America Claude Mckay Analysis | Summary, Structure and Poetic Techniques of America Claude

America Claude Mckay Analysis

America Claude Mckay Analysis: One of the most looked up to writers of the Harlem Renaissance, Festus Claudius “Claude” McKay, was a Jamaican writer. On September 15, 1889, he was born in Sunny Ville, in the Clarendon Hills of Jamaica. In the initial years of the Harlem Renaissance, he published “Spring in New Hampshire” (1920) and “Harlem Shadows” (1922) and consequently, McKay emerged as one of its significant poets.

At age 22, McKay joined the Constabulary Force in Spanish Town, and a year later, he published the “Jamaica Constab Ballads and Songs of Jamaica”. Later that year, McKay migrated to the United States, where he attended Kansas State University.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Claude McKay wrote three novels, namely “Home to Harlem” (1929), “Banjo” (1929), and “Banana Bottom” (1932). A collection of short stories titled “Ginger town was published in 1932.

Although an atheist most of his life, McKay joined the Catholic Church in 1944. Claude McKay died four years later in Chicago, on May 22, 1948, at 59.

Summary of America Claude Mckay Analysis

The poem “America” was first published in 1919.

The poem “America” brings forward the merging realizations that the poet had spent living in America. America at that time was not a very good place for Black Americans to reside in. They were oppressed and looked down upon.

The treatment vested upon the Black Americans was unfair and harsh in all terms. This poem embodies the inner thoughts of the poet. The poem bring brings forward the ambitions of the black community who can only dream about an oppression-free future.

The voices of the black Americans were never heard and always suppressed. The poem’s main emphasis is on the black struggle and how the brutalities of oppression had become part and parcel of their lives. It also embarks upon how hard their life is and the strength needed to persevere and survive in the conditions they are forced to reside in.

The poet questions why should black Americans not enjoy the essence of freedom? In the poem’s entire course, the speaker has a love-hate relationship with America; this is similar to many blacks’ position. The poet ultimately loses all hopes for his country and lives on the edge of resignation.

The initial four lines portray the speaker’s “love” for this “cultured hell,” despite the oppression and brutalities America imposes on him. The following six lines continue to develop this relationship based on the very horns of a dilemma, describing how America’s “vigour” enigmatically encourages the poet against America’s “hate.” The speaker equates himself to a rebel facing a king but says that he holds no ill-will towards America.

The poem’s final four lines present a dismal and doleful vision of America’s disintegration in the future, taking on an extramundane perspective that sees this once-powerful empire slowly sinking into the sands under the “unerring” hand of Time.

Structure of America Claude Mckay Analysis

The rhyme pattern followed in this poem is an “ABABABABABABCC”. These patterns are similar to a sonnet rhyme scheme by Shakespeare. This rhyme scheme is present in many of Claude McKay’s poetry. This rhyming scheme acts as a tool to emphasize the meaning and the creativity used by the author.

The sonnet can be divided up in terms of rhyme into one final couplet and three quatrains and. One can also break it syntactically and semantically into two mirroring halves (4+3 and 3+4) that divide and reflect each other after the 7th line.

America Claude Mckay

Poetic Techniques in America Claude Mckay Analysis

There have been nay poetic techniques used in the entire course of the poem.

The most frequently used technique is an oxymoron. An oxymoron is a figure of speech where two words of contradicting meaning and essence are paired. Phrases like” ‘cultured hell” is an example of an oxymoron.

A metaphor is a figure of speech where one refers to one thing by mentioning it to another. For example, “tiger’s tooth”, “bread of bitterness” are metaphors.

A simile is the speech figure where two entities are compared using words such as “like” and “as”. The phrases like “her bigness sweep my being like a flood” and “as a rebel front, a king in the state” are examples of simile.

The poet has used personification. The whole poem is based on the personification of America. The poet has referred to America as “she” in the first line of the poem.

America Claude Mckay Analysis

Lines 1-4

“Although she feeds me bread of bitterness,

And sinks into my throat her tiger’s tooth,

Stealing my breath of life, I will confess

I love this cultured hell that tests my youth!”

Analysis

The poet personifies America and refers to her as “she”, which puts forward a motherly interpretation of America’s very feminization. Just like a mother ensures her child’s nourishment, here America feeds her child- but with “bread of bitterness”, which is a strong implication of the harsh treatment that the people of the poet’s community had to go through. The metaphor “tiger’s throat” focuses on the various hardships and oppressions which the black Americans have to face daily.

Despite the ill-treatment and idea of inequality prevalent at that Time, the poet does not hesitate to declare his country’s love. The phrase “I will confess” portrays the declaration of love to be forced and not spontaneous. This love portrays the poet as somewhat of a stoic character who sees the ill-treatment vested on them as a test model.

The extent of this cruelty is brought to light when the poet refers to America as “hell”. Although America exploits the poet, he not only fights back but also draws a sense of inspiration from it.

Lines 5-10

“Her vigour flows like tides into my blood,

Giving me strength erect against her hate.

Her bigness sweeps my being like a flood.

Yet as a rebel fronts a king in state,

I stand within her walls with not a shred

Of terror, malice, not a word of jeer.”

Analysis

This section brings forward the speaker’s resistance against all the misery and suffering mated on him. Words like “vigour” and “bigness” portray America on a positive note.

Here, the vigour supports her citizens with the zeal to survive even under the harshest circumstances subjected to them by herself. The country’s power has been equated to the power of nature by the use of phrases like “tides”.

Although the poet understands it the worst place to reside for his community’s people, he presents himself as a rebel in front of a king. However, instead of a rebel’s idea, he does not hold a grudge against his antagonist, i.e., America.

Lines 11-14

“Darkly I gaze into the days ahead,

And see her might and granite wonders there,

Beneath the touch of Time’s unerring hand,

Like priceless treasures sinking in the sand.”

Analysis

The final lines start with the word “Darkly”, which gives insight into the poet’s gloomy and grim prophecy about America’s future state. He suggests that the beautiful things like “might and granite wonders” that are the very essence of America have high possibilities of fading away in the “Time’s unerring hand”.

The poet finds no other alternative to the downfall of the country. He finds it to be the inevitable end to America’s own internal contradictions and the impermanence of worldly “might.”

What is the meaning of the poem America by Claude McKay?

‘America’ by Claude McKay balances ideas of loving and hating the United States. McKay explores the good parts of the country, the strength and vigor it contains as well as the bad. Yet, he also comments on the ‘bitterness’, violence, and corruption the country is known for.

What is Claude McKay’s perspective of America?

While many of the writers of the Harlem Renaissance were born and raised in the U.S., McKay had a different perspective. His poems talk about America with a view that mixed love and hate, pain and pleasure. He was able to see America for all of its qualities, good and bad, because he had chosen America as his home.

How does the speaker feel about America?

The speaker has a love-hate relationship with America, so he chooses to be optimistic, but also realistic about America. The speaker loves America and chooses not to focus on those things that he does not like and cannot change. Read the following lines from the poem.

What is the tone of the poem America by Claude McKay?

The poem stared off as bitter and sad then the tone changed to hope and love that he has for America. He was born in sunny vile, Jamaica and he is known for his novels and poems. He also played a key figure in the Harlem Renaissance.

Where The Sidewalk Ends Summary by Shel Silverstein | Summary, Structure, Literary Devices and Stanzas

Where The Sidewalk Ends Summary

Where The Sidewalk Ends Poems Summary: Sheldon Allan Silverstein was born during the Great Depression into an immigrant Jewish family in Chicago on September 25, 1930. He was popularly known as Shel Silverstein.

He started writing and doodling from a very young age. He was a cartoonist, playwright, poet, performer, and recording artist.

“Giving Tree”, published in 1964, is Silverstein’s first major work and the best-known title. The book describes the relationship between a boy and a tree. It has been translated into various languages. As late as 2013, it ranked third on a Goodreads list of “Best Children’s Books.”

“Where the Sidewalk Ends”, published in 1974, is a collection of poems dealing with many common childhood concerns. The National Education Association added the book in the “Teachers Top 100 Books for Children” after a vote organized in 2007. Its audio version was released in 1983.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

In 1984, Shel Silverstein won the Grammy Award for Best Recording For Children for the audio version of ‘Where the Sidewalk Ends’. It was released on a cassette version in 1983 and as an LP phonograph record in 1984.

In 1991, Silverstein was nominated for Oscar Award for his song ‘I’m Checkin’ Out’, which he had written for the 1990 film, ‘Postcards from the Edge’.

Shel Silverstein has earned a cult status in terms of children’s poetry. It is not only the children who love Uncle Shel; the adults equally love and admire his work.

Silverstein died of a heart attack either on May 9 or May 10, 1999, in Key West, Florida. His housekeepers found his body on May 10, and he might have died the day before. He is buried in Westlawn Cemetery in Norridge, Illinois.

He illustrated his books. They are characterized by a skilled mixing of the sly and the serious, the macabre and the silly. Readers of all age groups admire his unique imagination and bold brand of humour.

In the year 2002, he was inducted into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame and, in 2014, into the Chicago Literary Hall of Fame.

Where the Sidewalk Ends Summary

The poem is set in two different backdrops. The first part of the poem reflects a place where a sidewalk ends. This place is the embodiment of beauty, untouched by the side effects of human civilization.

The latter part of the poem speaks about a place surrounded by black smoke and pollution harrows. The poet urges us to leave this doomed place and follow the children’s path to find a more peaceful place.

The mention of the angelic children guiding us towards beautiful nature is more inclined towards the notions of spirituality and soulfulness than just the physical phase of life. The poet desires the readers to gain freedom from greed and selfishness, accept innocence, love, and peace towards leading a happy and pure life.

This poem can be perceived as a transition between childhood and adulthood. Adulthood can be held synonymous to the latter place described in the poem- filled with obstacles.

The initial part of the poem is similar to the childhood of a person- sprawling with innocence.

