Birth Summary in English by A.J. Cronin

Birth Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Birth is written by A.J. Cronin.

Learncram.com has provided Birth extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Birth summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Birth Summary in English by A.J. Cronin

About the Author Masti A.J. Cronin

Author Name A.J. Cronin
Born 19 July 1896, Cardross, United Kingdom
Died 6 January 1981, Montreux, Switzerland
Full Name Archibald Joseph Cronin
Movies and TV shows Citadel, The Stars Look Down
Awards National Book Award for Fiction
A.J. Cronin - birth summary in english class 11
A.J. Cronin

Birth Theme

Dr Andrew Manson has just begun his medical practice in the small Welsh mining town of Blaenelly. When he returns from a terrible evening with his girlfriend Christine, Joe Morgan approaches Dr Andrew Manson to help in the delivery of his wife.

Dr Andrew Manson has to put in much labour in the delivery, as the mother requires much attention before she is revived. Further, the baby was not breathing at birth. Using all his knowledge and intuition, Dr Andrew Manson makes more efforts to revive the child. After almost half an hour of frantic efforts, he succeeds and comes away with a sense of achievement.

Birth About the Characters

Dr Andrew Manson: He is a young medical graduate working in a small mining town. On the call of Joe Morgan, a miner, Dr Andrew Manson manages to help in a difficult birth and saves the baby’s life due to his knowledge and efforts.

Joe Morgan: He is the miner husband of Susan Morgan. He asks Dr Andrew Manson to help in his wife’s delivery and reposes full faith in the doctor.

Susan Morgan’s Mother: She is a tall, grey-haired woman aged 70 who is concerned about her daughter’s happiness.

The Midwife: She is pessimistic about the child’s survival when he is found to be not breathing when born, but still dutifully assists Dr Andrew Manson in his work.

Birth Summary in English

Joe Morgan was Waiting for Dr Andrew
Dr Andrew had recently graduated from medical college. He was practicing as an assistant to Dr Edward Page in a small Welsh mining town named Blaenelly. One night he was returning home when he found Joe Morgan waiting for him outside the doctor’s home. He had been there for more than an hour. He looked relaxed to see the doctor. He informed that the doctor was needed at their home as his wife was expecting to deliver a baby after almost 20 years of marriage. Dr Andrew asked him to wait for a few minutes. He went inside, got his medical bag and set out for Joe Morgan’s house.

The Case Demanded All Attention of Dr Andrew
Joe Morgan stopped outside the house and requested Dr Andrew to go inside alone. Through a narrow staircase the doctor reached a small, clean but scantily furnished room. He found two women beside the patient, Susan Morgan’s mother, a tall, grey-haired woman of nearly seventy, and an elderly midwife.

Susan’s mother offered him a cup of tea. So, Dr Andrew sensed that she didn’t want him to leave, as there would be some waiting period. Dr Andrew was tired but still decided to stay.

An hour later, Dr Andrew went to check the patient and came down. The restless footsteps of Joe Morgan could be heard as he paced the street outside.

Dr Andrew’s Mind Wandered
Dr Andrew was so deep in his thoughts that the voice of the old lady (Susan Morgan’s mother) surprised him. She informed him that her daughter didn’t want him to give her chloroform if it would harm the baby. Dr Andrew replied that it would do no harm. Just then he heard the midwife’s voice. It was half-past three and Dr Andrew perceived that it was time for him to start working on the delivery.

The Horrifying Dilemma
After a harsh struggle for an hour, the child was born, a perfectly formed boy. Unfortunately, it was not breathing. A shiver of horror passed over Dr Andrew. He had promised the family so much. He wanted to resuscitate the child, but the mother herself was in a very desperate state. He gave the child to the midwife and turned his attention to Susan Morgan, the mother, who was lying unconscious. Her pulse was slow and her strength was reducing.

After a few minutes of continuous efforts, he stabilised her by giving her an injection. Then he asked for the child. The midwife had kept the child under the bed, presuming him to be dead. Dr Andrew pulled out the child. His head was hanging loosely and the limbs seemed boneless. He concluded that the child was suffering from asphyxia pallida (an abnormal medical condition in a newly born baby).

Dr Andrew’s Efforts to Save the Child
Dr Andrew recalled a case he had once seen in the Samaritan (a medical journal) and the treatment that was given. He asked the midwife to quickly get hot water and cold water in two bowls.

