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Unseen Passage for Class 11 Factual CBSE With Answers
1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.
1. The literary tradition of India goes back to more than 3000 years and during this period, Sanskrit occupied a pre-eminent position. Sanskrit played a key role in providing continuity to the Indian civilization. Ancient India knew two scripts – Kharoshthi and Brahmi. Kharoshthi was written from right to left and was prevalent in Gandhara (eastern Afghanistan and north Punjab). Brahmi was written from left to right. It is this script which became the script of the Sanskrit language. Birch barks and palm leaves were the original writing material.
2. Sanskrit was the language of the Aryans who belonged to the Indo – European group of races. Sanskrit thus belonged to the Indo – European group of languages. Classical Sanskrit developed from the Vedic period between 500 BC and about 1000 AD. The word “Veda” is derived from the root word vid, meaning “knowledge” – signifying knowledge par excellence – which later became sanctified as sacred knowledge.
3. The Vedas are said to be divided into two sections – “Mantra” and “Brahmana”. “Mantra” means that which is thought out by the mind”. “Brahmana” means “the explanation of the Brahmin”. The four Vedas are the Rig Veda, the Sama Veda, the Yajur Veda, and the Atharva Veda. The earliest text, the Rig Veda, has many things in common with the Iranian Zend Avesta and is written in verse. It is the earliest specimen of the Indo – European language divided into 10 cycles or mandalas; it has 1,028 hymns. The Rig Vedic hymns, in the words of Rabindranath Tagore, are “a poetic testament of a people’s collective reaction to the wonder and awe of existence”. They are poems of praise to the beauty of the earth and nature and its power.
4. As the Aryans settled down and a ritualistic religion developed, the need was felt for a hymn which could be sung and set to tune. Thus arose the second compilation, the Sama Veda. “Sama” means “song or melody”. The text consists of 1,875 verses, chiefly borrowed from the Rig Veda. The third text, the Yajur Veda, comprises approximately 2,000 mantras in prose for the purpose of recitation and the rules to be observed at the time of sacrifice. “Yajur” means “a sacrificial formula”.
5. The fourth compilation, the Atharva Veda, is mainly a book of spells and incantations to ward off diseases, enemies, evils, and so on. It originated as the adhvaryu (the executor of the sacrifice) priest began to perform sacrifices for the masses. There are about 6000 mantras in this Veda. The mantras of all four compilations were handed down first in the oral tradition.
6. Besides the four Vedas, the sacred stratum of Vedic literature includes the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads. The Brahmanas give rules for rituals and their explanations and are attached to all the four Vedas. The later portions of the Brahmanas are called Aranyakas, and the final parts of the Aranyakas are philosophical books called the Upanishads with which the Indian thought reached its pinnacle. “Aranyakas” means “forest texts”, probably because these thinkers retired from the ritual dominated society to the forests where they composed these texts. The term “Upanishad” means to “sit down (i.e. the pupils) near someone (the teachers) for a confidential communication”. With progressive evolution, it became a sacred session or a sacred doctrine.
Unseen Passage With Answers for Class 11 CBSE
1.1 (i) Complete the sentences
a. ………………………….. Veda is a chanting to protect against …………………………..
b. The earliest text, the Rig Veda, has many things in common with the …………………………. and is …………………………..
c. Aranyakas get their name from …………………………. because …………………………..
a. Atharva Veda is a chanting to protect against diseases, enemies, evils, etc.
b. The earliest text, the Rig Veda, has many things in common with the Sama Veda and is
c. Aranyakas get their name from forest texts because the thinker who composed Aranyakas did so in the forest after retiring from the ritual dominated society.
(ii) Which words in the passage mean the same as the following:
a. admiration (para 3)
b. summit (para 6)
c. holy (para 6)
1.2 Choose the correct options.
(i) The Sama Veda was compiled because
a. the Aryans wanted to praise the beauty of the earth and nature and its power.
b. the need was felt for a hymn which could be sung and set to tune.
c. the Aryans wanted to signify knowledge par excellence.
d. the Aryans wanted to borrow verses from the Rig Veda.
(ii) Birch is a type of
(iii) A verse is
a. not poetry.
b. a section of a piece of writing, usually consisting of several sentences dealing with a single subject.
c. a group of lines that form a unit in a poem or song.
d. a song.