Where the Sidewalk Ends Structure

The poem is written in three stanzas. The first stanza has six lines. The second stanza similarly consists of six lines. The third stanza is comparatively small, with only four lines.

The poem follows a rhymic scheme of the pattern AABCCD, ABCCDB, AABC.

The poet wrote the poem with a dactylic dimeter. A dactylic dimeter means that each line has two feet.

Summary of Where the Sidewalk Ends

Where the Sidewalk Ends Literary Devices

Alliteration is the recurrence of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of words close to each other. This repetition of sounds brings attention to the lines in which it is used and creates a more aural beat.

We can see the employment of alliteration in the lines “We shall walk with a walk that is measured and slow” with an emphasis on the letter “w”. The line “Let us leave this place where the smoke blows black” also features alliteration.

Repetition has been used throughout the poem. The phrase “where the sidewalk ends” has been used greatly in the entire poem. The use of repetition highlights the meaning of the poem.

Another literary device he uses is imagery. Imagery engages human senses to deepen the reader’s understanding of the work. It uses the senses to create a vivid image in the reader’s mind.

The description of the grass or the sunlight employs a strong use of imagery. The “peppermint wind” influences our olfactory senses.

Detailed Analysis of Where the Sidewalk Ends

Stanza one

“There is a place where the sidewalk ends

And before the street begins,

And there the grass grows soft and white,

And there the sun burns crimson bright,

And there the moon-bird rests from his flight

To cool in the peppermint wind.”

These lines give an eye-soothing and mesmerizing image of an ideal place. The lines speak of a place surrounded by the beauty of nature and untouched by pollution.

The place is located at the end of a sidewalk and the beginning of a street. It is the meeting grounds of the sidewalk and the street.

The grass that grows there is “soft and white,” which implies its surreal setting. The word “white” has been used to highlight the similarities between this perfectly peaceful place and heaven.

Since normally grasses are not white, this can also be seen as an attempt to create a romantic place in the reader’s mind.

The crimson beams of the sun fall here and make it bright. The moon birds rest here in the cooling surrounding of the peppermint wind.

The place is a fragment of the imagination of the poet and can not be found physically. It is a place which one can resort to escape from the daily mundane life.

Stanza Two

“Let us leave this place where the smoke blows black

And the dark street winds and bends.

Past the pits where the asphalt flowers grow

We shall walk with a walk that is measured and slow,

And watch where the chalk-white arrows go

To the place where the sidewalk ends.”

These lines describe a dark place which is an aftereffect of industrial pollution. This place is filled with black smoke, which makes this place extremely unwelcoming and toxic to live in. It is not filled with youthfulness and is dull and dark.

The place is the exact opposite of the place described earlier. The flowers that grow here are “asphalt”, which indicates the decay taking place here.

The description here points to a more real and practical world. One can use the word “pits” to understand the depths of how bad the situation has grown due to pollution.

The poet asks the audience to leave this doomed place and head towards the sidewalk’s end, which promises a more peaceful life. This place is the embodiment of a ruined and cursed scenario with not even an inch of a place left to breathe fresh air.

The transition between the places can also be seen as a change from childhood and adulthood. Adulthood life is full of hardships, like the place with black smoke.

Childhood life is innocent and more carefree, like the place marked by the end of the sidewalk. It did not have any responsibilities to shoulder.

Hence, the sidewalk represents a mundane life filled with obstacles, and the end of the sidewalk is a place flourishing with nature.

The phrase “walk that is measured and slow” emphasizes that every step in adult life needs to be measured and well thought of. Adult life comes with a lot of responsibilities which demands slow and measured steps throughout.

However, there is always a scope to leave behind this life and follow the “chalk-white arrows” and embark on the different unexplored aspects of life.

Stanza Three

Yes, we’ll walk with a walk that is measured and slow,

And we’ll go where the chalk-white arrows go,

For the children, they mark, and the children, they know

The place where the sidewalk ends.”

The children are the purest souls who are instructed by their innocence and are the only ones aware of the “place where the sidewalk ends.” The poet urges the audience to follow their trail and go to that place.

Children have been referred to hereto as representing the innocence and the essence of good. It is much needed to guide us through our life and help us survive all the difficulties and hardships at every stage of life. The poet believes that we want to be as happy and real as children at the end of the tunnel.

Children are unaware of the serious issues of life and enjoy every little moment of it. They do not have any complexities and have a pure heart.

The poet believes that if we live life through a child’s eyes, we will enjoy the better things life gives us than lament over the small losses we encounter each day. We should, at the time, leave behind the grave issues of life and indulge in some light living.

One can always escape from the brutalities of adult life and plunge into the childlike innocence one has. The escape helps us to forget worldly issues and relish the pleasure of life.

We should always cherish the small bits and flashes of our life and. There is no harm in embracing the inside child, which eventually gets lost under society’s huge pressure.

Although the poem is written for kids, it holds for the adults also.

Why was Where the Sidewalk Ends banned?

Where the Sidewalk Ends was yanked from the shelves of West Allis-West Milwaukee, Wisconsin school libraries in 1986 over fears that it “promotes drug use, the occult, suicide, death, violence, disrespect for truth, disrespect for authority, and rebellion against parents.”

What does past the pits mean in Where the Sidewalk Ends?

This line is telling us exactly how we’re going to get past the asphalt pits and black smoke to the world where the sidewalk ends – by walking slowly.

What exactly does the sidewalk represents?

The poem mentions the children who live their lives on the “sidewalk.” The speaker invites the audience and the children to “walk with a walk that is measured and slow” to the place “where the sidewalk ends.” Knowing these details might lead you to believe that the sidewalk represents a path for escape from the city or

What is the mood of the poem Where the Sidewalk Ends?

In Shel Silverstein’s poem Where the Sidewalk Ends, the tone of the poem encompasses Silverstein’s feelings about life and the choices one makes in life. The tone is depicted in the poem in one way: Silverstein wants readers to simply follow the lines in life.

I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis by William Wordsworth | Summary, Analysis, Structure and Literary Devices

I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis

I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis: On April 7, 1770, William Wordsworth was born in Cockermouth, Cumberland, located in the Lake District of England. This place is connected with much of his work.

Wordsworth’s mother passed away when he was very young, at the age of eight—this experience moulds much of his later work. William Wordsworth was one of the founding fathers of English Romanticism.

Romanticism was the liberation from those rules. It delivered the poets the liberty to write about what they feel, according to their own directions, without influence. Much like impressionism in painting, Romanticism honoured and praised emotions and imagination. It was the free-flowing motion of one’s love towards anything.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

He is recognized as a spiritual and epistemological speculation poet, focusing on the human relationship with nature. He was an ardent pioneer of using the vocabulary and speech patterns of common people in poetry.

Wordsworth developed a love of nature as a young man, a theme reflected in many of his poems. In 1842, he was granted a government pension, and the following year he became poet laureate.

Wordsworth’s most famous and noteworthy work, “The Prelude” (Edward Moxon, 1850), is considered by many to be perhaps the crowning achievement of English Romanticism.

The poem, revised numerous times, chronicles the poet’s spiritual life and paves the way for the birth of a new poetry genre. Although he worked on the poem for a long time, it was released after his death.

Wordsworth spent the final years of his life in Rydal Mount in England, travelling and continuing his outdoor excursions. He was devastated by his daughter Dora’s death in 1847 and lost his intention to write poems.

William Wordsworth passed away at Rydal Mount on April 23, 1850, leaving his wife Mary to publish The Prelude three months later his death.

Background of Daffodils – I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud Theme

In his collection of poems, the composition Daffodils – I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud was formerly published in “Poems in Two Volumes” in 1807, by the name “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud” by William Wordsworth. A revised version was published in 1815.

It is an iconic English poem of the Romantic Genre. Later it was popularly referred to as Daffodils.

Wordsworth penned the poem after he came across a “crowd” of daffodils along the shore of a lake while walking with his sister, Dorothy, near his home in the Lake District of England. William Wordsworth created the poem in 1804, but the circumstantial walk took place on April 15 1802.

Dorothy called that day to be a stormy one, and hence there were a lot of waves in the sea and dancing daffodils. This was the inspiration behind the poem, which we can understand quite well throughout the poem.

I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis by William Wordsworth

I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Summary

It is one of the most renowned poems by the poet. The poem is about a random encounter the poet has with a valley of daffodils.

The daffodils are mesmerizing and have caught the poet’s attention. The daffodils leave an everlasting impression on the poet.

He is not only startled by them at that moment; he remembers them in his secluded moments of loneliness. It is a quintessentially Romantic poem, bringing together key ideas about imagination and how natural beauty impacts humanity.

Although the poet embarks on the fact that he is lonely, the meeting with the daffodils unites him with nature and creates a feeling of togetherness. The memory of the daffodils is etched deep in the poet’s heart.

Thus we can draw an inference that nature has the ability to influence the mind of a human being deeply. The poem talks about the positive impact nature can have on human lives and how it can be the key to living a happy life.

The rustic beauty throughout the poem has been drawing the attention of all the readers throughout every generation. The lucid language is easy to comprehend, and hence the poem is readily relinquished to all audience.

Structure of I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis

It consists of four stanzas of six lines each which makes the entire poem of 24 lines long.

The rhyming scheme followed for each stanza is the quatrain-couplet rhyme scheme of ABABCC. The first (A) and the second (B) lines rhyme with the third (A) and the fourth (B), respectively, i.e., there is an alternate rhyming pattern. These are succeeded by a rhyming couplet (CC).

Each line is metered in iambic tetrameter, which means there are four feet in each line.

I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis Literary Devices

Personification is very evident throughout the entire course of the poem. Personification is enriching an inanimate object with human-like characteristics.

In the lines “Fluttering and dancing in the breeze” and “Tossing their heads in sprightly dance”, the daffodils have been personified where they are dancing like humans.

Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration as a speech figure to highlight the importance of the situation. The phrase “Ten thousand saw I at a glance” uses hyperbole to point to the daffodils’ vast expansive range.

A simile compares two entities by using words such as “like” and “as”. The line “lonely as a cloud” depicts the similarity between the poet and a floating cloud. The phrase “Continuous as the stars” equates the stars with the daffodils in their numbers.

Assonance is the reiteration of the vowel sound in the same lines of a poem. An example in the poem would be, “They stretched in never-ending.”

Alliteration is the repetition of the consonant sound in a single line of the poem. An example in the poem would be “I gazed and gazed,” with the sound of “G” repeated.

Summary of I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis

Detailed Analysis of I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud Analysis

Stanza one:

I wandered lonely as a cloud —

That floats on high o’er vales and hills,

When all at once I saw a crowd,

A host, of golden daffodils;

Beside the lake, beneath the trees,

Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.”

The poet recollected an instance when he was walking in solitude along a valley. He was in a melancholic mood. He compares himself to a cloud that floats aimlessly.

All of a sudden, he witnessed a long and bustling row of daffodils. The use of words like “crowd” and “host” clarifies that the daffodils were in huge numbers.

He further describes that the daffodils were located beside a lake and below the trees. The soft breeze made them dance and sway in their tune.

The sight of the daffodils had an emotional shift on the poet, and his mood lightened.

Stanza Two:

“Continuous as the stars that shine

And twinkle on the Milky Way,

They stretched in never-ending line

Along the margin of a bay:

Ten thousand saw I at a glance,

Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.”

The poet compares the daffodils to the twinkling belt of luminous stars in the night sky. Their enormity and brilliance are synonymous with that of the Milky Way.

The poet perceives how the flowers appear to go on without end, alongside a bay swaying in the breeze.

The speaker believes almost ten thousand or so daffodils dance cheerfully with high energy to the gliding breeze. It is a sight to behold.

Stanza Three:

“The waves beside them danced, but they

Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:

A Poet could not but be gay,

In such a jocund company:

I gazed—and gazed—but little thought

What wealth the show to me had brought:”

The waves in the bay were moving with joy. The beautiful daffodils outshone the dance of the waves. They seemed to be bubbling with happiness, and this delight seemed to reach the poet.

The poet was overjoyed with the company of the daffodils and could not be any happier. He contemplated their beauty for a long time without realizing how fast time was fleeting away. The daffodils’ attractive vision made time stop for the poet as he was lost in their beauty.

Although he did not realize the enriching experience he was gaining at that moment, he cherished it after some time. The visual extravaganza initially does not make him realize its value. However, he does apprehend its significance both as a source of inspiration for his poetry and spiritual well-being.

Stanza Four:

For oft, when on my couch I lie

In vacant or in pensive mood,

They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

And then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.”

The poet embarks upon how the daffodils have earned an everlasting place in his mind. Whenever he is lying leisurely on his couch, the thought of the startling image of the daffodils makes him drift from his solitude into a happy mood.

He expressly affirms that his heart fills with satisfaction and pleasure whenever he remembers the daffodils’ amiable, happy-go-lucky dance. Through the powers of his vision, he can join the daffodils as they dance and sway in the tunes of the breeze.

What is the main idea of I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud?

The central theme of ‘I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud’ (Also known as ‘Daffodils’) is Happiness. It is a poem that just makes you feel good about your life. It says that even when you are alone and lonely and missing your friends, you can use your imagination to find new friends in the world.

What do the daffodils symbolize in I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud?

In “I wandered lonely as a Cloud,” the daffodils are like little yellow people who keep the speaker company when he is feeling lonely. The happiness of the daffodils can always cheer him up, and he can tell that they are happy because they dance. … Lines 3-4: The daffodils are personified as a crowd of people.

What is the main message of the poem Daffodils?

Answer. Answer: The theme of the poem is Nature’s Beauty with a mix of Happiness and Loneliness. The Author, Wordsworth is shown to be lonely, but when he thinks back to the Daffodils ‘dancing'(Nature’s beauty) he is happy and content.

What do Daffodils symbolize in the poem Daffodils?

The daffodil symbolizes rebirth and new beginnings. … Some sources say while he was staring at his reflection nymphs transformed him into a narcissus flower to get revenge for how he treated them. Others think he drowned trying to capture his reflection, and the flowers growing along the riverbed were named after him.

William Blake’s Lamb | The Lamb Meaning William Blake, Structure, Themes, Literary Devices

The Lamb Meaning

The Lamb Meaning Poem: ‘The Lamb’ by William Blake has published in his 1789 collection The Songs of Innocence. This poem is considered one of the great lyrics of English Literature. The verse represents the amalgamation of the Christian script and pastoral tradition in the form of a dialogue or conversation between a child and the Lamb.

In this poem, the Lamb has been considered a universal symbol of selfless innocence. It represents Jesus as a gentle image of Divine Humanity. The Lamb associates with Christ to form a Trinity of child, Lamb, and Redeemer.

The poem emphasizes charity’s ideals with a specific justification of Christian compassion and Caritas or caring, the ideals of the Lamb of God. Moreover, the Christian undertone constitutes the philosophies of sacrifice, death and tragedy.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

This is one of the most straightforward poems of William Blake. It has deep symbolic meaning, which is almost relevant throughout the poem. The purpose of symbolization of child, Lamb and Christ are interconnected and deeply connected with Christian mythology. The poem sets off with a child-like directness and innocence and natural world, which lacks the signs of grown-ups or adulthood and is much simple.

The Lamb Meaning Summary

The poem, ‘The Lamb’ by William Blake is a very heart-warming and inquisitive poem. The poet symbolizes the Lamb as Christ, innocence and also, the nature of God’s creation.

The Lamb is the most representative poem as included in ‘The Songs of Innocence’. This poem’s most important characteristic feature is that it has every substance to represent the symbolization as been attempted by the poet.

The child is a symbol of innocence, a pure soul that has not yet been corrupted or manipulated by the world of conventionalized pretensions, including religion, culture, society and state and other codified systems. This poem subtly approaches the subject of creativity and the creator.

While the speaker speaks about an actual physical lamb, the poem’s subtext has an essence of Christian and classical mythology. The child has been symbolized as Christ, the physical incarnation of the Supreme Being. As the poet describes the actions where it has been sent to feed among the meadow and along the stream, there is a clear indication that it is to live by natural, instinctual means or the Divine law of nature.

The fuzzy softness and the brightness that comes from within support the Lamb’s divine nature as a symbol. The voice of the Lamb is equally relevant in verse. The child, the Lamb and Christ, are interrelated and are all close to the creative being. The poet has said that creativity is a child-like trade as it involves the natural spirit, sense of wonder and pure imagination.

Throughout the poem, the poet speaks to the Lamb, asking whether it knows how it was created. He also refers to the vague details about Christ, his nature while using multiple repetitions to highlight such features.

Summary of The Lamb

The Lamb Themes

Blake has touched on the themes of religion, innocence, and morality in ‘The Lamb’. Throughout the entire verse, he or his speaker has appreciated God and his representation.

The “lamb,” or Christ, should be celebrated by all those who can see or hear him. Its innocence is one of the most striking features. All people should strive for Lamb’s image as it is a symbol of purity and innocence.

The Lamb Structure

‘The Lamb’ has been written in rhymed couplets in a basic trochaic metre, often found in children’s verses. Hence, it amplifies the images of simplicity, purity and perfection. The opening and closing couplets of each stanza change by employing a pentameter ‘made thee’, which makes them more emphatic, grabs the reader’s attention and slows down his speed of proceeding further into the poem.

The use of repetitive pattern, with distinct differences in the opening and closing couplets, frames the questions and answers emphasize the idea that this is a catechism or almost like a child’s riddle.

Literary Devices of The Lamb

Throughout the poem, we can see the implementation of various literary devices used by William Blake, including alliteration, enjambment, repetition and many more. The use of repetition is common throughout the verse by reusing certain lines and phrases like “Little Lamb I’ll tell thee” in the second stanza.

This intensifies the nursery rhyme-like sound of the poetry. Enjambment is a technique that helps with the flow of this particular poem, which maintains a certain continuity—for example, the transitions between lines one and two of the first stanza.

Alliteration is a beneficial technique that poets use for emphasizing particular phrases or amplifying the rhyme and rhythm of the poem. Alliteration is known as the occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.

This is a kind of repetition that is concerned with using and reusing the same consonant sound at the beginning of words. For example, the terms “Little Lamb” in line one of the first stanza and “meek” and “mild” in line five of the second stanza.

Detailed Analysis of The Lamb

Stanza One

Little Lamb who made thee

Dost thou know who made thee

Gave thee life & bid thee feed.

By the stream & o’er the mead;

Gave thee clothing of delight,

Softest clothing woolly bright;

Gave thee such a tender voice,

Making all the vales rejoice!

Little Lamb who made thee

Dost thou know who made thee

The Lamb is a doctrinal poem where the poet pays tribute to Lord Christ, who was innocent and pure like a child and meek and mild like a lamb. The poet addresses Lamb itself, which is pure, innocent, and it is associated with Christ.

Being a visionary, Blake introduces the readers to a world free from reasoning, according to the Lamb’s imagination and vision. The child asks who made the little Lamb in a typical child’s tone, rhythm and diction.

The Lamb, he says, has been given the “clothing of delight”, soft and ‘woolly’ clothing, and such a tender voice that makes all the values rejoice and the delicate bleating sound resounds a happy note in the adjacent low-lying valleys.

The stanza has an essence of the child’s innocence which is the first stage in Blake’s journey to the truth: “The Child of Innocence lives by intuition enjoys a spontaneous communion with nature and sees the divine in all things.”

We find a realistic and sympathetic portrait of a lamb, as presented by the poet. The symbolic meaning goes much deeper with further progression into the verse. As found by the readers, the poem is based on the biblical hope that “meek shall inherit the world”.

