Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

Note-making is an advanced writing skill which is gaining importance due to knowledge explosion. There is a need to remember at least the main points of any given subject. Making notes is a complex activity which combines several skills.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 11 English Chapter wise.

Note Making Class 11 CBSE Format, Examples

1. What would you do if:

  • you receive a message on the telephone for someone at home?
  • you refer to a book or journal for writing an assignment?
  • you are listening to a lecture or a talk?

Obviously, you would jot down important details so that you could refresh your memory later. Note – making enables you to organise your own thoughts better. You will not be reading or listening passively, but also considering the points made by the writer or speaker and drawing your own conclusions about what is being presented.

Purpose Of Note – Making
We make notes:

  • to revise lessons before an examination.
  • to write a report, a letter or an essay.
  • to plan a lecture, a speech or a discussion.
  • to make a presentation.
  • to convey telephonic messages without leaving out the important details.
  • to summarise a text that we have read.

Main Processes Involved In Note – Making

1. Storing
Very often we are required to store information for future use. It is similar to a factory storing raw materials till they are required for the production process.

Storing of information is important because:

  • we cannot be expected to remember all the information that we gather by reading, speaking or listening.
  • we may not need some information immediately but at some time in the future.

2. Retrieval
Storing of anything will be of little avail, if we cannot retrieve it for use. In the example of the factory that we have already discussed, if the raw materials are stored in a haphazard manner they may not be easily accessed at the time of need. Further, poor storage may also lead to damage to the materials stored.

This applies to note – making too. To ensure effective retrieval of information from notes, the following points should be borne in mind:

  • Information should be systematically organised.
  • Notes should not be obscure because the writer may fail to recollect what he had in mind when he used a particular set of symbols or abbreviations in the notes.

How To Make Notes

Step 1 When you make notes from an essay or an article or a chapter from a book, the first step is to read the passage thoroughly, from beginning to end to get a bird’s – eye view of it. This kind of reading is called skimming. By skimming the passage we get answers to following questions:

  • What does the passage deal with?
    (or What can be a suitable title for it?)
  • How does the writer develop the theme?

Step 2 This leads us to the second step.

  • Identify the main points and supporting details in a given text. Do not be afraid if there are sections of your reading from where you do not make notes – the reason may be that those sections are not required in your notes.
  • Find out the chief divisions of the passage and supply suitable headings for them. Some of these headings can be further divided into subheadings.
  • Condense the information.
  • Organise the condensed information in a systematic way.

Important Characteristics Of Note – Making

  1. Notes are usually not written in complete and conventionally (grammatically) correct sentences.
  2. They are much shorter than the original text.
  3. The main points and the supporting details are clearly distinguished.
  4. Information is condensed using certain devices like abbreviations, symbols, shorter words, and numbers.
  5. Certain types of words are often dropped: articles, words that are repeated, verbs which can be understood in the context, relative pronouns, conjunctions, etc.
  6. Condensed information is organised and recorded in a systematic manner that brings out the structure of the original text.
  7. Headings and supporting details are numbered.

Your notes will look like this:

(Left hand margin. Don’t write numbers or points in the margin.) HEADING
Write the heading/title in block letters.
Underline the heading/title.
Do not give a one-word title for example, The title for a passage on psychoanalysis could be:THE NEED FOR PSYCHOANALYSIS’
A. Main point
1. Sub-point

  • 1.1 follow the indented format
  • 1.2 don’t write complete sentences
  • 1.3 use abbreviations and symbols where required
  • 1.4 notes should not be very long, four to five main points are enough 1.5
  • 1.5.1 sub-sub-point

2. Sub-point

  • 1.5.2 sub-sub-point
  • 1.5.3 sub-sub-point
  • 2.1 sub-sub-point
  • 2.2 sub-sub-point

B. Main point

How to Organise Your Notes

The decimal format is the most common one in note-making. However it is possible to use tables, sketches and diagrams depending on the contents of the text. From the point of view of your limited requirements now, the decimal format will be suitable for most of the texts included for your tests and examinations. However, you may organise the notes as shown below.

Look back at the previous section of this unit. If we were to put that into notes, we would write:

Various formats for Note – making:

Format – Mixed Indent
(A) Reasons

  • can’t rem’ber much info. w’out wrtng
  • help mem. exams
  • can consult

(B) Charctristes

  • short
  • main pts only
  • note form
    • no cmplt sent
    • divs & sub – divs.
    • use of abbr. & symbls
  • undrstandbl ltr

Format II – Indented Roman Numerals
I. Reasons

  • can’t rem’ber much info. w’out wrtng
  • help mem. exams
  • can consult

II. Charctristcs

  • II. 1 short
  • II. 2 main pts only
  • II. 3 note form
  • II. 3.i no cmplt sent.
  • II. 3.ii divs & sub – divs.
  • II. 3.iii useof abbr. & symbls
  • II. 4 undrstandbl ltr

Format III – Indented Decimals
1. Reasons

  • 1.1 can’t rem’ber much info. w’out wrtng
  • 1.2 help mem. exams
  • 1.3 can consult

2. Charctristes

  • 2.1 short
  • 2.2 main pts only
  • 2.3 note form
  • 2.3.1 no cmplt sent.
  • 2.3.2 divs & sub – divs.
  • 2.3.3 use of abbr. & symbls
  • 2.4 undrstandbl ltr

Tips for Condensing

As shown in the notes on note – making, a number of ways are adopted to present information in a condensed form. Please remember and practise the “note style”, which is never in complete sentences. Notes should present information precisely for the sake of brevity.


What is a Summary?
Summarising is taking a large selection of text and reducing it to their bare essentials: the gist, the key ideas, the main points that are worth noting and remembering. Webster’s calls a summary the “general idea in brief form”; it’s the distillation, condensation, or reduction of a larger work into its primary notions.

To do this one has to remove the extra words and irrelevant examples. The rule is to focus on the core of the matter. Thus the summary contains only the main ideas and the supporting details.

Effective summarising helps learning. In order to summarise effectively, one needs to decide what information needs to be deleted or substituted and what to retain. To do this, one needs to identify the important, the trivial and the repetitive. The information then has to be analysed, key concepts identified and extraneous information defined and deleted.