(iv) The word “ritualistic” means
a. a series of actions that are always performed in the same way.
b. connected with the rituals performed as part of a ceremony.
c. not holy.
(v) A hymn is
a. a song of praise, especially one praising God.
b. a song in criticism of someone or God.
c. something that suggests what will happen in the future.
d. a song is taken from the Rig Veda.
(vi) There are …………………………. mantras in the Atharva Veda.
2. Read the passage and answer the questions.
1. The year 2005 was celebrated the world over as the centenary of the discovery of the Theory of Relativity by Albert Einstein. Although Einstein published three major results during 1905, he became famous only 14 years later, or after 6 November 1919. The story of Einstein is an absorbing account of how a scientific achievement caught the popular imagination and made international headlines.
2. It all began with Isaac Newton, who while propounding his universal law of gravitation, wondered whether, like all material objects in the universe, light is subject to gravitational attraction. Would a ray of light skirting a massive body bend its path? This was the question Newton had posed but did not answer. He may have felt that the effect, if any, would be too small to measure with the resources? available to him.
3. In 1801, Johann Georg von Soldner carried out a calculation by assuming that light was made of tiny particles (Newton had called them corpuscles) which would be attracted by a massive body. It would, therefore, bend the ray slightly. How slightly? A ray of light from a distant star passing by the sun would be bent by an angle less than four thousandth part of a degree. This conclusion was of academic interest since astronomers of the day were not capable of measuring the effect.
4. After proposing special relativity, Einstein undertook the more ambitious task of producing a general theory of relativity that incorporated in it the phenomenon of gravity. His early attempts led him to the conclusion no different from Soldner’s as far as the bending of light was concerned. By 1911, he felt confident of this new theory and urged astronomers to verify it.
5. The astronomers, too, were by this time confident of being able to make the required measurements. This meant checking if the direction of a star changed slightly when it was passing behind the sun. But how does one see a star so close to the sun? The answer to that is when the sun is totally eclipsed.
6. Total solar eclipses are rare events visible from very limited zones on the earth. In 1912, Argentinian astronomers went to Brazil to make the measurements, only to be thwarted by a cloudy sky. A second attempt by German astronomers in 1914 to observe the eclipse in Crimea was prevented by the onset of the First World War. Nevertheless, these aborted attempts turned out to be fortunate from Einstein’s point of view.
7. By 1915, Einstein realised that he had made a mistake in calculations and the revised theory, now called the General Theory of Relativity, gave a different answer – that is, the bending angle was twice that given by Soldner based on Newton’s theory.
8. General relativity was a highly mathematical theory, beyond the grasp of most astronomers. Very few scientists at that time fully appreciated its notions of curved space and time. Fortunately for Einstein, though, there was one astronomer who did: Arthur Stanley Eddington at Cambridge, England. Eddington pressed for an expedition to measure this effect during the eclipse due in 1919. For better chances of success two spots were proposed for observation: one in Sobral in Brazil, and the other in the Island of Principe in Spanish Guinea in Africa. Eddington, a quaker, faced the hurdle of possible conscription and detention, but his colleagues made sure that it did not happen.
9. The war ended in 1918, leaving very little time for completing the preparations. The team going to Sobral led by the Greenwich astronomer, Crommelin, had taken large 10 – inch lenses for accurate observations. However, the two makeshift telescopes made from them developed technical problems and in the end, Crommelin had to fall back on a four-inch telescope. Eddington had opted for the Island of Principe as it had a better weather record, but it turned rainy and cloudy on that day. Fortunately, the cloud cover cleared at the right time for Eddington to take necessary photographs of the starfield after the experiment for comparison, but he couldn’t because of a local strike of steamship operators which forced him to return home early.
10. Despite all these problems, the data was analysed and presented on 6 November 1919, at the Royal Society in London, to a crowded hall of scientists against the backdrop of a portrait of Isaac Newton. Would the results show him (and Soldner) to be right or would the new (and weird) theory of Einstein be favoured? The suspense was broken by Astronomer Royal Sir Frank Dyson whose account, followed by reports from Eddington and Crommelin, upheld Einstein’s prediction. The audience felt the thrill of history being made.
