She possessed the qualities of bravery and fearlessness and these qualities made her a determined person, faced wide criticism but she did what she believed to be right.
Indira Emerging As A Winner In 1971 Election 1
Being an observant person, she realised the crisis and understood her weakness. She belonged to minority government which was dependent on the support of Left parties, so she decided to link herself directly to people. She led people to believe that national interest reigned supreme with her and her dictates and fearless actions as the Prime Minister made people sure that she was the only “man” in the cabinet.

She clearly told the people of India that “Congress is very dear to me….because I was born in the Congress. There was no time when my home was not the centre of all the major political movements.”

When she was quite sure that the people were with her, she directed the President to dissolve the Lok Sabha and to announce fresh elections to be held in February, 1971. The opposition fiercely campaigned against Indira and urged people to remove her. She was called ‘dictator” or a “rebel” by opposition. Yet Indira faced these charges with complete calm and “Fear” was a word that had no place in her scheme of things.

She told people that she had an intense feeling for her country and welfare of its people always remained deep down in her mind. She made it clear that to remove poverty would be her priority after winning the elections. The masses were touched by her simplicity and humility and as a result she won the elections by a two-third of majority. Thus Indira Gandhi became more confident, gracious and dynamic after elections.

Nehru’s Death & Indira’s Development In Politics As Prime Minister

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Nehru’s Death & Indira’s Development In Politics As Prime Minister

Nehru’s Death & Indira’s Development In Politics

On May 27, 1964, Jawaharlal Nehru passed away leaving the nation and Indira stunned and full of grief. His death created a vacuum in India and also caused a sense of deep loss in other countries of the world that supported Nehru’s way of working. Indira was now left only with her two sons and no immediate relative whom she could call her own. Her father who had been her close friend, philosopher, and guide, was no more but still as “great minds don’t get disheartened easily”, Indira also went ahead to serve her country and also to bring up her children with full dedication.

Lai Bahadur Shastri became the next Prime Minister of India on June 9. He was a sincere statesman with the right political instincts. Indira became the Minister of Information and Broadcasting in his Cabinet. Indira continued to perform her duties with sincerity and determination.

In 1965, September, Pakistan attacked India and the war lasted for 22 days. Lai Bahadur Shastri faced the enemy with courage and taking a major decision, he gave the army a free hand. Due to timely intervention by U. Thant, the Secretary General of UNO, and the Security Council, a cease fire was declared on September 23, 1965. Shastriji signed the Tashkent Agreement with President Ayub Khan of Pakistan on Jan. 10.

Indira Gandhi, during war, served wounded soldiers with full devotion. While the people of India were eager to welcome. Shastriji from Tashkent, the worst happened—the news of his sudden death came. The nation was again grief-stricken. The history of India took another turn and the Congressmen realised that Indira was the only choice after Shastriji and so she was elected leader of the Congress Parliamentary Party.

Indira Gandhi’s Tenure As Prime Minister of India

On Jan. 24, 1966, Indira Gandhi was sworn in as the Prime Minister of India. Indira accepted her new role with dignity and optimism. She was the first woman Prime Minister of India. Although she was accepted wholeheartedly by politicians, diplomats, laymen but she faced opposition also. Still she did not falter and her will power kept her going.
Nehru’s Death & Indira’s Development In Politics As Prime Minister 1
Her confidence and moral strength stood by her through out her life. Indira had a tremendous energy that seemed to flow from within her. When she became Prime Minister, she made her role very clear that, “I don’t think myself as a woman when I do my job. According to the Indian Constitution all citizens are equal, without distinction regarding sex, language or state. I am just an Indian and first servant of the country, “desh-sevika.”

After becoming Prime Minister, she made it very clear that every individual had to work hard in building a dynamic India and peace and stability were foundations upon which the nation’s progress rested. At that time, although India had completed twenty years of Independence, there was much to be done. India was going through a crucial phase.

Power generation, irrigation, agriculture, education-there was no improvement in any field. The economic crisis was the biggest issue. Indira ardently promoted the Green Revolution and helped agriculture with many inputs. Those included modern agricultural machinery, tested scientific techniques of farming, better seeds, fertilizers and more improved cropping patterns.