Stanza Two

Little Lamb, I’ll tell thee,

Little Lamb, I’ll tell thee!

He is called by thy name,

For he calls himself a Lamb:

He is meek & he is mild,

He became a little child:

I a child & thou a lamb,

We are called by his name.

Little Lamb God bless thee.

Little Lamb God bless thee.

In the second stanza, there’s an identification and association of the Lamb, Christ, and the child. Christ has another name: Lamb because Christ exhibits similarities with the Lamb, being meek and mild.

Christ is considered the son of God and was an innocent child. The child enjoys the Lamb’s company, which is somewhat similar to innocence and purity. The poem depicts innocence, joy and affection. The Lamb, in this poem, represents innocence and humanity.

The poem delivers an image of the free spirit of childhood, the purity, the innocence, the tenderness, and the affection and empathy that a child feels for little creatures like a lamb. There are also implications of Christian symbolism where the child is also looked at as a symbol representing Christ. The pastoral setting is yet another symbol of innocence and joy.

The Lamb has got clothes of “delight”, which is the first indication of this poem’s symbolic meaning. The Lamb is a symbol representing the innocent state of the soul, a dweller of the world of innocence and an emblem of purity, naturalness, and spiritual, original and natural being.

The term ‘woolly’ also implies Christ having soft woolly hair during his birth. The brightness has been used as an indication of the halo or shining on the pure being. The voice could also be the word of Christ or that or the visionary and creative being, the poet and the prophet.

A religious note is also there in the poem because of the image of Christ as a child. The pastoral poem note in Blake is yet another symbol of merry and innocence. Jesus Christ has also been symbolized as a lamb as the poet, a resemblance between meek and mild, meaning submissive and soft-hearted, and Jesus also became a child for humanity’s sake. The narrator is a child, he is Lamb, and Jesus’s name calls them both.

William Blake’s Lamb

Personal Comments

William Blake’s Lamb has been written in question-and-answer form, or rather an inquisitive dialogue form between a child and a lamb. The first descriptive and rural, whereas in the second stanza, the poet has emphasized abstract spiritual matters and consists of correlations, metaphors and explanation.

The child’s question is heartfelt and naïve, and the innocence of the situation has been given importance by the apostrophic form of the poem, which is much more than literary convenience.

As the poem progresses further, the child succeeds in converting it into a rhetorical one, which results in countering the poem’s initial spontaneous sense. The answer is depicted as a puzzle that helps in contributing to an essential purpose of satirical knowingness or deceit in the poem. The answers disclose his self-reliance and faith in Christian philosophies and innocent acceptance of its teachings.

Life of William Blake

William Blake was an eminent poet among the pioneers of the Romantic Revival in English. He was born in London in November 1757 to his father, James Blake and his mother, Catherine, who were both Protestant Christians. They had five children in their family, of which Blake was the second one.

Since childhood, denial and deprivation of love from family have helped Blake create his imaginary world. Blake was sent to a good drawing school at the age of seven, and in 1772, under James Besire, he started an apprenticeship in engraving for seven years.

He was appointed as an engraver in the London Society of Antiquaries. He mastered his skill of artwork as well as acquired some of his poetic and political mindset. In 1779 he got admission to study at the Royal Academy and, within a year, began exhibited pictures there, often with historical themes.

At twenty-four, he married Catherine Boucher, who lacked formal knowledge. Blake educated her and taught her to make colours and prints. He had no children but raised his younger brother, Robert, as his child. He nursed him and taught him drawing.

Blake was considered whimsical by his contemporaries for his peculiar but individualistic viewpoints. His works are highly regarded and appreciated by later critics for his expressiveness and creativity and the philosophical and mystical undercurrents within his work.

His paintings and poetry have the quintessence of the Romantic movement, and as “Pre-Romantic”, Blake was influenced by the ideals and ambitions of the French and American revolutions.

Similar Poems Related to The Lamb

‘The Lamb’ is one of Blake’s famous poems. There are many others on a similar matter, whether religion or nature, which are equally good. These are ‘The Divine Image,’ ‘Auguries of Innocence,’ and ‘The Garden of Love. There are works of other poets with the same subject matter, which include ‘Holy Innocents’ by Christina Rossetti and ‘First Sight ‘by Philip Larkin.

Works of William Blake

Poet, painter, engraver, and visionary William Blake worked to bring about a change both in the social order and in men’s minds in his period. He is considered one of the great primogenitors of English Romanticism; his visual artwork is highly regarded worldwide.

William Blake’s poetry is delightful and equally challenging. His poetry has a wide range of appeal, from the ambiguous tempo of his lullaby-like pastorals and songs to the troubling notes of the tragedy of the void or empty soul and the stormy music of the oracular works.

Blake’s writings can be classified as:

  1. Lyrical poems, which include Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, his famous works.
  2. Irregular rhyme-less verse
  3. Rhythmic prose
  4. Descriptive and critical prose

What is the summary of the poem the lamb?

God and Creation. “The Lamb” is a religious poem that marvels at the wonders of God’s creation. In the poem, a child addresses a lamb, wondering how it came to exist, before affirming that all existence comes from God. In the humble, gentle figure of the lamb, the speaker sees the beautiful evidence of God’s work.

What does the lamb poem symbolize?

In “The Lamb,” Blake uses the animal to symbolize innocence. The poem centers on the idea that the lamb represents a sense of childlike wonder, and a sense of hope and purity. The cadence of the poem presents itself in a very simplistic and akin to a child, which substantiates the theme of innocence.

What is the central idea of the lamb?

Answer: The central idea of ‘the lamb’ is to praise and the gifts he has given to humanity. In reference to lamb, it is who has given it the soft wool, tender voice and such a beautiful life. Christ also called himself a lamb and came to earth as a little child.

How does The Lamb end?

At the end of Lamb, the true “father” of six-month-old Ada is revealed: A towering, menacing half-human, half-ram. This “Ram Man,” as the filmmakers call him, appears and shoots Ingvar dead with his own hunting rifle and takes Ada back with him to live in the wild.

Mending Wall Analysis | Robert Frost’s Detailed Mending Wall Analysis, Style and Form

Mending Wall Analysis

Mending Wall Analysis: Inspired by his wife, Elinor Miriam White, the poem ‘Mending Wall’ was written by Robert Frost to explore human relationships’ nature. According to the poet, there are two types of people, one who wants walls and others who don’t.

The poet was born on 26th March 1874 in San Francisco and was interested in reading and writing poetry in Lawrence’s high school days. His first ever published poem was ‘My Butterfly,’ which came out on 8th November 1894 in ‘The Independent.’ Robert Frost was greatly influenced by contemporary British poets like Edward Thomas, Rupert Brooke, and Robert Graves. 

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Robert Frost became an eminent poet by the 1920s as his work was immensely recognized, and he earned great fame and honour with each new book. Robert Frost is an author of universal themes and is more than just a regional poet, although his work is mainly based on the life and landscape of New England.

Though writing poetry in traditional verse forms and metrics, he remained completely aloof from the poetic movements. Robert Frost used simple language in his poems with the application of irony and ambiguity. Mending Wall Analysis Literary Devices, Figurative language

About Mending Wall Analysis

David Nutt published Robert Frost’s ‘Mending Wall’ in 1914, and in terms of modern literature, the poem is considered one of the most organized and diversified poems. Here, the speaker is a farmer in New England who walks along with his neighbour in spring to repair the stone wall that falls between their farms.

As they start mending the wall, the narrator engages in a conversation with his neighbour and asks why the wall is even needed. The poet says that something in nature doesn’t want a wall, to which his neighbour answers, “Good fences make good neighbours.”

The poem analyses the fundamental nature and characteristics of human relationships. The poem has got several layers. It requires the reader’s analysis, philosophies, and search for an inevitable conclusion that he cannot find. The reader understands the meaning of life in a new way as he is on a thrilling and rewarding quest.

The poet here speaks about nature and says that not everything that exists in nature needs a wall. According to him, the human-made walls are destructed by natural events or even hunters searching for rabbits for their hungry dogs. Thus, with the onset of spring, the narrator, along with his neighbour, starts to mend the shared wall between their properties.

Though the narrator comes together with his neighbour to repair the wall, he considers this an act of stupidity. According to him, both of them don’t need a wall. He asks why there should be a wall when his neighbour has only pine trees, and he has apples, and these cannot intrude into the narrator’s property. On the other hand, his neighbour is a stone-headed savage who believes in his father’s age-old philosophy: “Good fences make good neighbours.”

Mending Wall Analysis Style and Form

The poem’s baseline meter in the blank verse, but some of the lines apace with blank verse features like lock-step iambs, five abreast. The poet has made perfect implementation of five stressed syllables in each line of the poem but has extended the feet’ variation so that the verse’s natural speech-like quality can continue to be sustained.

The poem doesn’t have any stanza breaks or rhyming patterns and exhibits continuity. Many of the end-words like wall, hill, balls, wall, and well sun, thing, stone, mean, line, and again or game, and he twice shares consonance.

Alongside, the poem has internal rhyming words which have been kept slanted and subtle by Frost. All words in the poem are short and conversational yet have been written in a straightforward language. The poem ‘Mending Wall’ brings out perfect feel and sound by pulsating skilfully.

Mending Wall Analysis by Robert Frost

Detailed Mending Wall Analysis

Something there is that doesn’t love a wall,

That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,

And spills the upper boulders in the sun;

And makes gaps even two can pass abreast.

The work of hunters is another thing:

I have come after them and made repair

Where they have left not one stone on a stone,

But they would have the rabbit out of hiding,

To please the yelping dogs. The gaps I mean,

Lines 1 to 9

In lines 1 to 9, the narrator says that something mysterious does not want walls and permanently destroys the walls, making a gap for two people to pass through it quickly. It either gets damaged by some hunter, who pulls down the walls of the walls searching for rabbits to please their barking dogs or by other means.