11. Despite the euphoria, several scientists were skeptical and would have liked more data. They were right. The observational errors were much larger than they realised at the time and did not warrant a clear-cut judgment on that day. Only in the 1970s did astronomers using radio and microwave observations to obtain a clear decision in favour of Einstein.
12. Hindsight informs us that luck intervened on several occasions during the episode. Einstein’s earlier wrong prediction escaped detection. Be that as it may, the 1919 meeting consecrated Einstein as the greatest scientist of the last century.
2.1 (i) Complete the sentences.
a. Einstein had twofold achievements to his credit. They are the …………………………. and …………………………
b. The inability of the astronomers to make their measurement was a blessing in disguise for Einstein because ………………………….
c. Not many could respect the idea of curved space and time because …………………………
a. Einstein had twofold achievements to his credit. They are the acceptance of the theory of relativity and the acknowledgment of him being the greatest scientist of the last century.
b. The inability of the astronomers to make their measurement was a blessing in disguise for Einstein because his miscalculations were overlooked.
c. Not many could respect the ides of curved space and time because it was a highly complex mathematical theory and not many astronomers could be understanding it.
(ii) Which words in the passage are antonyms of the following:
a. uninteresting (Para 1)
b. normal/usual (Para 6)
c. late (Para 9)
2.2 Choose the correct options.
(i) Johann von Soldner’s discovery only gathered academic interest because
a. the common man was unaffected.
b. it was difficult for him to prove his discovery.
c. it was not possible to measure the outcome.
d. all the above options
(ii) Lady Luck was shining brightly on Einstein because
a. the weather had favoured his wrong calculation.
b. there were observation errors that went undetected.
c. he was acclaimed as the greatest scientist of the last century.
d. all the above options
(iii) German astronomers attempted to observe the eclipse in Crimea in
(iv) By 1915,
a. Eddington pressed for an expedition to measure the effect during the eclipse.
b. Einstein realized that he had made a mistake in calculations the war ended.
d. the data was analysed and presented at the Royal Society in London.
(v) The word “euphoria” means
a. to get pleasure from something.
b. to praise somebody/something very highly
c. an extremely strong feeling of happiness and excitement.
d. an indirect word or phrase that people often use to refer to something embarrassing or unpleasant, sometimes to make it seem more acceptable than it really is.
(vi) The 1919 meeting consecrated
a. Einstein as the greatest scientist of the last century.
b. Soldner as the greatest scientist of the last century.
c. Crommelin as the greatest scientist of the last century.
d. Sir Frank Dyson as the greatest scientist of the last century.
3. Read the passage about Wangari Maathai and answer the questions.
1. Wangari Maathai, the Kenyan environmentalist who began a movement to reforest her country by paying poor women a few shillings to plant trees and who went on to become the first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, died in 2011.
2. Dr. Maathai played many roles – environmentalist, feminist, politician, professor, human rights advocate, and head of the Green Belt Movement which she founded in 1977. Its mission was to plant trees across Kenya to fight erosion and to create firewood for fuel and jobs for women. The movement made her very popular and she was affectionately called the “Tree Woman” or the “Tree Mother of Africa”.
3. Dr. Maathai was as comfortable in the gritty streets of Nairobi’s slums or the muddy hillsides of central Kenya as she was interacting with heads of state. She won the Peace Prize in 2004 for what the Nobel committee called “her contribution to sustainable development, democracy, and peace”. Her Green Belt Movement has planted more than 30 million trees in Africa and has helped nearly 9,00,000 women, according to the United Nations, while inspiring similar efforts in other African countries.
4. “Wangari Maathai was a force of nature,” said Achim Steiner, the executive director of the United Nations’ environmental programme. He likened her to Africa’s ubiquitous acacia trees, “strong in character and able to survive sometimes the harshest of conditions.”
5. Dr. Maathai toured the world, speaking out against environmental degradation and poverty, which she said early on, were intimately connected. But she never lost focus of her native Kenya. She was a thorn in the side of Kenya’s previous president, Daniel Arap Moi, whose government labelled the Green Belt Movement “subversive” during the 1980s. Mr. Moi was particularly scornful of her leading the charge against a government plan to build a huge skyscraper in one of central Nairobi’s only parks. The proposal was eventually scrapped, though not long afterward, during a protest, Dr. Maathai was beaten unconscious by the police.