He started plunging the child once into the icy water and then into the steaming bath alternately. Fifteen minutes passed and nothing happened. Dr Andrew was getting frustrated. He could see the unbelieving faces of the midwife and the old lady but he continued his efforts.

The Miracle
Dr Andrew started rubbing the child’s chest with a rough towel and thumping his little chest, trying to get breath into that limp body.

Then, as if by miracle, the child’s chest began moving. Dr Andrew felt weak and nervous at the site of life springing under his hands. He redoubled his efforts and the child was now breathing. Life came to his limbs, head became erect, the child’s skin started turning pink and suddenly the child cried.

The midwife exclaimed with tears of happiness in her eyes, ‘Oh God, he has come alive.’

Dr Andrew is Relieved
After so much frantic effort and success, Dr Andrew felt weak and speechless. The old woman, Susan’s mother, was still standing against the wall, praying.

Andrew went downstairs and told that he would fetch his bag later on. He found Joe Morgan still waiting with an anxious, eager face. Dr Andrew gave the happy news that both the mother and the baby were all right.

Andrew was really happy and exclaimed, ‘Oh God, I’ve done something real at last.’ He had achieved a feat in medical history which would certainly brighten his future.

Birth Chapter Highlights

  • Dr Andrew was a young medical graduate who worked as an assistant to Dr Edward Page in a small Welsh mining town, Blaenelly.
  • Dr Andrew was returning home after a disappointing evening with his girlfriend Christine,
  • Dr Andrew found Joe Morgan, anxious and scared, waiting for him.
  • Joe Morgan informed him that the doctor was needed at their home as his wife was in labour before the expected date. This was to be their first child in a marriage of nearly twenty years.
  • When they reached the house, Dr Andrew realised that he would have to wait some time; so he decided to wait downstairs.
  • Then Dr Andrew is called upstairs and starts his work. After an hour’s struggle, the child, a perfectly formed boy, was born lifeless.
  • Dr Andrew was horrified but continued his effort first to save the mother, whose energy was reducing.
  • After the mother was safe, his attention went to the child. He instinctively decides to revive the child.
  • Dr Andrew quickly diagnoses the most probable cause for the still birth i.e. asphyxia pallida.
  • Dr Andrew recalls a method he had once read about by which such a child had been successfully saved.
  • Dr Andrew tries alternate hot and cold water treatment to revive the child’s breath.
  • Dr Andrew then rubbed the baby’s body with a rough towel, crushing and releasing the chest.
  • A medical miracle happens. The child finally breathes. Dr Andrew redoubles his efforts till the child cries.
  • After handing over the baby to the midwife, Dr Andrew left the house. He realised that he had truly saved a life that night, fulfilling the purpose of his profession.
  • For the first time Dr Andrew felt that he had done something ‘real’, something worthwhile.