No one has seen them made or heard them made,

But at spring mending-time, we find them there.

I let my neighbour know beyond the hill;

And on a day, we meet to walk the line

And set the wall between us once again.

We keep the wall between us as we go.

To each the boulders that have fallen to each.

And some are loaves and some so nearly balls

We have to use a spell to make them balance:

‘Stay where you are until our backs are turned!’

We wear our fingers rough with handling them.

Oh, just another kind of out-door game,

One on aside. It comes to little more:

There where it is, we do not need the wall:

Lines 9 to 22

In these lines, from 9 to 22, the speaker says that the making of these gaps in the walls are never seen or heard but mysteriously exist during spring, especially when someone tries to mend the fence. They are realities, so the narrator asks his neighbour to go beyond the hill and find out, after all, who creates these gaps. One day, when both of them were walking along the wall, they get to see stones of the wall scattered on the ground. They see that some rocks are shaped like bread loaves, while a few are round in shape. Due to their mysterious figures, they find it difficult to fix the wall. Though all the process of tackling the stones makes their fingers too rough and exhausted, it is like an outdoor fun game for them, where the wall works as a net, and both the narrator and his neighbour are opponents.

He is all pine, and I am apple orchard.

My apple trees will never get across

And eat the cones under his pines, I tell him.

He only says, ‘Good fences make good neighbours.’

Spring is the mischief in me, and I wonder

If I could put a notion in his head:

‘Why do they make good neighbours? Isn’t it

Where there are cows? But here, there are no cows.

Before I built a wall, I’d ask to know

What I was walling in or walling out,

And to whom I was like to give offense.

Something there is that doesn’t love a wall,

That wants it down.’ I could say ‘Elves’ to him,

But it’s not elves exactly, and I’d rather

He said it for himself. I see him there

Line 22 to 36

From lines 22 to 36, the narrator tries to make his neighbour understand that they probably don’t need a wall as his neighbour only has pine trees and an apple tree which cannot trespass into the speaker’s property. There is no chance of offending as they don’t also have any cows at their homes. While to this, the neighbour who is a stone-headed person says what he believes in his father’s age-old saying that, “Good fences make good neighbours.”

Something there is that doesn’t love a wall,

That wants it down.’ I could say ‘Elves’ to him,

But it’s not elves exactly, and I’d rather

He said it for himself. I see him there

Bringing a stone grasped firmly by the top

In each hand, like an old-stone savage armed.

He moves in darkness as it seems to me,

Not of woods only and the shade of trees.

He will not go behind his father’s saying,

And he likes having thought of it so well

He says again, ‘Good fences make good neighbours.’

Throughout the poem, the narrator wants to make his neighbour understand, and the kind of imagination he makes to convince his neighbour about the existence of the wall are appealing, for example, in the lines where the narrator tells his neighbour that there is something like a non-human entity as elves that come and break the walls. Elves are tiny supernatural, mythological beings that are seen in folk tales. The narrator quickly changes his opinion when he logically explains nature’s power, which works against those walls and barriers.

Despite the narrator’s several opinions, his neighbour firmly holds his ground and is probably too arrogant. He still believes in his father’s ideology of ‘good fences make good neighbours.’

Final Comments on Mending Wall Analysis

‘Mending Wall’ is an all-time favourite poem by Robert Frost. It gives a broader and wiser perspective on boundaries and barriers. It also suggests that good fences are essential to maintain friendly relations with the neighbours.

This is a possible way by which we can have a peaceful and stable understanding with our neighbours. It also, in a way, implies that how important it is to maintain proper boundaries and barriers between two countries to establish a peaceful environment and relation between them. In reality, living in a civilized society, walls and boundaries help maintain privacy and also act as an obstacle for people like seemingly unsociable. We must maintain distance from our neighbours and respect their privacy as well as our privacy. Thus, fences and walls are essential.

What is the main theme of Mending Wall?

A widely accepted theme of “Mending Wall” concerns the self-imposed barriers that prevent human interaction. In the poem, the speaker’s neighbor keeps pointlessly rebuilding a wall. More than benefitting anyone, the fence is harmful to their land. But the neighbor is relentless in its maintenance.

What happens in the Mending Wall?

The poem is set in rural New England, where Frost lived at the time—and takes its impetus from the rhythms and rituals of life there. The poem describes how the speaker and a neighbor meet to rebuild a stone wall between their properties—a ritual repeated every spring.

What does the Mending Wall symbolize?

The wall symbolizes good boundaries, especially in the repeated phrase, “good fences making good neighbors.” However, the wall also symbolizes community. Repairing the wall brings the two together in a yearly ritual that helps them remain good neighbors by bonding.

What is the major metaphor in Mending Wall?

The central metaphor in this poem is the wall itself. It comes to represent the divisions between people, things that keep them apart.

What is ironic about the Mending Wall?

Perhaps the greatest irony in the poem “Mending Wall” is that the speaker continues to help rebuild the wall even as he realizes he disagrees with its presence. As the poem progresses, the speaker notes how all sorts of natural forces, like the ground and animals, conspire to take down the wall each winter.

Why do the two neighbors meet in Mending Wall?

“Mending” is an adjective here, not a verb. That is, erecting the wall mends something between the neighbors. So one of the reasons the neighbors continue to meet and mend the wall is that doing so “mends” and maintains their relationship.

Langston Hughes’s Dreams | Detailed Analysis of Dream By Langston Hughes

Dream By Langston Hughes Analysis: Dream By Langston Hughes Meaning “Dreams” is one of Langston Hughes’s numerous verses about the force and need of dreams for the two people and networks. In eight short lines, the sonnet’s speaker cautions the reader that forsaking dreams (which may mean expectations, goals, plans, innovative dreams, or potentially figments) denies the life of its essentialness and reason. Through its symbolic pictures of brokenness and fruitlessness, the sonnet portrays everyday routine without dreams as not, at this point, worth experiencing.

The speaker starts by encouraging the peruser to clutch dreams, outlining the torment of an existence without them by contrasting it with a harmed, terrestrial bird. “A broken-winged bird/That can’t fly” is an enduring animal that has lost its versatility, just as one of its characterising attributes (that is, the force of flight). Read the article to find more about Dreams By Langston Hughes Theme, What Is The Mood Of The Poem Dreams By Langston Hughes, Dreams By Langston Hughes Literary Devices.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

It might likewise have lost its course, local area, and methods for getting food. The correlation along these lines infers that an existence without dreams is agonising, disappointing, denied, and conceivably incapable of proceeding with any longer. This examination also recommends that fantasies characterise humankind, something that drives and supports individuals.

The speaker at that point rehashes—in significantly more inauspicious terms—the counsel to clutch dreams, this time contrasting a dreamless existence with a dead field. In contrast to a harmed bird, which is alive and might recuperate, “a desolate field/Frozen with snow” can’t support any life whatsoever. This correlation shows that surrendering one’s fantasies can be more than an excruciating emergency: it can feel like an enthusiastic or otherworldly demise.

The speaker never unequivocally characterises “dreams” in the sonnet, and the sonnet’s importance here changes marginally, relying upon how critics decipher the word. Assuming perusers take “dreams” to mean expectations or yearnings, the similitude of life as a “desolate field” inspires individuals’ powerlessness to envision a compensating future (or any future, besides) when they dismiss their fantasies.

Assuming “dreams” signifies dreams or hallucinations, the illustration recommends that life is unforgiving, cold, and void when seen as it truly is—that is, without the cloak of “dreams” over it. Likewise, the representation infers that the fantasies individuals do have protected, fed, and enhanced them, similar to crops from a prolific field.

Notwithstanding the speaker’s call for individuals to stick to dreams, the move from “if dreams bite the dust” in the preceding verse to “when dreams go” in the second demonstrates that nothing can keep dreams alive always; losing them involves “when,” not “if.” The sonnet’s unexpected, calming finishing—”frozen” picture, reflecting the balance that goes with the finish of dreams and the finish of life—underscores the earnestness of “Holding quick to dreams” as far as might be feasible.

Dreams are a subject that Hughes got back to again and again in his verse. He regularly connected them with the encounters of Black Americans as well as the modifier “conceded” (deferred, postponed). Be that as it may, “Dreams” is a comprehensive, distinct assertion: an unfit admonition to clutch dreams all in all, regardless of whether they at any point materialise. Their misfortune brings torment, inadequacy, and vacancy; consequently, the sonnet contends, they are an essential wellspring of joy, strength, and food.

Analysis of the Poem “Dreams”

Line 1-2

Lines 1-2 of “Dreams” comprise a goal (guidance or order) trailed by the start of a clarification. All in all, the sonnet’s speaker is offering and legitimising a recommendation.

Who is the speaker, and whom would they say they are tending to? The speaker’s legitimate tone proposes that their experience has given some knowledge regarding the matter of dreams. The absence of other recognising settings (either in the title of the sonnet) suggests that the speaker is pretty much comparable to the artist and that their recommendation is routed to perusers all in all.

What sort of “dreams” does line 1 allude to? The word could, in a real sense, mean dreams experienced during rest. All the more comprehensively, it could mean expectations, yearnings, inventive breaks from the real world (as in fantasies), creative dreams, dreams, figments, or a blend of these. The setting highlights the second class of dreams since it bodes well to stay appended to significant expectations than semi-irregular nighttime dreams!

“Quick” (line 1) contains a possible two-sided connotation. In setting, it implies firmly or safely. “Hold quick” is another method of saying, “Hang on close.” But another meaning of “quick”— rapidly—might be pertinent, as well.

Line 2 demonstrates that fantasies can “pass on,” so the speaker might be cautioning the reader to grasp dreams both safely and rapidly before they sneak away (or before some external power removes them). This guidance means genuine is not entirely clear, yet the overall sense is clear: the speaker needs critics to view their fantasies as appropriately as could be expected, as quickly as time permits.