This transformation in agriculture was very important for India’s economic growth. Indira had deep concern for the minorities and deprived groups. In order to benefit the masses, she changed the basic strategies and favoured massive investment in the public sector. According to her, poverty could be removed only by making the economy self-reliant and self-generating.

On July 19, she took an important decision of nationalizing the fourteen commercial banks. She explained her move as a necessity at that time as she wanted banking to reach the doorstep of the masses. By this decision, the small farmers, the cottage industries, the small entrepreneurs and self-employed persons were greatly benefitted.

Indira Gandhi faced polls in 1967 and following the success in the general elections to the Lok Sabha in Feb., she became the Prime Minister on March 12, 1967. Dr. Zakir Hussain became the President of India. When it came to the manner of functioning, she was very determined and quick in taking decisions. She was firm while tackling matters related to national interests and she would not compromise at any cost. She divided Punjab into two separate states-Punjab and Haryana which delighted Sikhs but Hindi speaking people revolted. Ignoring this outburst, she went ahead boldly and confidently.

She also granted statehood to Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura, and Mizoram was given independent power after being separated from Assam. She took many more daring decisions proving the opposition people wrong who called him “goongi gudiya” (dumb doll).

Soon after becoming the Prime Minister, she travelled widely to many countries like France, U.S.A., U.K. and U.S.S.R., Yugoslavia, U.A.E. (United Arab Emirates). These trips were very effective in making India’s position clear. India started emerging not as a poor nation unable to feed its millions, but as a proud and self-reliant nation whose people were very hard-working.

Indira always supported the cause of the poor and developing nations. In late 1967, she toured Sri Lanka and attended Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the October Revolution in Moscow. She also visited Brazil, Chile, Argentina and Venezuela. On Oct.14, she addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations. She liked the working of U.N.O., as she felt that it was a good platform for meeting of the different countries to tackle their problems.

On the death of Zakir Hussain on May 3, 1969, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was nominated by Congress as its official candidate in the Presidential election but Indira Gandhi supported V. V. Giri as an alternative. She wanted a person who would always give her a free hand. The Presidential election took place and V. V. Giri won and emerged as the fourth President of the Republic of India in Aug., 1969. This caused split in Congress-one old Congress and the other New or the Ruling Congress. This proved a turning point for Indira Gandhi which again strengthened her position.

Earlier before independence, our nation was divided into 500 and more native states, but due to the sincere efforts of Sardar Patel, whole India was integrated but the ex-rulers enjoyed the same privileges and privy purses provided by the government. Indira Gandhi was fiercely against this as it caused great rift between rich and poor people and as our constitution had given equal status to all, she envinced a deep concern for the minorities and the down trodden people.

After getting two-third support in the Parliament, she introduced the Bill abolishing this practice and in Aug.1970, the Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha but it failed in Rajya Sabha. But determined as she was, she got a Presidential acceptance of this Bill and V. V. Giri issued a proclamation of de-recognisation of privy purses.

Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics and Hostess To Father

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics and Hostess To Father

Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics

On January 30, 1948, Mahatma Gandhi was shot dead, Indira Gandhi was greatly moved as she was quite close to him and had followed him in her earlier days in politics.

India became a sovereign democratic republic and the constitution was adopted on Jan. 26, 1950. Vallabh Bhai Patel who used to help Jawaharlal in controlling and handling the government died in 1950. It was a great setback for Jawaharlal Nehru but Nehru controlled the government with much authority and diligence. Indira Gandhi assisted him and accompanied him on foreign tours. She was a member of the executive board of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics and Hostess To Father 1
This was a great exposure for her as she used to meet foreign visitors on her own and used to deal with them intelligently. She was very much interested in politics, “I was passionately interested in politics from early childhood.” She said and her whole life was shaped amidst political influences-Motilal, Gandhiji, Jawaharlal. She had been absorbed by politics although she had been warned by her father that it was hard life and something that one would not wish for one’s child. But Feroze encouraged her to participate in politics actively.