The three main purposes of note – making:

  • summarising
  • synthesising or contrasting
  • critically analysing

Steps in Writing a Summary
A. Use basic signal words

  • WHO? (subject)
  • WHAT? (action)
  • WHERE? (location)
  • WHEN? (time)
  • WHY? (reason)
  • HOW? (process)

B. The Process ………………………………. .
Main idea: Identify main idea from TOPIC SENTENCE (if there is one) or use BASIC SIGNAL WORDS

C. Identify Supporting Details
D. Disregard unimportant information
E. Analyse redundant information
F. Simplify, categorise, and label important information


  1. Make sure that it does not exceed 1/3 of the length of the original text.
  2. Avoid sentences using words like “and’, ‘not only’, ‘but also’, ‘such that’ and ‘which’.
  3. Avoid lifting complete sentences from the original text. Instead, comprehend the meaning and write in your own words, as far as possible.
  4. Your summary should read as a coherent paragraph.

As a cross-check, ensure that the summary is:

  • comprehensive: It is complete and all inclusive in the sense that it carries ALL of the author’s major ideas.
  • accurate: Do NOT misrepresent the author’s ideas.
  • neutral: Be unbiased and do NOT include your own opinions.
  • independent: anyone who has not read the source text should be able to understand it.

Note Making Solve Example With Answers for Class 11 CBSE

Read the passage given below about peanuts and complete the tasks that follow.

1. The Mayan civilzation of Mexico and Central America are one of the ancient world’s most fascinating, prolific, and mysterious civilisations. They left their mark on the region’s culture, architecture, cuisine, and language – and left an indelible impression on the imagination of the modern world. Who were they? How were they able to build such an impressive civilisation of towering temples and sophisticated artwork in the middle of the harsh rainforests of Mesoamerica? And why did they vanish?

2. The earliest Mayans lived along the Pacific coast of what is now Guatemala and can be dated to about 1800 BC; by 1000 BC they were also living in Guatemala’s southern lowlands. The period from about 1800 BC to about AD 250 is referred to as the Pre – classic, a time when the early Mayans lived as farmers in small villages along rivers and other bodies of water, hunting game, tending gardens and making use of the abundant natural foods found in the region’s marshes and seasonal swamps. In time, strong rulers began wielding power over these communities, and the Mayan culture grew in complexity. Cities rose from the forest floor, boasting stone temples with stuccoed and painted facades created at the behest of elite rulers. People in the new power centres communicated over long distances, and traders using the same routes carried luxury goods such as cacao beans, jade ornaments, quetzal feathers, and jaguar pelts.

3. The Classic period, AD 250 – 900, is the time of the civilisation’s greatest glory – and of the greatest depths of political intrigue between rival cities. During these centuries, the Mayans erected countless stelae, stone monuments inscribed with portraits and hieroglyphs that recorded dynastic histories – the births, marriages and conquests of the ruling families. There were dozens of important regional capitals at the time, and among the most important were Tikal in Guatemala and its fierce rival Calakmul in Mexico, Palenque in southern Mexico, Caracol in Belize, and Copán in Honduras.

4. The Classic period is known for artistic and intellectual splendour. The Mayans developed a complex religious and ritual system that considered rulers divine beings and called for blood sacrifices. They also grasped the numerical notion of zero, created agricultural timetables and sophisticated calendars to track the heavens, and made beautiful polychrome pottery as well as exquisite ornaments, murals, and carved decorations.

5. But the Classic Mayans were also known for their rancorous political fighting and for being extremely bellicose – warfare was always on the horizon. One by one, the cities in the southern Mayan lowlands fell to each other, their downfall often recorded on stelae in the conquering city. By AD 900 most of the important Classic period cities had collapsed, and their remaining populations had scattered into the surrounding forests. The last date recorded on stelae that archaeologists have found so far is from 909 in Toniná, in southern Mexico. Among the factors that help explain why the civilisation collapsed were the endemic warfare, overpopulation, degradation of the environment, and drastic climate change and drought.

6. While the cities and ceremonial centres of the southern lowlands were being reclaimed by the jungle, the Mayans living to the north were gaining prominence, rising to amazing heights during the post-classic period (900 – 1502). Wonderful and wealthy cities in Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula flourished, most famous among them being Chichén Itzá. Yet it too fell victim to political infighting and by 1200 had collapsed.

7. “The Mayans never truly disappeared. Centuries after the major cities were abandoned, small groups of Mayans continued to live in the area. It was they who met and resisted the Spanish conquistadors after the first contact, in 1502. And today, more than six million Mayans live in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize, speaking 28 languages, and blending ancient and modern ways.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.

1. Glorious Past

  • 1.1 It’s the civilization of Mexico & Cent. America
  • 1.2 Makes for the world’s most mysterious & prolific civilization
  • 1.3 Resided in Guatemala since 1800 BC

2. Classical Period

  • 2.1 Spans from 250 – 900 AD
  • 2.2 Cities developed tremendously
  • 2.3 Artistic & intellectual splendour dominated
  • 2.4 Religious & agricultural systems were consolidated and devised

3. Downfall

  • 3.1 Major S. Mayan cities collapsed, 900 AD
  • 3.2 Remaining popu. scattered in the forests
  • 3.3 Northern popu. rose
  • 3.4 Though they also perished in the 1200, Chichen Itza „

4. Current Scenario

  • 4.1 Mayans didn’t disappear completely
  • 4.2 Met in small groups
  • 4.3 Reside in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize
    Key to Abbreviation
    Abbreviation Word
    & and
    Cent. Central
    S. Southern
    popu. population

(b) Write a summary of the above in 80 words.
The Mayan Civilization of Mexico and Central America is one of the world’s most glorious and fascinating civilizations. They Mayans resides in Guatemala in 1800 BC. The era which spans from 250 – 900 AD was the classical period which saw the development pf cities, religious capital etc. There were also advancements in religious and ritual systems and agricultural practices were also established. However, majority of the south Mayan cities collapsed due to overpopulation, environmental degradation, warfare etc. By 900 AD, the northern part of the civilization gain prominence and reached newer heights. They had wealthy cities. However, its most flourishing city, Chichen Itza collapsed by 1200. But the population never really dwindled and today six million Mayans reside in Mexico, Guatemala and Belize.