Birth Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
excerpt – extract
medical practice – work as a doctor
welsh – in Wales
mining town – a town where most people work in a coal mine
disappointing – unhappy
surgery – operating room
burly – large and strong
driller – a miner who uses a drill machine
missus – wife (informal)
ye – you
before time – the delivery is going to be before the due date
contemplation of – thinking about
mystery – secrecy
perceptive – energetic
premonition – idea
drew up short – stopped
strain – tiredness
stout – strongly built
midwife – woman trained to help in childbirth
bach – dear
leave the case – not stay till the delivery was completed
fret – worry
overwrought – very tired
snatch – take
lethargy of spirit – lack of enthusiasm
cinder – partly burnt piece of coal
grate – fireplace
paced – walked slowly
muddled – mixed up
obsessed him – dominated his thinking
morbidly – negatively
sordidly – unpleasantly
shrewish – quarrelsome
reason – reasoning
dismal – disappointing
wince – feel pain
idyllic – perfect
otherwise – differently
admitted – allowed
level, doubting – reasonably doubtful
overflowing – full of emotions
broodingly – worryingly
started – jerked suddenly
addressed – talked to
meditation – thinking
pursued a different course – followed a different line of thought
awful set upon – very much wanting
ay – yes
fancy – believe
collected – calmed
top landing – top of the stairs
perceived – realised
elapsed – passed
harsh – hard
streaks of dawn – light of morning
strayed past – came through
blind – sunshade
still form – lifeless body
torn between – feeling two opposing thoughts
resuscitate – bring back to life
desperate – critical
dilemma – choice
instinctively – without thinking
collapsed – unconscious
pulseless – not having the pulse of life
not yet out of the ether – not become conscious
frantic – agitated
ebbing – receding
glass ampoule – sealed glass capsule with liquid medicine
hypodermic syringe – needle used to inject liquid medicine in the bloodstream
unsparingly – without a break
flaccid – lifeless
strengthened – started beating properly
in his shirt sleeves – in only his shirt without a jacket over it
brow – forehead
frightened gesture – indication with fear
in a flash – immediately
fishing – searching
sodden – soaked
tallow – animal fat
cord – umbilical cord connecting the mother to the child in her womb
of a lovely texture – with a wonderful feel
lolled – hung loosely
haggard frown – worried and tried look
asphyxia pallida – an abnormal medical condition in a newly born baby who appears pale and limp, temporarily unable to breathe and having a slow heart action
the Samaritan – name of a medical journal
threw out – spoke quickly
basins – large bowls
pallid – pale
respiration – breathing
ewer – a large jug with a wide mouth
frantically – desperately
Word – Meaning
crazy juggler – madman moving the child quickly
raging hopelessness – fierce disappointment
stark – evident
consternation – feeling of anxiety
longing – desiring
dashed away – finished
draggled – dirty and wet
stumbling – tripping over
sopping – drenched
whimpered – spoke in a crying tone
stillborn – born dead
heed – listen to
crushing – squeezing
limp – motionless
by a miracle – mysteriously
pigmy – small
convulsive – jerky
heave – gasp
turned giddy – became weak
unavailing – ineffective
exquisite – enjoyable
gasping – breathing hard
mucus – viscous liquid
iridescent – sparkling
spinelessly – loosely
blanched – pale
hysterically – uncontrollably
shuddering litter – total mess
soiled – dirty
impaled – stuck
scullery – room for washing dishes
expectant – hopeful
thickly – in a hard to understand tone
spent – tired
footfalls – sounds made by feet while walking
oblivious – unaware

The Ghat of The Only World Summary in English by Amitav Ghosh

The Ghat of The Only World Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Ghat of The Only World is written by Amitav Ghosh.

Learncram.com has provided The Ghat of The Only World extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english The Ghat of The Only World summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

The Ghat of The Only World Summary in English by Amitav Ghosh

About the writer Amitav Ghosh

Writer Name Amitav Ghosh
Born 11 July 1956 (age 63 years), Kolkata
Education Delhi School of Economics, University of Oxford
Awards Jnanpith Award, Sahitya Akademi Award, Ananda Puraskar, Dan David Prize, Padma Shri
Nominations Booker Prize, International Booker Prize
Amitav Ghosh - the ghat of the only world summary in english class 11
Amitav Ghosh

The Ghat of The Only World Theme

This chapter is written by the narrator in memory of his friend, Shahid. They become friends when they stay in the same neighbourhood in the United States. Both of them have a lot in common and love to spend time together. Shahid is a cancer patient and urges the narrator to write about him when he dies. The narrator keeps his promise and pays a tribute to his friend by writing this piece about him after his death.

The Ghat of The Only World About the Characters

The Narrator: The Narrator (Amitav Ghosh) is a well known author. He comes in contact with Shahid (a poet from Srinagar) and they became good friends. He writes this piece on Shahid, after his death as he had promised him to write about him.

Shahid: Shahid is a poet and a close friend of the narrator. He teaches at colleges and universities in the United States and is a lively and sociable person. He is diagnosed with cancer but is not demoralised by his impending.

The Ghat of The Only World Summary in English

Shahid Talks about his Approaching Death
The narrator had called Agha Shahid Ali on 25th April, 2001 to remind him that they had been invited by a friend at his house for lunch. Shahid was undergoing treatment for cancer at that time but was able to speak and move around. He had occasional lapses of memory. As the narrator was talking to Shahid, Shahid had a blackout and feared that he might die. Shahid was fine after some time and told the narrator that he was suffering from cancer and would die in a few months. The narrator tried to reassure Shahid that he would be fine. However, Shahid ignored his reassurances and urged him to write about him when he died. The narrator wanted to avoid writing about his friend’s death but finally agreed to do so.

First Meeting of the Narrator and Shahid
The narrator and Shahid lived a few blocks away in Brooklyn, USA. The narrator had read Shahid’s poetry collection “The Country Without a Post Office” in 1997 long before he had met him. Shahid belonged to Kashmir and had studied in Delhi. The narrator also studied in Delhi and they both got in touch through common friends in 1998. They were no more, than acquaintances till they moved to Brooklyn, USA in the year 2000. In Brooklyn, they met for meals and discovered that there was a lot in common between them. They both loved rogan josh, Roshnara Begum and Kishore Kumar and had an attachment for old Bollywood films. However, they were indifferent to cricket.