Hostess To Father

Initially Indira used to spent half the days of the month in Lucknow and half in Delhi but the situation was quite demanding and she felt miserable to see her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, the Prime Minister of India, lonely and dependent on servants. Luckily, Feroze was elected a member of the Constituent Assembly and he also moved to Delhi. She took charge of the Prime Minister’s house and she performed her duties diligently-preparing of menus for the guests, giving the wages to the servants and looking after the pets.
Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics and Hostess To Father 2
All kinds of people used to come to Teen Murti Bhawan, it was open house to one and all and Indira used to deal with all types of people. It was physically impossible for Jawaharlal to meet and talk to each of them, so Indira used to meet many of the persistent visitors and tried to sort out their problems. Every day she listened to the woes of the refugees and Indira’s listening to them gave it hope and peace of mind to the helpless, who felt that there was someone who cared for them.

In dealing with staff, she showed an unmistakable human touch. She provided them decent accommodation and also got a classroom built on the grounds of Teen Murti Bhawan for their children. In early 1950, when people were told to take interest in harvesting and the campaigns of “grow more food” and “grow your own vegetables” were launched, Indira also converted front and back lawns into vegetable gardens and with lot of care and love, she grew vegetables and wheat which was later distributed among the servant and staff.

This reflected her love for nature and her quality of caring and concern. She also organised a group of social workers and gradually got involved in the activities of Social Welfare Board. In September 1954, she founded the Bal Bhawan and the Children’s National Museum at Teen Murti Bhawan.

She inherited quite a few qualities from her father-one being a quality of being a visionary. She also like her father “had a vision that this is the sort of India that has to be built” and then she tried to lay the foundation of that India. She also learnt the habit of taking down notes from her father. This made her way of working very systematic.

Indira As Mother

Indira Gandhi was very fond of her sons. Although she had little time for them but she firmly believed that quality time was much more important than quantity time. She gave her sons guidance and sense of security. She was of the opinion that,” Much of the burden falls on the mother, who must help the child develop self discipline and strengthen his character.
Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics and Hostess To Father 3
Real love is not that which gives in to the child’s whims but which can also discipline and teach whenever necessary.” Rajiv and Sanjay were widely different in their personalities. While Rajiv was shy and introvert, Sanjay was bold, demanding and extrovert. Indira knew that each child had different personality and he had to be dealt in specific manner. As her own childhood was lonely, she was determined to attend to her children and give them her affection and company. She was iittle free only when both her sons, as they grew older, were sent to boarding at Dehradun.

Indira Entered Politics

She always remained in her father’s eternal shadow and accompanied her father to various countries and was impressed by her father’s crowning achievements. Going to different places gave Indira not only a good background of world affairs but an experience in dealing with varied subjects and situations. Slowly she became very much interested in politics and became a member of the Congress Working Committee in February 1955.
Indira Actively Taking Part In Politics and Hostess To Father 4
For Indira, this was only a beginning and there was no turning back. She, wholeheartedly, got involved in politics. On February 2, 1959, she was unanimously elected the President of the Indian National Congress. As the President, she showed courage and proved her worth. Se took initiative in dismissing Kerala Government because of its unpopularity among people.

Although Jawaharlal was a bit reluctant in imposing President rule in Kerala Indira Gandhi insisted and Namboodiripad Ministry in Kerala was dismissed and fresh general elections took place in 1960. She held the post only for 11 months but during this short span, her accomplishments brought her praise even from Jawaharlal who said, “I am proud of her good nature, proud of her energy and work, and proud of her integrity and truthfulness.”

Indira suffered a great loss in 1960 when her husband, Feroze Gandhi died. Her whole being was shaken as she was very much attached to her husband who always stood by her through thick and thin. But very effectively, she overcame her grief and got busier in politics which helped her to take her mind away from personal grief. In a letter to her friend she wrote, “I feel lost and empty and dead and yet life must go on” This shows her willpower and fearlessness, and confidence that the good would prevail in the end.

In the following years, she travelled to various countries and in 1961, she went to Yugoslavia with Jawaharlal to attend the first Non-Aligned Conference held at Belgrade. In October 1962, the Chinese attacked India. Jawaharlal along with Defence Minister Krishna Menon worked hard to boost the armed forces and also to bring about peace.

Indira showed rare courage during the month-long war and she travelled to Tezpur, Assam, alone in the end of 1962 to assure Assamese that they were not left uncared for. When she reached Tezpur, a cease-fire was declared and she supervised the cease-fire. The Chinese invasion shattered Jawaharlal’s confidence and slowly his health started declining. His popularity also suffered because of the China attack.