Note Making Practice Example for Class 11 CBSE

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

Violence On Women

1. It doesn’t happen only in slums, but in marble mansions as well, and increasingly so. Women’s groups were therefore dismayed, when the last Lok Sabha allowed the Domestic Violence Prevention Bill to lapse. But it was just as well that the Bill, with all its infirmities, wasn’t pushed through hurriedly. The ramifications of a law without sufficient teeth are all too familiar. Women’s organizations have been agitating to plug the loopholes. Their efforts seem to have paid off. The UPA government is working on a Bill to replace the lapsed Domestic Violence Prevention Bill 2002. New clauses to make the legislation more effective are being incorporated. These include a more specific definition of domestic violence and the court’s right to ask the perpetrator of violence to leave the house or pay the victim rent for an alternative accommodation. The court can also prohibit the abuser from entering the victim’s workplace and also stop him from accessing bank accounts, lockers and other jointly held assets.

2. The proposed changes could make the life of thousands of battered women a lot better. Surveys by the International Centre for Research on Women estimate that 60 percent women face violence at some point in their marriages. More than anything else, it is the fear of being rendered homeless which forces victims of domestic violence to put up with humiliation and pain. The creation of protection officers (to be drawn from among social workers, women activists and judicial officers) to help the battered is another progressive step. The most significant change, however, is with regard to the definition of domestic violence. The Bill, in its earlier avatar, did not specify the kind of violence that amounted to abuse. Now that it has been identified – physical and sexual injuries, verbal, emotional and economic abuse – it will be easier to pin down an offender. It would be possible to book even an occasional offender, not necessarily a ‘habitual one’, as under the lapsed Bill. The move to grant temporary custody of children to the aggrieved woman will ensure that she is not blackmailed into withdrawing the case. Indeed, the need for legislation to afford protection to women in their own homes is a telling comment on the degree of their vulnerability. In our largely patriarchal society, where women’s rights are often denied, it is best to rule out any scope for ambiguity. The new Bill promises to be more specific in objective, wider in scope, and stringent in its punitive power. It is hoped that it will be finalized and passed without the inordinate delay that has been the fate of legislation regarding women.

3. Mountaineer Al Read has logged many notable first ascents and now serves as president of a company in Wyoming that leads paying clients to the summits of some of the world’s toughest – and most dangerous mountains each year. Read says, “I can remember when I was getting into situations where I thought I could be killed. I would say, ‘Oh God, don’t let me be killed here. I’ll never do this again.’ But we’d get back down safe we’d say, “Man was that great!’ You forget how scary it was, and you go back again.”

4. Psychologists note that some people seem to have a strong craving for adrenaline rushes as a personality trait. Like extreme athletes, Emily Cook’s appetite for risk appeared at a young age. “I was both a skier and a gymnast,” said the former U.S. aerials ski champion. “I was one of those kids who enjoyed and excelled at anything acrobatic, anything where you were upside down.” And as her expertise grew, so did the stakes. “As I started doing harder tricks, I was drawn to the fear factor,” she said. “There are definitely moments when a new trick seems like the stupidest thing in the world. But overcoming that [fear] is just the coolest feeling in the world.”

5. Cook’s risk became reality – she broke both feet during a jump. “As an injured athlete coming back, my reaction is to stop and reduce the risk a bit,” she said. “I’ve had to change my mentality. Now there is a fear of pain, injury, and even the fear of not being able to do it like I could before,” she said. Shane Murphy, a sports psychologist, says he is struck by the way they redefine risk according to their skills, experience, and environment. “I’ve worked with groups climbing Everest, including one group without oxygen. To me that just seems like the height of risk. But [the climbers] took every precaution they could think of,” he said. “They weren’t going out there to get hurt.” Murphy said the perspective of extreme athletes is very different from our own. “We look at a risky situation and know that if we were in [that situation] we would be out of control,” he said. “But from the [athletes’] perspective, they have a lot of control, and there are a lot of things that they do to minimise risk.”

7. As Read, of Exum Mountain Guides, feels the “dangerous” activities are statistically not as risky as outsiders would assume. Another key aspect of risk perception may be “the flow” or “the zone.” It is a state of becoming absorbed completely on the present. “Something that makes your adrenaline flow and you become very concentrated on what you’re doing,” Read said. “After it’s over, there’s exhilaration. You wouldn’t have that same feeling if the risk hadn’t been there.” People experience “flow” at different times. As a result, some may always be driven to adventures that others consider extreme.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

16.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
16.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. A few decades ago, if a shield – tailed snake wanted to cross over to the other side of the forest during the rains, it would simply slither across when it knew it was time, and it would be safe. But today, there is a good chance that it will be run over. Speeding vehicles along the Aliyar – Attakatti check post road claimed the lives of several shield – tailed snakes last year, according to a study by biologist R. Arumugam.

2. Not just snakes, frogs, toads, chameleons, butterflies and birds have been crushed to death by speeding cars and trucks. Forest roads should be negotiated carefully. “If the roads are wide and in good condition, vehicles speed across them. In places where a speed of 40km/hr is prudent, some go at 70 – 80km/hr,” says Arumugam.

3. For four months, he, along with volunteer N. Lakshminarayanan, covered two roads that passed through the Anamalai Tiger Reserve. They were the stretches between the 9/6 check post and Chinnar check post, and between Aliyar and the Attakatti check post. It was a project initiated by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department to study road kills.

4. Arumugam says that they saw a number of dead reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. “Speeding vehicles run over them because the drivers do not see the movement of small animals,” he says. “Besides, snakes are generally slow moving. By the time they move from one side of the road to the other, they are run over.”

5. Arumugam’s study found that 96 per cent of animal road kills happened during the night. They counted a total of 91 dead animals – 17 species were found dead along the Aliyar – Attakatti road alone. He also found that over 85 per cent of vehicles that plied the road travelled at speeds over 40km/hr.

6. It is not just the reptiles, several big animals have also been killed on roads adjoining forests. Arumugam recalls the death of a Nilgiri tahr a few years back. “It was killed by a vehicle on the Valparai road,” he says.

7. P. Jeganathan, a scientist with the Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF), says that even arboreal animals such as the Nilgiri langur, bonnet monkey, malabar giant squirrel and lion – tailed macaque (LTM) are vulnerable to road kills. “This is because the canopy contiguity of their forests is disturbed by the roads.”

8. “A team of scientists from NCF has constructed bridges made of thick tarpaulin between trees to be used by the animals in the Pudhuthottam estate of Valparai,” he adds.