About Shahid
Shahid was a sociable and witty person. He had many friends and liked to have people around him. He had the ability to convey the normal things in the most magical way. He lived on the seventh floor of a newly renovated building where he used to organise a lot of parties and invite his friends, relatives, students and poets.

Even after being diagnosed with cancer, he continued holding these parties at his home. He would plan the parties in a meticulous way and take special interest that the food cooked in the party was up to the mark. Apart from Kashmiri food, he liked Bengali food a lot. He also loved the music of Begum Akhtar.

Shahid as a Teacher
Shahid taught in various colleges and universities in the United States. Once the narrator got a chance to be with him when he gave a lecture at Baruch College in the spring semester of the year 2000. This was to be Shahid’s last class. His students loved him and were sad that he would be leaving. They had printed a magazine and dedicated the issue to him. However, Shahid was not at all overcome with sadness. He was lively from the beginning to the end of the lecture.

Shahid’s time in America
Shahid moved to America in 1975. His brother was already there when he came to America. Later his two sisters joined them there. However, parents continued to live in Srinagar. He used to come to India in the summer months every year and stayed with his parents in Srinagar.

Effects of the Violence in Kashmir on Shahid
Shahid was a witness to the violence in Kashmir that seized the region from the late 1980s onwards as he used to stay there in the summer every year. The violence and the deterioration of the political situation in Kashmir had a powerful effect on him. This became one of the central subjects of his work. Although he was anguished about Kashmir’s destiny, Shahid did not see himself as a victim. He had an all inclusive vision towards religion.

Stopping of Shahid’s Medication
The narrator recalls a telephone conversation between Shahid and him on 5th May. Shahid had undergone a scan that was expected to reveal whether the chemotherapy he was getting was having the desired effect on him or not. When he called Shahid to inquire about the test result, he was told that the doctors have stopped all his medications and had given him an year or less to live. Shahid wanted to make his will and leave for Kashmir after that as he wanted to die there. He later changed his mind and decided to be laid to rest in Northampton due to logistical and other reasons.

Narrator’s Last Meeting with Shahid
The narrator met Shahid the last time on 27th October, 2001 Shahid was at his brother’s house and was able to talk intermittently. He seemed to be calm and contended although he was aware of his impending death. He was surrounded by his family and friends. He died peacefully in his sleep at 2 am on 8th December, 2001. The narrator felt a vast void after his death and remembered his presence in his living room where Shahid had once read “I Dream I Am at the Ghat of the Only World.”

The Ghat of The Only World Chapter Highlights

  • The narrator calls Shahid on 25th April, 2001 to remind him that he is coming to pick him up as they had been invited by a friend for lunch. Shahid suffers a blackout and talks about his imminent death. He asks the narrator to write about him after his death, to which he agrees.
  • The narrator and Shahid met in New Delhi through common friends. They were acquaintances there. Their friendship developed when they stayed in the same neighbourhood in Brooklyn, United States.
  • Both Shahid and the narrator had a great deal in common. They had a lot of common friends and loved rogan josh, Roshanara Begum, Kishore Kumar and old Bollywood films.
  • Shahid lived in a spacious apartment on the seventh floor in Brooklyn. He belonged to Kashmir and his parents still used to live there. He went to India every summer and stayed with his parents.
  • Shahid was a sociable person and had many friends. He wrote poetry and taught at colleges and universities in the United States. He was an admirer of good food and used to hold parties regularly at his flat. He invited his friends, relatives, authors, poets and his students to these parties.
  • He was loved by his students and continued to hold parties even after being diagnosed with cancer. He was also very witty and never lost a chance to show his wit.
  • Shahid was a witness to the violence in Kashmir that started from late 1980s onwards as he used to visit Kashmir in summer every year. This left an indelible mark on him and was one of the central themes in his poetry. However, Shahid did not see himself as a victim and had an all-inclusive vision towards religion.
  • As per the narrator, Shahid’s medications were stopped a few months before his death as they were not having the desired effect on him. He wanted to go to Kashmir and die there but changed his plans due to logistical and other reasons.
  • The narrator last met Shahid on 27th October, 2001. He seemed to be content and had made peace with death. Shahid breathed his last on 8th December, 2001 and was buried in Northampton.