6. When Mr. Moi finally stepped down after 24 years in power, she served as a member of Parliament and as an assistant minister on environmental issues until falling out of favour with Kenya’s new leaders and losing her seat a few years later. In 2008, after being pushed out of government, she was hit with tear gas by the police during a protest against the excesses of Kenya’s entrenched political class.
7. Home life was not easy, either. Her husband, Mwangi, divorced her, saying she was too strong-minded for a woman. When she lost her divorce case and criticised the judge, she was thrown in jail. “Wangari Maathai was known to speak truth to power,” said John Githongo, an anti-corruption campaigner in Kenya who was forced into exile for years for his own outspoken views. “She blazed a trail in whatever she did, whether it was in the environment, politics, whatever.”
8. Wangari Muta Maathai earned a master of science degree from the University of Pittsburgh and her doctorate in veterinary anatomy at the University of Nairobi, becoming the first woman in the east or central Africa to hold such a degree. In presenting her with the Peace Prize, the Nobel committee hailed her for taking a holistic approach to sustainable development that embraces democracy, human rights and women’s rights in particular” and for serving “as inspiration for many in the fight for democratic rights.”
9. In her Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Dr Maathai said the inspiration for her work came from growing up in rural Kenya. She reminisced about a stream running next to her home – a stream that has since dried up – and drinking fresh, clear water. 10. “In the course of history, there comes a time when humanity is called to shift to a new level of consciousness,” she said, “to reach the higher moral ground. A time when we have to shed our fear and give hope to each other. That time is now.”
3.1 (i) Complete the sentences.
a. The Green Belt Movement’s mission was …………………………
b. Dr. Maathai toured the world, speaking out against …………………………. which she said early on were intimately connected.
c. When Mr. Moi finally stepped down after 24 years in power, she served as a …………………………
a. The Green Belt Movement’s mission was to plant trees across Kenya to fight erosion and to create firewood for fuel and jobs for women.
b. Dr. Maathai toured the world, speaking out against environmental degradation and poverty, which she said early on, were intimately connected.
c. When Mr. Moi finally stepped down after 24 years in power, she served as a member of Parliament and as an assistant minister on environmental issues until falling out of favour with Kenya’s new leaders and losing her seat a few years later.
(ii) Write the meanings of the following words in the passage:
a. strong-minded (Para 7)
b. reminisced (Para 9)
c. humanity (Para 10)
a. resolute and determined, not influenced easily
b. indulged in enjoyable recollection of past events
c. human beings collectively
3.2 Choose the correct options.
(i) “She blazed a trail in whatever she did, …………………………. “The phrase “blazed a trail” means
a. caused unrest.
b. provoked people.
c. enlightened people.
d. made a mark.
(ii) Wangari Maathai died in
(iii) Dr. Maathai was affectionately called
a. The Tree Mother of Africa,
b. The Mother of Africa.
c. The Mother.
d. The African Mother.
(iv) John Githongo was
a. a feminist.
b. an environmentalist.
c. an anti-corruption campaigner.
d. a social leader.
(v) The word “eventually” means
(vi) The word “holistic” means
4. Read the article on Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and answer the questions.
1. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands attracted the attention of many colonial powers as early as the seventeenth century. The Nicobar Islands were already in frequent contact with the outside world. William Dampier’s account of 1688 shows the Nicobaris traded in coconuts, oil, and ambergris. Danish, Dutch, and Moravian missionaries were active in the islands. The Nicobaris has been described as “honest, civil and harmless people”. The peace-loving Nicobaris were in stark contrast to the fearsome aborigines of the Andamans. They were erroneously described as cannibals who used poison arrows, captured passing ships, and slaughtered the crews.
2. The First War of Independence of 1857 gave the British the excuse to occupy and develop the islands as a penal colony. They thought that to be transported to the islands across the sea would serve as a terrible punishment for the freedom fighters. The inhospitable environment and the savages would further enhance their sufferings. On the other hand, being able-bodied and trained soldiers, their energies could be profitably used for empire building. The end result – a well-fortified and provisioned possession in the middle of the Bay of Bengal, where ships could take shelter during storms and also control the busy shipping lanes when the need arose.