9. In 2010, NCF constituted a study in two rainforest fragments of the Valparai plateau. “We found that every day, two animals are killed every kilometre,” says Jeganathan.

10. Jeganathan worries that road kills have the potential to wipe out entire species endemic to an area.

11. “But we cannot blame the public entirely,” he says. “We have to educate them.” For, even a seemingly harmless act of throwing candy on the road could cost an animal its life.

12. One night, a porcupine crossed the road to check out a white object – an idli. The animal was so engrossed in eating it that he didn’t notice a vehicle speeding towards him – he was killed instantly. This is why one shouldn’t litter roads along forests, says Jeganathan. “Also, people should be taught not to feed animals.”

13. According to A. Thyagaraj, District Forest Officer and Deputy Director, Anamalai Tiger Reserve, the forest department has deployed anti-poaching watchers in Pudhuthottam to ensure the safe crossing of LTMs. “They also advise the public not to feed animals,” he says. In a bid to create awareness amidst drivers, NCF has trained school kids in the area to stand by roads with placards saying ‘Go slow. Lion Tailed Monkey crossing.’

14. A little concern for animals will go a long way in their conservation. Says Jeganathan, “It is just an animal,” some people think. “But aren’t they living – beings too?”

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

17.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
17.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The first crisis the lunar explorers faced came just short of moonfall. The Apollo 11 Lunar Module, code – named ‘eagle’, was still 9.5 km (6 miles) up when the vital guidance computer began flashing an alarm. It was overloading. Any second it could give up the ghost under the mounting pressure and nothing the two astronauts could do would save the mission. Emergencies were nothing new to Commander Neil Armstrong but he and his co – pilot Buzz Aldrin hadn’t even practised for this one on the ground – no one believed it could happen. Sweeping feet first towards their target, they pressed ahead as controllers on Earth waited heart – in – mouth. Racing against the computer, Eagle slowed and then pitched upright to stand on its rocket plume and gave Armstrong his first view of the landing site. The wrong one! They had overshot by four miles into unfamiliar territory and were heading straight for a football field size crater filled with boulders “the size of Volkswagens”.

2. With his fuel running out, and only a minute’s flying time left, Armstrong coolly accelerated the hovering Eagle beyond the crater, touching 88 kph (55mph). Controllers were puzzled and alarmed by the unplanned manoeuvres. Mission Director George Hale pleaded silently: “Get it down, Neil. Get it down.” The seconds ticked away.

3. “Forward, drifting right,” Aldrin said. And then, with less than 20 seconds left, came the magic word: “Contact!”

4. Armstrong spoke first: “Tranquility base here, the Eagle has landed.” His words were heard by 600 million people – a fifth of humanity.

5. About six and a half hours later, Eagle’s front door was opened and Armstrong backed out onto a small porch. He wore a €200,000 moonsuit, a sort of thermos flask capable of stopping micrometeoroids travelling 30 times faster than a rifle bullet. He carried a backpack which weighed 49 kgs and enough oxygen for a few hours. Heading down the ladder, Armstrong unveiled a €200,000 TV camera so the world could witness his first step: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” It was 3.56 am, 21 July, 1969.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

18.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
18.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Homeopathy has come to be known, over the years, as a form of medical treatment without side effects.
2. In the eighteenth century, Dr Samuel Hahnemann convinced that existing medical practices did more harm than good, began to look for an alternative that would be safe, gentle, and effective. He reasoned that instead of suppressing symptoms as allopathy does, one should seek to stimulate and so encourage and assist the body’s natural healing process.

3. Hahnemann had already discovered that a small dose of quinine in a healthy person produced the symptoms of malaria. A number of systematic experiments followed this discovery. Hahnemann then worked to establish the smallest effective dose as he realised that this was the best way to avoid side effects. In so doing, he unexpectedly discovered one of the basic tenets of homeopathy, that the more a remedy was diluted, the more effective it became. Thus, by trial and perseverance, Hahnemann finally arrived at his goal – an alternative form of medical treatment that was both effective and safe.

4. One of the principles of homeopathy is that a person’s response to a disease varies according to his or her basic temperament. Thus, a homeopathy doctor will take into account the patient’s temperament and responses to certain conditions before prescribing any medicine because it is the patient who is being treated and not the disease. Patients with the same ailment may often require different remedies.

5. Rapid results are often achieved in cases of an acute illness but where a patient’s vitality is low, the treatment may be long term. In chronic illness, sufferers must be patient and give homeopathy time to take effect.

6. Homeopathy does not reject the great discoveries of modern science, only their commercial abuse. In many cases, homeopathy is complementary to the newer methods of modern medical practice.

7. In its present form, homeopathy has stood the test of time. 8. Today, it is highly developed in many countries and is accepted as a safe and effective form of medical treatment that stands in its own right.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

19.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
19.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

5. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The work of the heart can never be interrupted. The heart’s job is to keep oxygen – rich blood flowing through the body. All the body’s cells need a constant supply of oxygen, especially those in the brain. Brain cells live only four to five minutes after their oxygen is cut off, and death comes to the entire body.

2. The heart is a specialised muscle that serves as a pump. The pump is divided into four chambers connected by tiny doors called valves. The chambers work to keep the blood flowing round the body in a circle.

3. At the end of each circuit, veins carry the blood to the right atrium, the first of the four chambers. Its oxygen has been used up and it is on its way back to the lung to pick up a fresh supply and the tricuspid valve into the second chamber, the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts when it is filled, pushing the blood through the pulmonary artery, which leads to the lungs. In the lungs the blood gives up its carbon dioxide and picks up fresh oxygen. Then it travels to the third chamber, the left atrium. When this chamber is filled, it forces the blood through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. From here it is pushed into a big blood vessel called aorta and sent round the body by way of arteries.

4. Heart diseases can result from damage to the heart muscle, the valves, or the pacemaker. If the muscle is damaged, the heart is unable to pump properly. If the valves are damaged, blood cannot flow normally and easily from one chamber to another; and if the pacemaker is defective, the contractions of the chambers will become uncoordinated.