The Ghat of The Only World Word Meanings

Word – Meanings
expatriate – a person who lives outside their native country
lucid – able to speak clearly
lapses – a brief or temporary failure of concentration, memory or judgement
thumbing – turn over pages with or as if with one’s thumb
Jocularity – in a funny manner
mumbled – to speak quietly or in an undear way so that the words are difficult to understand
innocuous – completely harmless
quizzical – seeming to ask a question without saying something
blackout – a short period when someone suddenly becomes unconscious
malignant – likely to get worse and lead to death
entrusting – to give someone a thing or a duty for which they are responsible
recitative – in music, words that are sung as if they are being spoken
bereavement – the death of a close relation or friend
imperative – something that is extremely important or urgent
fiercely – extremely
conceive – to invent a plan or an idea
acquaintance – a person that you have met but do not know well
impede – to slow something down or prevent an activity from making progress at its previous rate
trivial – having little value or importance
poignance – the quality of causing or having a very sharp feeling of sadness
hatched – to make a plan
conviviality – friendly and making you feel happy and welcome
transmute – to change something completely, especially into something different and better
scalp – the skin on the top of a person’s head where hair usually grows
suture – a stitch used to sew up a cut in a person’s body
groggier – weak and unable to walk correctly, usually because of tiredness or illness
buckled – to become bent often as a result of weakness
beaming – used to describe a smile that is very wide and happy
gleefully – in a happy or excited manner
gregariousness – the quality of liking to be with other people
split-level – having floors on slightly different levels with a few stairs connecting them
cavernous – having a very large open space inside it
waterfront – a part of a town or city that is next to an area of water such as a river or the sea
ghat – a set of steps leading down to a river or lake
foyer – a room in a house or apartment that leads from the front door to other rooms
flinging – to throw something suddenly and with a lot of force
dour – gloomy in appearance
invariably – always
perpetual – continuing forever in the same way
carnival – a lively festival
sniffed – to smell something
legendary – very famous and admired or spoken about
prowess – great ability or skill
radically – completely
explicitly – directly and in a clear and exact way
prefigured – to show or suggest that something will happen in the future
exactitude – the quality or an instance of being exact
recurrent – happening again many times
extinct – not now existing
haunted – to cause repeated suffering or anxiety
cuisine – a style of cooking
abiding – A memory or feeling that you have had for a long time and that is not likely to change
repartee – conversation that is full of clever and funny comments
exasperated – extremely annoyed and impatient because things are not happening in the way you want or people are not doing what you want them to do
Wildean – relating to or characteristic of Oscar Wilde or his works, especially in being witty
evident – obvious
adored – to love and respect someone deeply
subdued – quiet and slightly sad or worried
sparkling – very lively and interesting
incarnate – in human form used for emphasising that someone is very similar to what has just been mentioned
brimming – to be full of something
clasping – to hold your hands together with fingers of one hand in between the fingers of the other
feigned – to pretend to have a particular feeling
behold – to see or look at someone or something
unmitigated – complete
vibrant – lively and exciting
intermittent – happening sometimes but not regularly or often
mounting – increasing, especially in a way that makes a situation worse
irony – something that has a different or opposite result from what is expected
anguished – having or showing extreme pain or suffering
resolutely – to be determined in character, action or ideas
embrace – to accept something enthusiastically
fixture – an event that happens at a regular time and place
ecumenical – involving or uniting members of different religions
accouterments – other things that are needed for an activity
assiduous – taking great care that everything is done as well as it can be
fanaticism – very strong religious or political beliefs that make someone behave in an unreasonable way
shrine – a religious place built to remember a particular holy person or event
minaret – a tall, thin tower on or near a mosque from which Muslims are called to pray
archive – a collection of historical records relating to a place, organisation or family
martyr – someone who suffers or is killed because of their religious or political beliefs
inextricably – unable to be separated
Chemotherapy – the treatment of disease using chemicals
put off – to delay or move an activity to a later time
preambles – an introduction to a speech or piece of writing
dazed – very confused and unable to think clearly
logistical – relating to the process of planning and organising to make sure that resources are in the places where they are needed, so that an activity or process happens effectively
vicinity – the area around a place
overlaid – If a sound, taste, smell or feeling is overlaid with another one, enough of the other one is added to be noticeable
afterlife – the life, for example in heaven, that some people believe begins after death
consolation – something that makes someone who is sad or disappointed feel better
void – a feeling of unhappiness because someone or something is missing.

Mother’s Day Summary in English by J.B Priestley

Mother’s Day Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Mother’s Day is written by J.B Priestley.