The sound of these lines underscores their earnestness. They’re laconic and loaded with punchy monosyllabic words. The sonnet’s fundamental meter is the rhyming diameter (which means each line has two iambs, idyllic feet with an unstressed-focused on beat design).

Hughes may need the peruser to hear spondees (focused on syllable + focused on syllable) instead of iambs (unstressed + pushed) toward the start of the primary line and the second’s finish.

Notwithstanding the specific example, these emphatically focused on monosyllables make the lines sound determined. Similar sounding word usage supports the accentuation, too: “dreams”/”dreams”/”bite the dust.”

Line 3-4

Again, the explicitness of the language is vital for this pair of lines since Hughes doesn’t beat around the bush as he wanders into his conviction of what occurs at the death of “dreams.” Instead, he centres straightforwardly around perhaps the most fantastic idea that can be referred to, which is “life.”

By marking an enormous thought as “life” as being affected by losing “dreams,” Hughes requests the peruser’s consideration in a straightforward, unornamented way since each peruser ought to have a genuine interest in the subject.

Just once that enormous idea is in concentration and the peruser’s fixation is grounded does Hughes guide his focus toward a similitude by guaranteeing that “life is a messed up winged bird that can’t fly.”

Once more, two things can be uncovered inside this couple of lines. The first thing is that once the “dreams” are lost, pronouns are practical alternatives to using in replacement for things as “that” is supplanting “bird.” As this variety happens once “dreams pass on” and “life” becomes “broken-winged” and harmed, it could address the diminished nature of “life” because of “dreams” blurring.

The other detail at play inside Lines 3 and 4 is that the “bird” addresses “life” after “dreams pass on” and “can’t fly.” Hughes doesn’t say that the “bird” won’t “fly” or experiences difficulty with the possibility.

That “bird” has lost the capacity to “fly,” showing that to Hughes, the best way to hoist oneself into higher and bolder parts of “life” is through “dreams.” Without them, “life” is more two-dimensional, as though an individual can’t move past a standard degree of presence.

Line 5-8

In the last four lines, the creator is indeed accentuating on clutching our fantasies. He is clarifying the outcomes of dreamless life. He says that assuming we let our imaginations go, life isn’t only a waste. However, it resembles a barren land.

Like a desolate land is futile for a rancher since nothing can be collected; comparably, a dreamless life won’t be productive for anybody. It would not serve any advantages to anybody. Without dreams, existence won’t simply be infertile land. However, it will be covered with snow. Snow represents cold and aloof. The creator depicts that our life will likewise need warmth and will get complicated and unfriendly without dreams.

Every single word in Langton’s verse has some profound significance. It gives us a secret exercise for observing great dreams, for if we watch dreams, we will hear them out, endeavour to accomplish them and accumulate a few accomplishments in our lives.

Thus, one ought to consistently clutch our fantasies and attempt to satisfy them. It is uncertain, presumably, extraordinarily miserable and discouraging when our imaginations break or are not satisfied. However, it doesn’t imply that one quits dreaming. We will consistently make an honest effort to satisfy our measures and work toward accomplishing them.

About Langston Hughes

Langston Hughes was a focal figure in the Harlem Renaissance, the blossoming of dark scholarly, abstract, and creative life during the 1920s in various American urban areas, especially Harlem.

A significant artist, Hughes additionally composed books, short stories, papers, and plays. He tried to genuinely depict ordinary people of colour’s delights and difficulties, keeping away from wistful romanticising and contrary generalisations.

In his article named “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,” he wrote, “We more youthful Negro craftsmen who make presently mean to communicate our individual darker looking selves without dread or disgrace. In the event that white individuals are satisfied, we are happy. On the off chance that they are not, it doesn’t make any difference. We realise we are wonderful. Also, monstrous as well.”

Dreams By Langston Hughes Questions and Answers

Question 1.
When Was Dreams By Langston Hughes Written?

Answer:
1922

Question 2.
What Type Of Poem Is Dreams By Langston Hughes?

Answer:
“Dreams” by Langston Hughes is a two-stanza poem with an ABCB rhyme scheme that highlights the value of “dreams” by presenting two situations that revolve around the loss of those “dreams.

What is the poem calling dreams about?

The poem “Calling Dreams” is about how the speaker won’t let anything stand in her way of making her dreams come true. It is important to follow your dreams. With determination you can overcome obstacles.

What is the imagery in dreams by Langston Hughes?

Langston Hughes uses imagery, metaphor, apostrophe, repetition, and parallelism in this poem. Imagery is description that employs any of the fives senses of sight, sound, touch, taste, or smell. Hughes uses imagery to convey what it feels like to have one’s dreams die or, in other words, to become hopeless.

What is the theme of the dreams of the dreamer poem?

The theme of “Dreams” by Langston Hughes is about not giving up on what you want out of life. Hughes says to “Hold fast to dreams” and not let them go, for if you do, your life will be meaningless and unfulfilled. He shows this theme through his use of figures of speech.

What is the theme of the poem my little dreams?

This poem is telling you to always follow your dreams because if not you’ll regret them later on in life. She had big dreams to do things but never got to achieve them now it’s eating her up on the inside.

What are the metaphors in the poem Dreams?

“Dreams” revolves around two major metaphors. The speaker compares life after the loss of dreams to “a broken-winged bird / That cannot fly” and “a barren field / Frozen with snow.” The first metaphor is bleak and the second even more so.

What is being compared in the poem Dreams?

Langston Hughes’ short poem “Dreams” has two types of figurative language, personification and metaphor. … A metaphor is a comparison of two unrelated things to suggest they are somehow similar. In the poem, losing a dream is compared to a “broken winged bird That cannot fly” and a “barren field Frozen with snow”.

Tone in Poetry | Literary Devices, Example and Why Does Tone Matter?

Tone in Poetry

Tone in Poetry: The technical definition for the ‘tone’ would be – The general mood that a piece of literature exudes, or the reader’s perspective of the cumulative moods and mental or emotional states of the narrator, characters, and the writer, is what creates the immediate definition for ‘tone’.

However, several other factors influence the tone, especially that of poetry. Some of those are the rhyme scheme and rhythm of the poem, the poet’s metrical decorum throughout the poem, the diction used by him in narrating the poem, etcetera.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Literary Devices of Tone in Poetry

Condensing it, we can say that tone is a constituent of a literary piece that makes the reader feel a certain way, an ingredient that the composer implements by using his specialty. Multiple tones are extracted from literary pieces, such as,

  • Elegiac or mourning a death
  • Remorsefulness
  • Nostalgia
  • Lechery
  • Conflict and indecision
  • Introspection
  • Sardonic
  • Pessimism and Optimism

Example of Tone in Poetry

An example of tones in proses can be fetched from Donald Barthelme’s ‘The School’, where the writer goes about describing the deaths of some orange trees that they had planted, and the dictation of the same was done in a very graphic manner. The readers get a bleak and morose tone. The writer concludes by saying and perfectly delivering the tone that ‘it was depressing’.

Another example of tone from poems can be fetched from Shakespeare’s sonnet 18, where he says that,

“shall I compare thee to a

Summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and

More temperate.”

Here, the tone is observational, romantic and represents gratitude, as the poet praises the beauty of his lover alongside the beauty of nature.

Why Does Tone Matter?

The tone is a very important literary device because it gives out some of the major traits of a literary piece. The tone also helps the readers understand the writer on an emotional level, on the occasional instances when the work they are reading is autobiographical.

The tone also helps us distinguish between the different emotional renditions in literature and understand how an individual’s internal features are projected in their compositions and how another individual discovers those raw emotions and perceives them.

The tone lays an overview of the reader-writer functioning around a singular tone of emotion. The tone also leads to differentiate between two poems having similar objects. For example, the colour white can be treated as the symbol of peace in one, while another treats it as the symbol of death.

What is the tone of a poem examples?

Tone can be playful, humorous, regretful, anything — and it can change as the poem goes along. When you speak, your tone of voice suggests your attitude. In fact, it suggests two attitudes: one concerning the people you’re addressing (your audience) and one concerning the thing you’re talking about (your subject).

What are examples of tones?

18 Examples of Tone Words in Writing

  • Cheerful.
  • Dry.
  • Assertive.
  • Lighthearted.
  • Regretful.
  • Humorous.
  • Pessimistic.
  • Nostalgic.

What are the 3 types of tones?

Today we went over the 3 types of tone. Nonassertive, aggressive, and assertive.

How do you identify tone?

Tone is the author’s attitude toward a subject. The tone can be identified by looking at word choices and phrases. Take time to look at the language. An author uses words to create meaning.

What are examples of author’s tone?

Tone indicates the writer’s attitude. Often an author’s tone is described by adjectives, such as: cynical, depressed, sympathetic, cheerful, outraged, positive, angry, sarcastic, prayerful, ironic, solemn, vindictive, intense, excited.

What are 5 examples of tone?

Some other examples of literary tone are: airy, comic, condescending, facetious, funny, heavy, intimate, ironic, light, modest, playful, sad, serious, sinister, solemn, somber, and threatening.

If Rudyard Kipling Analysis | Stanzas, Themes and Literary Devices

If Rudyard Kipling Analysis

If Rudyard Kipling Analysis: ‘If’ is a poem by Rudyard Kipling that is considered by many to be one of the most inspirational poems written. It was first published in 1910 and is one that has held the attention of people to date. In fact, it is interesting to know that a line from the very poem hangs at the Centre Court Wimbledon in England. It is placed in the player’s entrance and has left its mark on many since it was written.

This poem is beautifully structured and leaves the answers to all his ‘ifs’ until the last two lines, which are powerful indeed. Multiple scenarios and hard truths of life are presented to the reader, and the reader is encouraged to do what is right and persevere, no matter how difficult it may be.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

However, it is interesting to note the irony of the poem and the poet. He wrote about what one must do to be a ‘Man’ of valour, courage, virtue and strength. Yet, he himself was an imperialist who supported the colonisation of the British Empire that he was a part of. He spent a lot of time in British India as he was born there after all. This poem was written after he himself took inspiration from Leander Starr Jameson and his actions.