5. Until the twentieth century, few doctors dared to touch the heart. In 1953, all this changed. After twenty years of work, Dr John Gibbon of USA had developed a machine that could take over temporarily from the heart and lungs. Blood could be routed through the machine bypassing the heart so that surgeons could work inside it and see what they were doing. The era of open heart surgery had begun. In the operating theatre, it gives surgeons the chance to repair and replace a defective heart. Many patients have had plastic valves inserted in their hearts when their own was faulty. Many people are being kept alive with tiny battery – operated pacemakers; none of these repairs could have been made without the heart – lung machine. But valuable as it is to the surgeons, the heart – lung machine has certain limitations, It can be used only for a few hours at a time because its pumping gradually damages the blood cell.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

20.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
20.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned.

2. To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgment wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience: for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning, by study, and studies themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by experience. Crafty men regard studies with contempt, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.

3. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know that he doth not.

4. Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend. Abeunt studia in mores [Studies pass into and influence manners]. Nay, there is no stand or impediment in the wit but may be wrought out by fit studies; like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding for the head; and the like. So if a man’s wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics; for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the Schoolmen; for they are cymini sectores (splitters of hairs). If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and illustrate another, let him study the lawyers’ cases. So every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

21.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
21.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

7. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Scattered over 300 in the blue waters of the Indian Ocean, like a string of pearls, Maldives boasts of some of the most stunning and exotic tropical hideaways. Hundreds of Virgin Islands, with their lush green vegetation, clean, sandy beaches and the turquoise blue lagoons together offer a perfect holiday experience. Rated among the top ten diving destinations in the world, the underwater coral gardens in Maldives offer an opportunity to watch colourful marine life at their natural habitat, from close quarters.

2. Of the 1190 islands that make up the Republic of Maldives which is spread over 26 Atolls (a ring – like formation enclosing a lagoon) only about 200 are inhabited. Of the remaining, 90 are resort islands and the rest are uninhabited. Some of the uninhabited islands are meant for activities like drying fish.

3. Not many details are available about the origins of the Maldivian people. The first settlers may well have been from Sri Lanka and southern India. Some say Aryans, who sailed in their reed boats from Lothal in the Indus Valley about 4,000 years ago, probably followed them. Archaeological evidence suggests the existence of Hinduism and Buddhism before the country embraced Islam in 1153 AD.

4. The Maldives gained independence on 26 July 1965. Three years later, a republic was declared with Prime Minister Ibrahim Nasir as the first President. In 1978, President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom became President and has been re – elected thrice since then.

5. A coup attempt in 1998 by Sri Lankan mercenaries was successfully repelled. Small as it is, the Maldives has always maintained independence and strong unity, despite influences and threats from outside. They are now an internationally renowned country, a member of the UN, WHO, SAARC, Commonwealth, the Non – Aligned Movement and others, and play an important role in advocating the security of small nations and the protection of the environment.

6. The language of the Maldivians is Dhivehi. This language has been influenced heavily by Arabic since the advent of Islam in 1153 and English in more recent times, especially since the introduction of English as a medium of education in the early 1960s.

7. Since the opening of the first resort in 1972, Maldives tourism has developed into one of the most important activities in the country. Each resort has its own island but the construction activities have been restricted to 20 per cent of the total landmass by law.

8. Besides, the height of the buildings should not reach more than the tallest tree on the island. The house reef that encircles each island is another unique feature of the resort islands in Maldives. The shallow waters that get enclosed by the reef wall serve as a natural swimming pool. All the resort islands are carefully landscaped so that the natural vegetation is preserved. The approach of Maldives to environmental issues stays in harmony with the concept, “Think globally and act locally”.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

22.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
22.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. “Relay kidnapping’ is the new ‘industry’in Chambal valley. With rural dacoity going out of vogue, the multi – crore kidnapping industry has turned towards urban residents and high – profile commuters on national highways.

2. Earlier, dacoits kidnapped people from villages located in the region. Now they buy hostages from Delhi and Bihar gangs. A gang gets around Rs 20,000 for handing over the hostage to the dacoits, who negotiate with the hostage’s family for a higher price. Between the hit team and the dacoits there are small – town gangs who act as conduits for inbound and outbound hostages.

3. Anti – dacoity expert Harisingh Yadav, IPS, said, “The modus operandi has changed, with the actual abduction being done by a small organised gang and the victim being sold to a bigger gang. Now the kidnappings are not being done by ravine dacoits but by urban criminals.”

4. Often, the police are not alerted by the victim’s family in its concern for the safety of the hostage. Chambal – based journalist Rakesh Pathak commented: “People have stopped relying on the police as the number of murders by kidnappers is on the rise.”

5. The 37,000 sq km Gwalior – Chambal belt has long been a kidnapper’s haven, thanks to its inaccessible ravines and inter – state borders. The anti – dacoity operations launched in 1960 have resulted in 4,000 bandits being arrested, 2,000 being killed and an equal number’s surrender. But the bandit – police – politician nexus promotes arrival of fresh recruits and strengthening of existing gangs. Fakkad Baba is a case in point. After evading arrest for 27 years, he successfully negotiated and surrendered in Madhya Pradesh, thus escaping 200 cases against him in Uttar Pradesh.

6. The last big “classic – style’ kidnapping was done two years ago by the Gadaria gang, which carries a Rs 15 lakh bounty on its head. The gang took away a bus and collected more than Rs 50 lakh, by releasing the passengers one by one over a week.

7. The last six hostages carried a letter from the Gadarias to the media. It said that the gang paid a monthly fee of Rs 50,000 to the Gwalior police towards protection and ammunition. Rani Chauhan, a victim rescued from the Jagjivan Pariahar gang confirmed that policemen even visit dacoit hideouts in the ravines.

8. Former Shivpuri MLA, Narendra Birthere, said policemen were in it for promotions and gallantry medals. Chambal – based novelist, Manmohan Kumar Tamanna, elaborated that the police gave petty criminals a free run and killed them when the government put a price on their heads.

9. Said Tamanna, who has written 46 novels on the Chambal society started: “When a villager becomes a bandit, he helps light a hundred chulahs (hearths). There are people who supply guns on rent, informers get their livelihood from the police, some shuttle the dacoits around, others supply food and groceries and some become middlemen in the kidnapping racket.”