Learncram.com has provided Mother’s Day extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Mother’s Day summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Mother’s Day Summary in English by J.B Priestley

About the Writer J.B Priestley

Writer Name J.B Priestley
Born 13 September 1894, Manningham, Bradford, United Kingdom
Died 14 August 1984, Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
Spouse Jacquetta Hawkes (m. 1953–1984)
Movies Dangerous Corner, An Inspector Calls
J.B Priestley - mother’s day summary in english class 11
J.B Priestley

Mother’s Day Theme

This humorous play portrays the status of a mother in the family. The author brings out the plight of the mother very realistically in the play. Mrs Annie Pearson, the mother, is not treated well by her husband and children. With the help of her neighbour Mrs. Fitzgerald and a magic spell which temporarily allows them to interchange their roles, she stands up for her rights. Mrs Annie Pearson’s family is shocked at the change, but they learn to behave properly with her so that she gets the respect that she deserved.

Mother’s Day About the Characters

Mrs Fitzgerald: She is Mrs Annie Pearson’s neighbour. She is quite strong-willed, knows magic and helps Mrs Annie Pearson to reform the spoilt members of Mrs Annie Pearson’s family.

Mrs Annie Pearson: She is a pleasant but nervous type of woman whose excessive love and care has spoilt her two children and husband.

Doris Pearson: She is Mrs Annie Pearson’s daughter aged around twenty years. She fails to understand her mother’s struggle and doesn’t help her in household work.

Cyril Pearson: He is Mrs Annie Pearson’s son who is equally demanding and never sympathises with his mother.

Mr George Pearson: He is Mrs Annie Pearson’s proud husband who is not as respected in society as expected. He dominates his wife, but he is ridiculed in the club where he is a member.

Mother’s Day Summary in English

Introduction of Mrs Annie Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald
Mrs Annie Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald are next door neighbours. Apart from this, there is no similarity between them. Annie is a pleasant and nervous looking woman in her forties. Fitzgerald is older and heavier with a strong personality. Annie has a soft voice whereas Mrs Fitzgerald has a deep, throaty voice.

Mrs Fitzgerald is a fortune-teller. She has learnt this art from the East. She is reading Annie’s fortune. She advises Annie to be strict and become the ‘boss’ in her family. Actually, Annie is not treated well by her family. At present, Mrs Annie Pearson has been reduced to the status of an unpaid domestic servant, who does all the work at home without even being requested for it or being thanked later on.

Mrs Fitzgerald Outlines the Plan to Reform Annie’s Family
Mrs Fitzgerald is very angry at the way Annie is treated like a servant by her family. One day, she suggests that they should temporarily exchange their personalities by using a magic spell that she had learnt in the East. She takes Annie’s hand and speaks some magic words. A transformation takes place and the personality of Mrs Fitzgerald shifts into the body of Annie and vice-versa.

Annie is scared, but Mrs Fitzgerald assures her that the change is reversible. Mrs Fitzgerald, now in the body of Annie, stays at Annie’s house and sends Annie (in Mrs- Fitzgerald’s body) to her house where she can relax.

Doris Gets a Shock
Doris, the daughter of Mrs Annie Pearson, a beautiful girl aged 20, enters the house. She gets shocked at seeing her mother smoking and playing cards alone. Doris asks about her yellow dress, but her mother does not respond. She asks for tea and her mother answers rudely, telling her to iron her dress herself and make tea if she wants to. Doris gets angry, but gets a good scolding from her mother. Then Annie makes fun of Doris’ boyfriend, Charlie Spence, for having projecting teeth and being stupid. She tells Doris frankly that at her age she would have found somebody better than Charlie Spence. This strange behaviour is too much for Doris and she goes out of the room crying.

Cyril also Gets a Shock
Cyril, Annie’s son, enters the house and asks for tea in a demanding and angry manner. Annie tells him that she has not bothered to get tea ready. Cyril asks her if everything is all right with her. She replies that she has never felt better in her life. When Cyril enquires why she has not got the tea ready, Annie replies that she wanted a change and that’s why she has not bothered to make tea. Cyril announces that he is short of time, so she should get the tea ready immediately.

Cyril further enquires whether she has got his clothes ready. When she says no, he gets anguished. He asks his mother what will happen if they all talked like she was talking that day. Annie coldly replies that all three of them always talked to her like that, so what was wrong with her talking in the same tone. She says that if he does not want to do anything at home, he doesn’t have to. She adds that she has become a member of the Union so that she gets what she deserves.