3. The ingenious plan was carried out with such haste that a penal colony started functioning at Port Blair even before the conclusion of the “revenging” operations of the 1857 uprising. In December 1857, “Pluto”, a paddlewheel steamer from Calcutta, sailed for the Andamans. Onboard was a committee under the leadership of Dr. Frederick J. Mouat, a physician and an expert in setting up jails, to scout for the right location to set up a penal colony. On 10 March 1858, exactly 11 months 19 days after Mangal Pandey fired the first shot of the revolt, the SS Semiramis dropped anchor off Chatham Island, the place where Aberdeen Blair founded the first settlement in 1789 and named it Port Cornwallis. Two hundred freedom fighters – “sepoy mutineers” to the British – were brought ashore. Maj. James Pattison Walker, a former superintendent of Agra Jail, set them to work to clear the jungle. Another penal settlement was born.
4. The cruel pace set by Walker started claiming lives from the very first day. The moment the chains were removed to facilitate working in the forest, the prisoners made desperate bids to escape. One escaped convict lived with the Andamanese for about a year to return and warn the settlement of an impending attack by the tribesmen. The “Battle of Aberdeen” was a one-sided battle. The bows and arrows of the Andamanese were no match for the British muskets.
5. As the settlement grew, the hard labour of the prisoners quickly produced the necessary infrastructure. Palatial bungalows for the administrators and barracks for the prisoners, a jail, and a formidable gallows for those who refused to reform sprung up. A sawmill on Chatham supplied the timber – convicts worked the brick and lime kilns. Iron grills, chains, fetters, shackles, flogging stands, and oil mills came directly from England.
6. With the freedom movement picking up momentum, the number of freedom fighters sentenced to transportation also increased. The need arose for a high-security jail that could hold a large number in solitary confinement.
7. Construction of the Cellular Jail started in 1896 and was completed in 1906 – a massive three-story structure, shaped like a starfish, seven wings radiating from a central watchtower, a facility where 698 prisoners could be kept in solitary confinement. The plaques bearing the names of those incarcerated in the jail reads like a “who’s who” of the freedom movement.
8. The Cellular Jail houses the Martyrs’ Memorial inside the Jail. The “Sound & Light Show”, every evening, brings to life a dark chapter in the history of the Islands as a penal settlement.
9. The jail marked its centenary on 10 March 2006. It has been a long journey for the jail – from a symbol of the penal colony to a National Memorial, from a dreaded prison to a place of pilgrimage, a place where the memories of brave freedom fighters are revived and patriotic fervour surges through the veins of the visitors.
4.1 (i) Answer the following questions.
a. Despite the fact that Andaman and Nicobar Islands are like twin islands, yet they offered a huge contrast. What was this?
b. What made people lose their lives on the island?
c. The ‘Battle of Aberdeen’ was a one-sided battle. Why?
a. The residents of Nicobar were peace-loving but the residents of Andaman were fearsome.
b. The cruel pace set by Walker made people lose their lives on the island.
c. The Battle of Aberdeen was a one-sided battle as the bows and arrows of the Andamanese were no match for the British muskets.
(ii) Give the synonyms of the following words in the passage.
a. erroneously (Para 1)
b. incarcerated (Para 7)
c. fervour (Para 9)
b. imprisoned, confined
4.2 Choose the correct options.
(i) Why was there a need for a high-security prison surface?
a. prisoners tried to escape
b. the numbers were increasing
c. the aborigines attacked the prisoners
d. all the above options
(ii) The First War of Independence took place in
(iii) The word “profitably” means
d. most likely.
(iv) Maj. James Pattison Walker was
a. a former jailer.
b. an expert in setting up jails.
c. a former superintendent of Agra Jail.
d. none of the above options
(v) The Cellular Jail houses
a. a National Memorial.
b. the Martyr’s Memorial.
c. a sawmill.
d. a flour mill.
(vi) The jail marked its centenary on
a. 10 March 1858.
b. 10 March 1896.
c. 10 March 1906.
d. 10 March 2006.
5. Read the article on Hiroshima and answer the questions given below.
1. The morning of 6 August 1945 in Hiroshima, Japan did not begin in an exceptional way; the people had no idea that they were about to be part of one of the most significant mornings in all of history. At 8:15 am, the United States of America (USA) Forces dropped the first atomic bomb, ironically called, when one considers the enormity of the bomb’s significance, the “Little Boy”. Three days later, the USA dropped a second bomb, nicknamed the “Fat Man” on Nagasaki. Historically, the use of the atomic bombs is seen as a decision that the United States made during WWII in order to end the war with Japan. Regardless of the motivation for using the bombs, they left a heavy death toll. The bombing of Hiroshima not only changed the physical and emotional health and culture of the Japanese people but also changed the world.