Indira Gandhi’s Marriage, First Arrest and India Attaining Independence

The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.

Indira Gandhi’s Marriage, First Arrest and India Attaining Independence

Marriage

After Kamala’s death, Indira went to London to learn the classics. Feroze was there too and here the friendship deepened to love. Indira went to Oxford to study Modern History and finally she said ‘yes’ to Feroze Gandhi but one of the stumbling blocks to this marriage was the fact that Feroze Gandhi was not a Hindu but a Parsi.
Indira Gandhi's Marriage, First Arrest and India Attaining Independence 1
Jawaharlal Nehru was a bit reluctant in agreeing but Indira Gandhi was a confident and bold woman, one who did not make up her mind in a hurry but once she did, would rarely be swerved from her intentions. In the end, there was no way Jawaharlal was going to hurt the daughter he loved with so much intensity and Indira and Feroze were married on March 16, 1942 on Ramnavmi day.

Her First Arrest

On Aug 8, 1942 Mahatma Gandhi gave a call to the nation to “do or die” for freedom and Congress passed “Quit India” Resolution and almost all the national leaders were arrested. Nehru was arrested at the Fort at Ahmednagar in Maharashtra. Indira Gandhi’s teens were spent watching both her parents on the political trail, so she developed a sense of nationalism for her country.

From that very moment, it was not for Indira to lead the life of typical Indian bashful brides sheltered by the cloister of marriage. She and her husband were arrested in connection with the Quit India Movement. Indira Gandhi was treated badly during her stay in prison and this hardened her physically and mentally. She was released after thirteen months.

Birth of Children And India Attaining Independence

Her first son, Rajiv Gandhi was born on August 20,1944. At that time, Jawaharlal, as usual, was in jail and he was sent a list of about twenty options, from which he, as a head of the family, might choose the name of his first grandson. Jawaharlal chose Rajiv, a Sanskrit word for “Lotus”, Indira added another name: Ratna, meaning “Jewel”. The full name, then, was Rajiv Ratna Gandhi, popularly known only as Rajiv Gandhi.

The Second World War came to an end, and in 1945, the Labour party came to power in Britain. Prime Minister Clement Atlee proclaimed that a Cabinet Mission would visit India to workout proposals for complete freedom. Negotiations with the Cabinet Mission dragged and dragged and finally, by 1946, the British agreed to leave India.
Indira Gandhi's Marriage, First Arrest and India Attaining Independence 2
In March 1947, because of growing tensions between Hindu and Muslim communities, the transfer of power took place and Jawaharlal Nehru was installed as interim Prime Minister of India. Though no Congress leader was ready to accept the partitioning of the country, but on Aug.15,1947, India and Pakistan came into existence, San jay Gandhi, Indira’s second son, was born in Dec. 1946 and when India became independent, Mahatma Gandhi told Indira to move over to areas affected by communal riots, Indira did not say no.

She had a small baby with her and it was dangerous but being strong willed lady and very courageous, she moved to the worst hit areas and worked there from morning till evening. She was greatly influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s ways of maintaining rapport with illiterate and simple people. She herself wanted to mingle with the masses of the country. From childhood, she was exposed to intellectuals, poets and powerful activists, but she had an innate desire to meet people, explore the arts and investigate a life of the mind.

This nature helped her in later life when she became leader of the masses as the Prime Minister of India. She worked hard with Gandhiji and other leaders for the restoration of peace after freedom. Speaking on freedom, Indira told in an interview with B.B.C., two decades later that: “It was such a powerful experience that I think I was numb. You know when you go to extreme of pleasure or pain, there is numbness. Freedom was just so big a thing that it could not register, it seemed to fill all of you and all your world.”

Feroze Gandhi and Indira were residing at Lucknow as Feroze was a member of Parliament but after Jawaharlal became Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi moved to Delhi to assist her father. She had to take care of her two children but being a strong willed lady, she managed to look after her husband and two children and also she worked hard as an assistant to the Prime Minister. In this scheme of things, she could even find time for social work. She worked hard for the child welfare and was connected to many committees.