The argument between Doris and Mrs Annie Pearson
Doris appears on the scene wearing a shoulder wrap. Annie remarks sarcastically about her dress. An argument starts between Doris and Annie. Doris comments that if she was looking awful, it was due to her mother only, who made her cry. Then Annie enquires if any strong beer was left. Cyril is shocked to know that his mother wants to drink it. He is unable to understand what is going on.

Discussion Starts between Doris and Cyril
Both Doris and Cyril are filled with horror and shock at their mother’s behaviour. Both wonder what has happened to their mother suddenly. Doris thinks that she got hit on her head by something. She says that the manner in which their mother spoke hurt her the most and made her cry. Both start giggling at the thought of what will happen if their mother keeps behaving in this weird manner in front of their father.

Annie’s Remarks About Her Family
Annie remarks that it was high time they grew up. Doris then asked her if they had done something wrong. Annie tells them that it is actually her children’s and her husband’s behaviour that bothered her the most. They always came, asked for something and went without bothering to know whether she wanted to go out or how she was feeling. She always does her best to keep everybody happy but all three of them were not bothered about her.

Annie also remarks that while the three of them do a job of eight hours a day with two days off at the weekend, she goes on working seven days round the clock. She warns them that on weekends, she will also going to take two days off.

Doris is really worried about what will happen if her mother takes a holiday on weekends. However, Annie assures Doris that she would do some work on Saturday and Sunday only when she is requested for it and thanked for whatever she does. She might go out for weekends also as she was fed up of staying in the house for years together. None of them has ever bothered to take her out.

Mr George Pearson is Shocked at his Wife’s Behaviour
Mr George Pearson now enters the house. He is about 50 years old and considers himself as a very important person. He gets annoyed at his wife who is sipping beer when he enters. He tells her that he does not want any tea as he has to go to the club for supper. The wife tells him that she has not prepared any tea anyway. At this, George gets annoyed that his wife is not bothered about him.

Annie continues to rebuke him, telling him that he is not respected in the club where He keeps going every day. She tells him that people at the bar in the club call him ‘Pompyompy Pearson’ due to his self-important behaviour. George cannot believe what Annie says and confirms the truth from his son, Cyril.

Annie tells her son that sometimes it does people good to have their feelings hurt. On hearing a knock, Cyril checks who it is and reports to Annie that it is Mrs Fitzgerald at the door. Annie tells him to let her come in.

The Real Mrs Annie Pearson Returns
Mrs Fitzgerald (actually Mrs Annie Pearson) enters and finds Doris in tears. Her family continues to get a scolding in front of her also. Mrs Annie Pearson (actually Mrs Fitzgerald) informs her that she was putting everyone in their place. When Mr George Pearson shouts at his wife, she threatens to slap his big, fat silly face.

Mrs Annie Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald Go Back to their Original Personalities
The real Mrs Annie Pearson (now Mrs Fitzgerald) gets really disturbed and wants everyone to leave as she wants to talk in private with Annie (the real Mrs Fitzgerald).

She tells Mrs Fitzgerald that it is enough. Let them change back and get into their true selves. Mrs Fitzgerald again speaks some magic words and they again get back to their own selves. Mrs Fitzgerald says that she enjoyed every moment in her changed personality. Annie remarks that she did not enjoy this changeover. Mrs Fitzgerald wants Annie not to be soft on her family. She wants her to remain firm.

Annie says that she will be able to manage her husband and children now. Mrs Fitzgerald warns her not to give any apology or explanation, otherwise they will again start treating her indifferently. She must wear a tough look and talk to them rudely if she wanted them to behave in the right manner. For a change, when Annie smiles, her family members smile back and feel very relaxed. As they had cancelled their going out Annie feels that they all as a family should play a game of rummy. She also asks her children to prepare supper for the family, for which they readily agree. She also wants to have a talk with George, her husband, for which everybody agrees. The play ends on a happy note where the children and husband are willing to do whatever Mrs Annie Pearson suggests.