10. According to police records, the Cwalior – Charnbal region has seen over 2,000 kidnappings between 1998 and 2008. Unofficial estimates put the total ransom amount over Rs 20 crore. Locals say that the dacoits live on the edge and it is the policemen who benefit – cuts from the ransom when the gang is active; promotions and bounty when the gang is dead.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

23.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
23.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Kites originated in China in the remote past, probably before 1000 BC, and they are widely flown in the East and the Pacific. In Europe, though the Greeks and Romans had something of the kind, and though dragon – shaped kites appear to have been known and flown in the fifteenth century, it seems that they were only popularized in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by direct Chinese influence by way of Holland, when the East and West came into a closer relationship.

2. In England, kites were pictured in John Bate’s The Mysteries of Art and Nature in 1635. Their English name (not found in print until the seventeenth century) they owe to the kite, with its peculiar forked tail and soaring flight, which was one of the most familiar of British birds, although now almost extinct. The Italians call them aquiloni (large eagles) and in Germany, the kite is drachen, or ‘dragon’. The kite indeed has been made in many forms – from bird shapes and dragon shapes, elaborately painted and articulated, to the simplest lozenge or triangle. In the East the kite has been more than a toy of elegance and fascination. It was in demand for magical purposes, to fend off evil spirits. Flutes and whistles and reeds were attached to make sound kites or musical kites; a Chinese general of the Han dynasty (202 BC – AD 220) is said to have flown such kites above his enemies in the darkness. They believed their guardian angels were warning them of danger, and fled. In Siam, kites were flown in a yearly festival to call up the right northerly wind which would clear the skies and the weather and dry the ground to make it ready for sowing.

3. In Europe, kite – flying continued to be no more than a game until the eighteenth century; when kites were first employed in meteorology. In 1749, Alexander Wilson and Thomas Melville used the kite to lift thermometers into the air. Three years later, in 1752, Benjamin Franklin made famous use of the kite in his investigations of lightning and electricity. In 1804, the kite took on a more important role: as a simple form of aeroplane in which the surface is inclined to the wind and sustained against the pull of the string, it helped to solve the problems of flight. Sir George Cayley (1773 – 1857), the aeroplane pioneer, realized its aeronautical nature and constructed the first successful model glider by fixing a kite to one end of a pole, and a tail – plane and fin to the other. Thus the Chinese magical dragon and toy may be called the first true ancestor of the aeroplane.

4. Kites and aeroplanes have still another link. In Australia, in 1893, the scientist Lawrence Hargrave invented the biplane box – kite, a highly stable type which led to an even greater use for kites both as a toy and scientific instrument. The box – kite and the biplane glider built by the Wright brothers, combined to dictate the form of the earliest European aeroplanes between 1905 and 1908.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

24.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
24.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The Lalbagh Botanical Garden, Bangalore is of royal origin and was started initially as a private garden in an area of 40 acres by Hyder Ali in 1760. Initially designed in Mughal style, this was further developed by Hyder Ali’s son Tipu Sultan, and subsequently by the British and Indian doyens of horticulture by extension of area and addition of a number of plant species.

2. Lalbagh is currently under the aegis of the Directorate of Horticulture Karnataka. The Directorate is housed amidst the splendid environs of this garden. Lalbagh was given the status of a Government Botanical Garden in 1856, and since then, it has been an internationally renowned centre for the scientific study of plants and botanical artwork and also conservation of plants. Today, the garden is a lush green paradise with an area of 240 acres.

3. Lalbagh has earned a pride of place among the gardens and it has come to be regarded as one of the best gardens in the east for its layout, maintenance, scientific treasure and scenic beauty. It is the place of legends and beauty, a place of rarity and wonder, a place of paradise and landmarks. It is an important genetic resource centre for introduction, acclimatization and maintenance of plants; it envisages documentation of the variations available in plants of ornamental and economic value. It is an important centre of dissemination of scientific, technical and popular information on plants including offering of regular courses. It is a vital lung space of Bangalore, a place of beauty that provides healthy recreation to the public and it provides a venue for people to get close to plants and nature.

4. The garden with well – laid out roads, paths, open spaces, shade and a good collection of many types of plant species attracts a large number of visitors. Lalbagh is well protected with stone walls as enclosures. The botanical garden is enriched with numerous native and exotic flora of wide ranging diversity, use and interest. This has been achieved by way of introduction; acclimatization and multiplication of plants obtained from various parts of the world since its inception in 1760. Today, nearly 673 genera and 1,854 species of plants are found in Lalbagh. The collection of the plants has made it a veritable treasure house of plants.

6. Apart from some of the exotic species introduced from different parts, a number of ornamental and economic plant species, both of exotic and indigenous origin, can be found in Lalbagh.

7. Of the many artistic structures in Lalbagh, the Glass House is the most famous. In the necklace of Bangalore’s gardens, Lalbagh is a pendant and in the centre of this pendant is the glass house, in the form of a diamond. It was built in 1889 during the administration of Sir John Cameron to commemorate the visit of Prince of Wales.

8. The Lalbagh House, the Pigeon House, the Statue of Sri Chamaraja Wodeyar, the Museum and Cottage, the main gate of Lalbagh (Cameron gate), the Deer Paddock, the Aquarium building, and the Aviary and Kempegowda Tower are some artistic structures that can be seen in Lalbagh. Lalbagh Lake is an important location of interest.

9. Lalbagh is an important centre of dissemination of knowledge of plants having ornamental, environmental and economic value. Regular training courses on fruit and vegetable processing, mushroom cultivation and ornamental gardening and horticulture are offered by the Department of Horticulture.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

25.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title. 25.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

11. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Occupying a position marked by ethnic discrimination, social exclusion and violated rights, the Batwa Pygmies of Africa’s Great Lakes region continue to fight a battle for equality, that is steadily deteriorating their society. The “pygmy people of central Africa are traditionally hunter – gatherers living in the rainforests throughout central Africa. The term ‘pygmy’ has gained negative connotations, but has been reclaimed by some indigenous groups as a term of identity.

2. Primarily though, these communities identify themselves as ‘forest people’ due to the fundamental importance of the forest to their culture, livelihood and history. Different groups have different languages and hunting traditions. Although each community faces different threats and challenges; racism, logging and conservation are major problems for many, all contributing to serious health problems and violent abuse. Current estimates put the population of the ‘pygmy’ people at about half a million.