2. The population in Japan in October 1940 was 73,114,308; in November 1945, the population was 71,998,104. Japan was visibly a thriving country that was hit very hard by the bombing.
3. In 1945, most people in the United States thought that it was absolutely necessary to bomb Japan. They thought that the bombings put an end to the war, and saved countless lives. On the other hand, some felt that Japan’s situation in 1945 was already “catastrophically hopeless” and prior to the bombing, Japanese leaders were preparing to surrender in the summer of 1945. It has even been suggested that the United States had decoded Japan’s messages, and were aware of the impending surrender, thus making the horrors unleashed on Hiroshima completely unnecessary. Lastly, and most disturbingly, the bomb may have been dropped because of President Truman’s desire to intimidate the USSR. It is unlikely that we will know the complete truth of why the bomb was dropped, but what is distressingly clear, are the effects of the bomb.
4. The bombings crippled Japan for many years. After the bombings, any humans that survived the initial blast were suffering from radiation exposure. Forty – five percent of the people who survived the exposure, were alive sixty years later and became part of the largest study conducted for the long – term effects of radiation poisoning. The study resulted in many upsetting findings. One of the most significant studies is that exposure to radiation increases the long–term risks of cancer and that the risk lasts a lifetime. Unborn children exposed to radiation on average grow to be smaller and less intelligent and their risk of developing leukemia peaked after ten years. Many of the women that were pregnant at the time of the bombing gave birth to children with congenital malformations that were attributed to the radiation.
5. According to a nurse, “Within hours, the enormity of the attacks had become apparent; long queues formed at first aid stations and hospitals, but most of the atomic bomb victims with third-degree burns were unable to reach first aid stations and died on the way.” She also states that “Those who did make it to help had burned so severely that, not only were the person’s clothes completely burned away, the extent of their injuries made it impossible to establish their gender.” Due to their wounds, only ten percent of the bombing victims were expected to live the past two weeks. Not only were the nurses exhausted, but they quickly ran out of supplies, and their available treatment was not sophisticated enough to help the worst wounded.
Ultimately, there was no cure for the unbelievable pain that the victims endured. Feeling helpless, the nurses could only wait for the atomic bomb victims to die. In 1945, there was almost no experience with acute radiation poisoning and so the nurses believed that the city had been struck with an outbreak of dysentery in the first few weeks following the explosion. Later the physical symptoms that survivors experienced came to light. They were: amnesic condition, emotional intolerance, dizziness, constant headache, insomnia, disturbances of metabolism and nutrition, liver dysfunction, cardiovascular disorder, and endocrinological diseases.
5.1 (i) Answer the following questions.
a. … the first atomic bomb, ironically called, when one considers the enormity of the bomb’s significance, the “Little Boy”. What was ironic about this?
b. How did the bombings in Japan have a long – term devastating effect?
c. Why did the nurses believe that the city had been struck with an outbreak of dysentery in the first few weeks following the explosion?
a. The devastation caused by the bomb was huge but the name of the bomb was “Little Boy”.
b. Due to the radiation poisoning caused by the bombs, generations of the Japanese people suffered from cancer, leukemia, stunted growth, low intelligence, and congenital malformations.
c. The nurses had never witnessed acute radiation poisoning before the incident.
(ii) What is the synonym of:
5.2 Choose the correct options.
(i) The morning of 6 August 1945 in Hiroshima, Japan did not begin in an exceptional way. What does this mean?
a. something alarming had happened
b. it was not an unusual morning c. it was a warm ‘summer day
d. people were waiting for something to happen
(ii) The bomb may have been dropped because of President Truman’s desire to intimidate
c. the USSR.
d. the USA.
(iii) ……………………………. percent of the people, who survived the exposure, were alive sixty years later.
b. Twenty – five
d. Forty – five
(iv) The word “enormity” means
a. the fact of something being very serious.
b. extremely large.
(v) The word “acute” means
(vi) The word “decoded” means