If Rudyard Kipling Analysis Stanzas

First Stanza

The poem opens with the scenario of the ‘if’ the poem is all about. The reader is told that it is essential to keep a level head and not blame people or situations. It seems as if the poem is a long sentence that ends on a high note. The poem encourages the reader to have self-trust and an ability to press on even in the face of lies and doubts. The reader is encouraged to have a balance of humility, along with having wisdom and understanding. To trudge on with what is right no matter what one has to face from the people around – even if everyone doubts or lies to the reader. In the last lines, the reader is also told to have patience and to not stoop to the level of those who lie or hate. To even be quiet about who one truly is and not put it on display with arrogance.

Second Stanza

This stanza is structured in a manner that is different from the first. The first had lines that grouped two lines together except the last four lines. But in this stanza, the first two lines are structured in a way that is similar to the second part of the previous stanza. The lines are continued and built upon the last.

Here, the reader is told to dream and think but to not get carried away with either and let them take over. A solid grasp on reality must never be lost. Kipling calls both Triumph and Disasater imposters, while he personifies them. He perhaps calls them so to showcase their temporary nature that one can always move on from.  He says that the reader should not be too caught up with either of those.

Kipling, in the last few lines, brings a harsh truth and reality to the reader. Often, people’s honest words can be twisted and perverted for the gain of those who desire harm. The reader must be ready to face such things. Another truth that he brings forth is that life can be full of times when one fails. But it is essential not to be stuck there and move on, no matter how low the failure brings the reader. One must always be ready to begin again.

Third Stanza

Kipling seems to be continuing from the second half of the previous stanza with a theme that speaks of the same – the reader must begin again if all is lost. One can win the world and lose it all in an instant, but should always move ahead regardless of the loss. The next few lines are said to be very powerful in what they entreat the reader to do. The reader is entreated to endure and persevere even if it feels as if it is impossible – both emotionally (heart and nerve) and physically (sinew). Kipling capitalises the word ‘Will’ here talking about how powerful it is. He talks about the resilience humans have and how far they can go just on will-power.

Fourth Stanza

In this stanza, Kipling finally chooses to talk about what happens with all the ‘ifs’ that he has mentioned so far. But that is only after we are presented with more scenarios and lessons that are essential. In simple words, Kipling talks about humility. Even if one is to walk among kings, their treatment of all humanity should never differ. There should be no space for discrimination but only kindness and respect for all people. Kipling then talks about how one must not be swayed by people around – be int friend or foe. The reader is told not to dwell on the disappointment, pain, or hurt that can be caused by enemies or loved ones alike. As mentioned even in the previous stanzas, the reader is encouraged to move on.

He then encourages the reader to make full use of all the time one has on the earth – even if it is as less as just a minute. Those sixty-seconds too must be worth something and not be wasted.

Then, to bring this marvellous and inspiring poem to a close, Kipling comes to the last two lines. Saying that if the reader does all that was entreated, he would be a man with the entire world at his fingertips.

If by Rudyard Kipling Analysis

If Rudyard Kipling Analysis Themes and Literary Devices

  • Kipling has portrayed themes of success and defeat along with a strong theme of masculinity that is very clear from the last two lines talking about a ‘Man.’ The poem speaks of various things that the reader must do and become in order to be a Man. The attributes given are masculine in a very traditional sense, but it raises a question in regards to women in the contemporary context. If looked at generally, the poem could speak about both genders, as it should. But it is supposed that wasn’t the intention.

The poem is also powerful in its inspiring theme, and it motivates the reader with suitable life lessons. Kiping speaks of the harsh realities of life and what must be done in order to get through and be successful while also talking about how to deal with the negatives like defeat and disaster.

  • Kipling also uses various literary devices in this poem. The ones we will look at are repetition, enjambment and caesura, though there are more than he uses in this poem. Caesura is basically when a poet puts a pause in the middle of a line. This is seen very clearly in stanza two, and it makes its mark. This can be done with either the meter or even punctuation.

Repetition, the device first mentioned, is the one the reader can notice and pick up on immediately. After all, it is the title of the poem, and the word ‘if’ is in almost every single line. This firstly makes the reader ask, ‘if this, then what?’ There is an expectation of the ‘then’ that is produced through the poem as the reader moves forward. It is understood that ‘if’ the reader does all that is mentioned, the ‘then’ will appear, and it does in the last two lines. The leading from the expectation to the solution is done brilliantly.

The last device that we will look at is an interesting one – enjambment. This is seen in the little transition that happens between the second and the third lines of the second stanza as well as of the first and second lines of the third stanza. Kipling cuts off his lines before he can come to a stopping point of his phrase or sentence that is natural.

About Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling was born in December of 1865 in Bombay, India. He was a boy of eleven when he first began writing and was greatly inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Wilkie Collins’s works. He wrote many poems, novels, and articles in his lifetime. But his most famous work was published in 1894 – the Jungle Book. This book even became animated and then made into a live-action movie in the last decade – an honor that was posthumous. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in the year 1907.

His life, however, sadly took a tragic turn when his second child died in the 1930s. He developed an ulcer, and when he underwent surgery, he died not a week after. It was elected that his ashes be interred in the Poet’s Corner at Westminister Abbey. As much as his works are appreciated, it is also important to note that today, under critical and scrutinous gazes, his works were seen to be colonial in a sense, causing them to seem much less tasteful.

What is the analysis of If by Rudyard Kipling?

Analysis of Kipling’s “If”

The poem “If” is a paean to British masculine rectitude and stoicism. The poem is structured in such a way that almost every line of every stanza of the poem starts with the word ‘If’. The poet is addressing his son in the poem, shedding light on his beliefs and conveying those to his son.

What is the moral lesson of the poem If by Rudyard Kipling?

The poem is about moral lessons and conduct. It contains advice from a father to a son on how to grow up to be a better person and a true man. He reminds his son that he will be a Man if he can hold on to his values and not be swayed by others. If he follows his advice, he will have a rewarding and enriching life.

What is the main theme of the poem If?

Truly, the poem “If” is a lesson about what is important in life. … Having all of the qualities and characteristics mentioned in the poem will make a man out the son and he shall inherit the earth. Truly, the overall theme is one of manhood and leadership. The speaker is teaching his son what it takes to become a man.

What does the poem If teaches us?

The theme of the poem is about the challenges and conditions that we have to face and overcome so as to succeed in life and leave a mark.

Poetry About Black Women | 10 Inspirational and Fantastic Poems About Black Women

Poetry About Black Women

Poetry About Black Women: This article contains a brief list of compelling and fantastic poems dedicated mainly to inspiring a black woman’s strength. Some prestigious poets from across the globe like Maya Angelou and Lucille Clifton searched deep into their lives and their heritage, history and culture, finding some motivational stories to realise who they are and what status they hold in the global community. These prominent writers then transformed the stories into some fantastic poems to share with more people and inspire the coming generation and more black women.

This list contains some best and top-rated poems about women empowerment, the glory and beauty of black women, their complexion and body, and the importance of their culture, heritage, and family.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

List of Inspiration Poems on and for Black Women

Here is a list of 10 top-rated inspirational poems on and for Black women:

  1. Lucille Clifton’s won’t you celebrate with me
  2. Nikki Giovanni’s A Poem for my Librarian
  3. Audre Lorde’s A Woman Speaks
  4. Maya Angelou’s Phenomenal Woman
  5. Nikki Giovanni’s Rosa Parks
  6. Maya Angelou’s Still I Rise
  7. Audre Lorde’s Power
  8. Maya Angelou’s Woman Work
  9. Gwendolyn Brooks’ Primer for Blacks
  10. Margaret Walker’s Lineage

Here is a brief analysis of all these famous and inspiring poems for Black women.

Poetry on Black Women

Lucille Clifton’s Won’t You Celebrate With Me

In the poem – ‘won’t you celebrate with me’, Clifton confronts gender inequality and racism. In the first line, the poet calls for the action, asking all the readers to celebrate with her. The speaker, considerably Clifton herself in this poem, or maybe some other women resembling her comes out to be the achiever of some fantastic deals. She lacks all the advantages of money, privileges, whiteness, etc., but still manages to overcome them all. The current and historical society’s gender inequalities fail to repress her and are inefficient in winning the battle to control her life and happiness.

Nikki Giovanni’s A Poem for my Librarian

Giovanni dedicated the poem to Mrs. Long, a local black library Librarian that the poet visited as a young girl. In the poem, Giovanni describes how the Librarian helped her by introducing her to the Literature World. She also briefs about the impact that Mrs. Long’s introduction had on her while she delves her interests. The poem also has some briefs on Giovanni’s World while growing up, including the listing to artists like Nat King Cole and the access to limited television that she had.

Audre Lorde’s A Woman Speaks

‘A Woman Speaks’ by Audre Lorde is an inspirational and powerful poem, giving voice to all those who are often left without it. In the poem, Lorde briefs all the black women living across the US and around other parts of the World. She also looks forward to opening a dialogue related to the feminist movement regarding all the things done and undone for women of colour.

Maya Angelou’s Phenomenal Woman

This poem is also like the other ones on this list and focuses on empowerment. The poem’s speaker is Angelou herself, and she asks younger women to go out in the Real World and “kick-ass”. A woman must go out despite her appearance and background, as the poet says. She also describes herself in the Phenomenal Woman’s some parts, saying that she isn’t cute or built to fit in a fashion model’s clothes. Even after all this, the poet is well aware that society’s norms hardly matter while addressing anyone’s worth. A woman can carry herself confidently, no matter what, and standstill up to a man.