3. Central to the identity of these peoples is their intimate connection to the forest lands they have lived in, worshiped and protected for generations. Jengi, the spirit of the forest, is one of the few words common to many of the diverse languages spoken by forest peoples. The importance of the forest as their spiritual and physical home, and as the source of their religion, livelihood, medicine and cultural identity cannot be overstated.

4. Traditionally, small communities moved frequently through distinct forest territories, gathering a vast range of forest products, collecting wild honey and exchanging goods with neighbouring settled societies.

5. Hunting techniques vary among the forest people, and include bows and arrows, nets and spears.

6. But many communities have been displaced by conservation projects and their remaining forests have been degraded by extensive logging, expansion by farmers, and commercial activities such as intensive bush – meat trading.

7. Few have received compensation for the loss of their self – sufficient livelihoods in the forest and face extreme levels of poverty and ill – health in ‘squatter’ settlements on the fringes of the land that was once theirs. In Rwanda, for example, many Twa people who have been displaced from their lands earn a living by making and selling pottery. Now this livelihood is threatened by the loss of access to clay through the privatisation of land and by the increasing availability of plastic products. Begging and selling their labour cheaply have become the only options left to many displaced and marginalized forest people.

8. A fundamental problem for pygmy people is the lack of recognition of land rights for hunter – gatherers coupled with the denial of their “indigenous” status in many African states. Without nationally recognised rights to the forest lands on which they depend, outsiders or the state can take over their lands with no legal barriers and no compensation.

9. Those communities who have lost their traditional livelihoods and lands find themselves at the bottom of ‘mainstream’ society – the victims of pervasive discrimination affecting every aspect of their lives.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

26.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
26.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

12. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The history of cell phones embarks from the 1920s – a period during which radios were emerging as effective communication devices. The very first usage of radio phones were in taxi/cars using two – way radio communication.

2. The first official cell phone was used by the Swedish police in 1946. They made it functional by connecting a hand – held phone to the central telephone network. It was very similar to the two – way radio phone that was used in cars/taxis for portable communication.

3. A communication architecture of Hexagonal Cells was created for cell phones by D.H. Ring, of Bell Labs, in 1947. He discovered cell towers which had the capability to not only transmit but to also receive the signals in three different directions. Before this discovery, the cell phones only worked in two directions and through an antenna. The electronic components used in cell phones of today were first developed in the 1960s.

4. During this time, the technology of cell phone was already available. The problem that persisted during that time was that the user was restricted to ‘cell areas’. Cell areas were base stations covering a small land area. If the cell phone user traveled beyond the boundaries of the cell area, the user wouldn’t get signal.

5. This limitation of distance was resolved by an engineer at Bell Labs. Amos Edward Joel discovered and developed what he termed as the handoff system. This kind of technology enabled to continue the call from one area to the next and the call would not get dropped.

6. During this time, the technology for cell phones had been developed but it was only in 1971 that there was a request for cellular service. AT&T submitted a request for a public cellular service to the FCC in 1982. The request was processed almost after a decade.

7. Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first portable cell phone. The Federal Communications Commission approved it for public use after much deliberation and testing. Motorola DynaTAC, developed by Dr. Martin Cooper, took 15 years of development before it was made available to public. It weighed about 28 ounces. Its dimensions were 13 x 1.75 x 3.5 inches. Cell phones became popular during the 1983 to 1989 period. The innovations in communication technology include the ability of cell phones to handle calls from one area to another area way beyond the venue of the call. In the 1980s, a lot of cell phones were not designed to be hand – held. Formally, “car phone” were installed in cars and this had high demand in the market. The earliest models of the first generation cell phones were shaped like tote bags. These were hooked up to the battery of the car. Other models came in the form of briefcases. This was for large batteries that were needed to make emergency calls.

8. During the 1990s, the technology on which the cell phones worked was called 2G or second generation. These had a faster network and decreased chances of calls being dropped. The hand – held sets were smaller and weighed around 100 to 200 grams. The hand – held sets were portable. The advancements happened in cell phones, their batteries, computer chips, etc. Due to these improvements, the customer base expanded rapidly.

9. Today we use the third generation phones. These 3G cell phones have set standards which the network providers need to follow. The users can message other users via SMS, send emails and access the Internet, stream live videos/radio, and use the Wi – Fi.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

27.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
27.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

13. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Despite the French sounding name, papier mache was not made in France until the mid – seventeenth century. However, they were the first country in Europe to do so. Papier mache actually originated from China; the inventors of paper itself. They used papier mache to make helmets of all things, which they toughened by many layers of lacquer. Examples have been found dating back to the Han Dynasty (BC 202 – AD 220).

2. From China, the interest in papier mache spread to Japan and Persia, where it was used in mask making and festival activities. Eventually it spread across the world. Large imports of papier mache objects swamped European markets. This in turn led France to start making its own wares, and England followed suit in the 1670s. There was only a half – hearted interest until the late 1700s and into the 1800s, when it became widely used.

3. Papier mache (French for “chewed paper”) is believed to have got its name from French workers in London papier mache shops who did just that! Whether this is actually true or not we shall probably never know. The manufacturers didn’t seem to mind this idea being put about – possibly because it gave them the chance to hide their true methods and recipes, of which little is known about even today.

4. In 1740, the manufacturer John Baskerville, well known for his fine quality books and typefounding, began to imitate the lacquered pieces from Japan. This is how the term “japanning” came about. His business was very successful and later his assistant Henry Clay, invented a way to produce papier mache so strong that it was equally as durable as wood. He did this by gluing specially prepared paper under heat to form tough, heat resistant panels.

5. Henry Clay had taken out a patent on his invention, but when this ran out; small companies mushroomed, producing just about everything from papier mache. They were mostly concentrated in the Birmingham and Wolverhampton areas. It is from these companies that we get the beautifully decorated black enameled pieces that are so treasured today.

6. An Englishman, a Northamtonshire Quaker, who was a leading expert in the art of japanning, introduced papier mache into America. His name was William Allgood and he started up the Litchfield Manufacturing Company. He met with great success in his venture and the company became well known for its fabulously decorated clock cases.

7. Papier mache lived on in America more as a craft form rather than a manufacturing material. Women started to make useful and decorative household objects. In the 1960s, a bit more papier mache interest was injected by a New York artist called Gemma, who while working with her husband in Mexico managed to stir up a lot of interest amongst Mexican artists who were inspired by her work and were later even taught by her. This is despite Mexico’s long history of using papier mache for festivals and traditions, which are still going on today.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

28.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
28.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

14. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. “Noise should be seen but not heard,” states one advertisement for window glass. However, we Indians love noise – the more the better! That’s the reason why we do not pay much attention given to noise reduction in homes.