Nikki Giovanni’s Rosa Parks

In this famous poem, Giovanni mentions the Civil Rights movement and its history through protests, court cases, people, and various publications defining it. In the poem, the readers can also track references to the Pullman Porters, Brown v. Board of Education, Gwendolyn Brookes, and Rosa Parks. Nikki Giovanni’s creation is like a prose-poem that takes the readers through images of darkness, light, suffering, and determination.

Maya Angelou’s Still I Rise

‘Still, I Rise’ appears as one of the most popular and top-rated poems of Maya Angelou. In this, the speaker stands up against all the preconceived notions and prejudice of what she must be and what is expected of her. She claims to be valuable and deserving of respect in the poem. The words “I rise” are used extensively across the poem for gaining intensity, and at the end, the speaker proudly accepts, leaving behind her history and nights of fear and terror. The speaker headed towards the light and brought with her the gifts that she got from her ancestors.

Audre Lorde’s Power

The poem depends on real-life events that Lorde heard on the radio while driving. She heard about a white policeman’s acquittal that shot and killed a black boy who was only ten-years-old. This was a horrifying event, and its unfair conclusion inspired her to write this poem for sharing her thoughts within it. The poem also involves several images of “raw gunshot wounds” and a white desert, all stained with blood. She also addressed the case’s jury and focused on how eleven white men defended against one black woman.

Maya Angelou’s Woman Work

In this poem, Angelou depicted a housewife’s life as she carries on her everyday tasks and duties. This woman must take care of her kids, clean the entire house, mend the clothes, and go for shopping groceries. All the tasks of this woman pile up continuously and are present in a long list in the poem. The woman in the poem calls upon the sun, the moon, the sky, and the mountains to take her away from her existence and life’s chores and drop her off into a new and better World.

Gwendolyn Brooks’ Primer for Blacks

“Primer for Blacks” is among the top-rated and most influential poems of Gwendolyn Brooks. In this, she speaks about the essence of accepting a person’s black heritage and unified future resulting from the acceptance. The poet speaks of blackness as a ‘title’ and a ‘commitment’ and is also referred to as a promise that one makes for perceiving glory. The poem depicts how every black person must know their greatness and worth.

The speaker also says that being white is a more straightforward thing in the white culture, so easy that even several black people say the same. But the poet looks down to this perception and knows that nothing else will change unless this belief of all the individual’s changes. Finally, with the conclusion, the speaker raised her voice, demanding for all the people to accept their heritage and race and accept who they are.

Margaret Walker’s Lineage

In ‘Lineage’, Margaret Walker describes the strength of all the speaker’s enslaved ancestors and how they suffered to gain back their strength. All the women with whom the speaker-related either by race or by blood were forced to be slaves and work and die on the farmlands and plantations. The ancestors were powerful, both from body and mind. In the poem’s conclusion, the speaker asks everyone in the modern-day why they are not as strong as they were.

List of Inspiration Poems on and for Black Women

Conclusion on Poetry About Black Women

All these poems are the best and highly motivating ones to inspire all black women to be who they are, accept their race, culture and heritage, and rise and shine in the modern world.

Who is the famous black woman poet?

Angelou is best known for her seven autobiographies, but she was also a prolific and successful poet. She was called “the black woman’s poet laureate”, and her poems have been called the anthems of African Americans.

What is a black poetry?

Black poetry refers to poems written by African Americans in the United States of America. It is a sub-section of African American literature filled with cadence, intentional repetition and alliteration. African American poetry predates the written word and is linked to a rich oral tradition.

We Wear The Mask Analysis By Paul Laurence Dunbar | Structure and Literary Devices

We Wear The Mask Analysis

We Wear The Mask Analysis: Paul Laurence Dunbar was a U.S. author who rose to prominence through his work written in black dialect. On June 27, 1872, he was born in Dayton, Ohio, U.S.— to freed black slave parents from Kentucky.

He was the first-ever black writer in the history of the U.S. to make a concerted attempt to live by his writings and one of the first to attain national prominence.

His first three novels—including “The Uncalled (1898), which reflected his own spiritual problems—were about white characters. His last, sometimes considered his best, was “The Sport of the Gods” (1902), concerning an uprooted black family in the urban North.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Though he continued to write and publish, his health was deteriorating by the day. He relied on alcohol to check his persistent coughing only worsened his illness. By the winter of 1905, he was fatally ill. He passed away on February 9, 1906, at age thirty-three.

During the final years of his life, Dunbar wrote prolifically, including numerous poems, short stories, novels, lyrics, and various other narrative works. Although he passed away at a very young age, his dialect poetry legacy influenced many writers of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s.

Summary of We Wear the Mask

This poem is written as a response to the daily lives of a black resident in the post-civil war period in America. Improvements in the blacks’ lifestyle marked the Harlem Renaissance period; however, the mindset limited the growth only to the book’s pages. The situation on the real ground was entirely different.

Racism was an integral part of their lives. The poet has compared the wearing of the mask to hide the true emotions of a person to the suffering against the oppression faced by the black people and yet putting up a wholly another picture for the world to view.

The hardships we hide behind our smiles will never be recognized by society. It camouflages reality and builds an impression of something that is misleading to hide the harsh reality.

Structure of We Wear the Mask

The poem is a variation of a rondeau. It is a three-stanza poem. The first and the last stanzas are alike, with the second stanza being comparatively shorter.

The fifteen lines are divided into quintains, i.e., five lines, quatrain, i.e., four and a sestet, i.e., six lines. The refrain “We wear the mask” is mentioned in the second and third stanzas’ last lines.

The rhyming pattern used in the poem is of type AABBA AABC AABBAC with the C referring to the refrain after the second and the third stanza.

The poem also uses iambic tetrameter, which implies that there are four feet in each line.

Detailed We Wear The Mask Analysis

Literary Devices in We Wear the Mask

An apostrophe is a speech figure where a reference is made to a person or inanimate object that is not directly present in the scene. The lines “O great Christ, our cries” are an example of the use of an apostrophe.

Imagery is a technique used to make the readers aware of the situation utilizing all five senses. It makes them envision an object in their mind, which has been described in the poem. Phrases like “torn and bleeding hearts”, “We smile”, and “Beneath our feet” are perfect examples of visual imagery.

The use of personification is seen in many instances in the poem. In the line “Let the world dream”,, the world has been personified. In the phrase “We wear the mask that grins and lies,” the mask has been given human traits and emotions.

A refrain is a line or a set of lines that appears at the end of a stanza. The phrase “We wear the mask” has been used as a refrain at the end of the second and the third stanzas.

Detailed Analysis of We Wear The Mask

Stanza one:

We wear the mask that grins and lies,

It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,—

This debt we pay to human guile;

With torn and bleeding hearts we smile,

And mouth with myriad subtleties.”

The first line is the replication of the name of the poem itself.

We all wear a mask that makes it appear like we’re happy. But somewhere down the line, it is a lie. The mask covers our cheeks and hurls a shadow over our eyes to hide our true emotions.

We smile despite feeling like our world has collapsed.

The underlying reference is made to the Afro-Americans. This stanza’s ending line points to the expected “subtleties” or the refined behaviour that black people were supposed to portray in front of the elite white population.

Stanza two:

“Why should the world be over-wise,

In counting all our tears and sighs?

Nay, let them only see us while

We wear the mask.”

These lines highlight the idea that society sees only those things it wants to see and overlooks the other grim parts of life. It chooses to ignore and remain blind to the most critical and difficult situations which demand an answer.

The devastating situation of the black slaves needed no special mention. Their plight was not unknown to the people- but they chose to neglect it.

The degree of the sufferings was huge. But action taken against it was next to nothing. They were left unattended to suffer to the farthest for centuries.

The last two lines bring forward a tone of mockery, where the poet tells the world to act blind to the cause of the black population and let them suffer.

Stanza three:

We smile, but, O great Christ, our cries

To thee from tortured souls arise.

We sing, but oh the clay is vile

Beneath our feet, and long the mile;

But let the world dream otherwise,

We wear the mask!”

These lines embark upon the superiority of the Almighty. We are mere puppets in his hands, and he is the ultimate Saviour.

The slaves always wore a smile on their faces and hid their sufferings. The term “tortured souls” portray how severe their torment was.

They prayed at the end of the day, and the Lord was the only one to identify the real anguish hidden behind those smiles. They told the Lord about the hostilities they suffered from. He is their lone friend and guide.

They confide in the Almighty. They never lost hope and looked forward to the times when the Lord would liberate them from their agony.

The poet repeats to wear a mask to hide the real sufferings from the world. The people can remain in a state of ignorance and stay oblivious to the hardships faced by the black people.

We Wear The Mask Analysis Summary

What literary devices are in We Wear the Mask?

The literary devices used in We Wear the Mask are juxtaposition, repetition of consonant sounds, extended metaphor, and personification.

Is We Wear the Mask a metaphor?

Metaphor: The poet has used the extended metaphor of “mask” to illustrate the false persona that people put on to hide their real feelings and true emotions from other people. … The poet has used visual imagery such as, “torn and bleeding hearts”; “We smile” and “Beneath our feet.”

What is the alliteration in We Wear the Mask?

Also, in line 5, we get some alliteration (repetition of initial consonant sounds) in the words “mouth” and “myriad.” Just like before, the repetition of that M sound helps to accent the words even more and gets us thinking about that mechanical sound of “mouth[ing]” subtleties.

What does We Wear the Mask symbolize?

The mask symbolizes how blacks must hide who they really are to navigate in white society. Because they are viewed as stereotypes, blacks must pretend to be what white people expect them to be. A mask hides one’s true identity.

Is the poem We Wear the Mask ironic?

In the poem “We Wear the Mask,” Paul Laurence Dunbar is using irony to express the idea that African-Americans are putting on a false face (the “mask”) to the rest of the world. The irony is in the fact that they appear to be happy, because of the mask, but in reality they are not.