2. An incident of outside noise causing problem to a residential area came up a few years ago. The newly opened high – rise building had installed an air – conditioner. The water used was recirculated by cooling through a motor/pump. This set off a continuous humming sound that was a source of annoyance to the neighbourhood. A complaint given to the owner of the building was ignored stating that the noise was within limits.

3. Thoroughly disappointed with such a negative attitude, some of the residents approached the Corporation authorities. Thanks to the investigation work done by the inspector concerned, the owner : agreed to install a barrier to contain the sound. Then the noise level reduced considerably much to the relief of the residents, who had suffered for so long.

4. Traffic noise is one of the sources of noise that affects a householder. He/she has little control over such man – made noise, except taking certain steps to minimise the effect of noise inside. Plants outside, where possible, could cut some of the noise. Blinds and drapes on windows could further act as barriers. It is rare to see a construction, which has proactively taken steps to install noise–reducing steps such as fixing foam boards and other sound absorbing materials inside or outside the walls. That applies to windows, which could have a frame outside that could absorb or deflect sound.

5. Noise generated inside a house is rarely recognised by someone who has been living along. He/she fails to appreciate the fact that the noise level is high and could have long – term deleterious effects such as loss of hearing or other effects on the human body due to prolonged exposure to noise. There are a few sources of noise inside a house – TV, music system, air – conditioner, washing machine, refrigerator, microwave and so on.

6. Some of the modern domestic appliances have less noise level. For example, a refrigerator, as it is on continuous operation, makes a buzzing noise when the compressor is activated periodically. The modern refrigerator, especially the compressor, is improved as far as energy and noise level are concerned as compared to the older versions. It would be desirable if the householder pays attention to noise emanating from domestic appliances and seeks advice before buying a particular model. While some noise is unavoidable, one has to look for constant buzz or heavy noise that could lead to long – term effects without one’s knowledge.

7. Loss of hearing is one health hazard which one recognises when it’s too late. Personal stereos and cellphones should be used with caution, preferably at reduced sound levels or with hand – held devices and that too sparingly. Another problem are noisy neighbours! We can only appeal to them to tone their TV/music system and talk/laugh less loudly!

8. Indoor drapes, shades, indoor plants and lower noise domestic equipment are the means to achieve lower noise levels for a comfortable living. A floor could have sound absorbing materials coated to minimise noise when someone walks on it. Sound absorbing material could be fixed inside or outside at strategic locations which could minimise the external noise effect. That applies to noise deflectors, such as barriers and plants that could deflect noise if it is from any specific location.

9. Noise could lead to health hazards, besides spoiling one’s mood when someone seeks quiet and peace at his/own home. The government has fixed a limit of 55 db maximum for residential areas during daytime and 45 db maximum during nighttime, which unfortunately is followed more in the breach than in practice. A citizen has a right to complain about noise that disturbs him. Police could lend a helping hand to shut down loudspeakers beyond 10 p.m. or warn a boisterous party going on next door.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

29.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
29.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.

15. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Already in 1899, the core area of what today is the Periyar Sanctuary was declared a reserved forest in order to protect the catchment area of the Periyar River. This river has been dammed in 1895, resulting in several small lakes and a reservoir. In 1934, the area, including the reservoir, was declared a sanctuary. The total area of the present sanctuary is 777 kms today and it is located in the state of Kerala in the Cardamom Hill Ranges in the southernmost part of Western Ghats.

2. The climate is tropical with shifting vegetation and physical features. Precipitation is varying within Periyar with a mean annual rainfall of 2030 mm. An undulating hill landscape with several peaks between 1200 and 1800 m is merged with portions of lower terrain.

3. Four different types of vegetation characterize the landscape. ‘Sholas’ or tropical evergreen forest, semi – evergreen forest and moist deciduous forest, which is interrupted by grasslands and reed brakes (‘elephant grass’), particularly on higher altitudes. The fauna is rich, including mammals such as the endangered lion – tailed macaque monkey, the Nilgiri langur monkey, sloth bear, tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, sambar deer, otter, wild boar and a small population of Nilgiri tahr. In addition to this, 181 bird species have been recorded, including the spectacular great Indian hornbill.

4. The indigenous population comprises a few tribal groups, now relocated outside the park. The Manan tribe, who formerly lived in the sanctuary, were relocated already in the 1950s. They were later deprived of the land given in compensation, thus left destitute. The Manan community numbers about 1000 people and can today be seen engaged in fishing and casual labour in the close vicinity of the sanctuary.

5. The pressure on the sanctuary has been intensive in the late 20th century. Each year it is estimated that 150,000 – 200,000 people visit Periyar , but the majority of these visitors are of Indian origin and make day visits by bus or car. A large number stay either in bungalows, lodges or hotels outside the sanctuary and enter the reserve in smaller boats, from which they can spot animals at the shores of the small lakes, or visit the Sabarimala Hindu Temple in the westernmost part of the sanctuary. A minority of the visitors are foreigners and many of them prefer to enter the fringes of the sanctuary by foot during day – trips or spot animals from smaller boats.

6. Earlier efforts to conserve the sanctuary have been jeopardised by the previously intensive exploitation of the forests and forest products, and in addition to this, the extensive poaching of tiger, elephant, sambar deer, gaur and wild boar. Much of this has been carried out by people from the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu or other locals and to a lesser degree by dislocated tribal people.

7. Rosewood, teak, cinnamon bark and cardamom has also been logged or extracted illicitly in a major scale. Severe punishment for poaching has not deterred intruders from illegal hunting. Trespassers discovered with firearms within the sanctuary face a minimum prison term of 6 years. If they make use of their weapons, the penalty is 12 years rigorous imprisonment. This information was given independently by four different rangers in the area in 1998, 1999 and 2000. The severe punishment for poaching, or even trespassing increases the risk for the forest guards and local trackers, who regularly patrol the sanctuary, of being shot at by such armed intruders trying to escape.

Follow the Sample Practice to Solve the Other Question

30.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title.
30.2 Write a summary of the passage in 80 words.