Mother’s Day Chapter Highlights

  • The two neighbours, Mrs Annie Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald discuss Annie’s problems.
  • Mrs Fitzgerald suggests Annie to be the boss in her house and not to meet everyone’s demand.
  • Annie agrees that her children should treat her properly.
  • Mrs Fitzgerald points out that the children and husband should not be allowed to treat her as a servant; she also has the right to enjoy herself.
  • Mrs Fitzgerald suggests that they should temporarily exchange their personalities by using a magic spell she had learnt in the East.
  • A transformation takes place and the personality of Mrs Fitzgerald shifts into the body of Mrs Annie Pearson and vice-versa.
  • Mrs Fitzgerald, now in the body of Annie, stays at Annie’s house and sends her (in Mrs Fitzgerald’s body) to Mrs Fitzgerald’s house.
  • When Doris, daughter of Annie, a pretty girl, aged 20 years, enters the house, she observes her mother playing cards and smoking, which horrifies her.
  • Her mother, refuses to make tea for her or iron her yellow silk dress. Doris is surprised at her mother’s behaviour.
  • After some time, Cyril, Mrs Annie’s Pearson’s son gets the same treatment when he enquires about his clothes being put out as he has to go again in the evening.
  • Annie continues drinking and both her daughter and son are shocked. They presume that something is certainly wrong with their mother.
  • Annie tells them that they are so engrossed in their own activities that they hardly care for her. She also informs them of her intention of not doing any household work on Saturday and Sunday.
  • Mr George Pearson, Annie’s husband, comes and finds his daughter crying. He also gets shocked at his wife’s drinking and totally disapproves it.
  • George is enlightened by Annie that he was a laughing stock in his social circle. She tells him that people call him Pompyompy Pearson. George goes out in anger.
  • When Cyril objects to his mother about behaving badly with his father, he is criticised by his mother.
  • Now the real Mrs Annie Pearson in the body of Mrs Fitzgerald returns. George appears and complains about what was happening in his house to Mrs Fitzgerald.
  • Mrs Fitzgerald asks George and Doris to leave her and Annie alone for some time, promising that everything was going to be right.
  • When alone, Mrs Fitzgerald (at present Annie) chants some magic words and again their personalities get back in their bodies.
  • After this shock treatment, Annie’s family starts giving her more respect and attention. They also pay attention to her likes and dislikes.

Mother’s Day Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
portrayal – depiction
living-room – drawing-room
suburb – outlying area of a city
muslin-covered – covered with a muslin curtain
settee – sofa
sinister – strong
flurried – nervous and confused due to overwork
Cockney – style of speaking of people living in the East end of London
Irish – style of speaking of people living in Ireland
fortune teller – person claiming to have magic powers
out East – in the British colonies in Asia
Lieutenant Quartermaster – non-commissioned officer in British Army
put your foot down – be very strict
mistress – woman with authority
apologetically – as if feeling sorry
treating ’em like dirt – showing lack of respect
dubiously – in an unsure manner
unpleasantness – quarrelling
have it out – settle it finally
good gracious – an expression of surprise
embarrassed – feeling awkward
flustered – agitated
got the idea – understood me
gimme – give me
muttering – speaking in a low voice
go lax – looking like they are dead
puffing – smoking
complacently – feeling happy and satisfied
chuckling – laughing quietly
patience – a card game played by a single person
taken anything in – understood what is going on
astounded – surprised
fluttering – unsteady
square meal – full and satisfying meal
the Clarendon – name of a local restaurant
indignantly – with annoyance
rubbish – uselessly
be seen dead – like to be seen
buck teeth – upper set of teeth sticking out
half-witted – stupid
masculine counterpart – brother
off-colour – not feeling well
get cracking – work quickly
aggressively – forcefully
put my things out – lay out my clothes
staggered – shocked
laconic and sinister – briefly and meaningfully
wear that face – look so bad
Union – association of employees
bar – stop
movement – association of employees
never you mind – don’t bother
stout – strong beer
clot – idiot
in a huddle – come close together to talk
barmy – insane
fathead – idiot
concussion – serious injury to her head
far-fetched – unlikely
giggle – laugh in a silly manner
guffaw – laugh loudly
contempt – disgust
be your age – behave properly as per your age
do with – appreciate
a bit thick – unreasonable
airily – carelessly
aghast – horrified
passionately – with much emotion
blubbering – crying like a baby
solemn – formal and dignified
pompous – overbearing, self-important
bulge – stick out
fancied – feel a desire for
bewildered – confused, puzzled
distaste – dislike
aggrieved – feeling hurt
indignantly – in a displeased tone
standing jokes – permanent amusements
dazed – totally astonished
appealingly – urgently requesting
gloomily – sadly
greyhound races – races run by tall, slender dogs
dirt tracks – racing courses for motorcycles
ice shows – entertainment shows performed by ice skaters
sulkily – showing an irritated feeling
old bag – unpleasant elderly woman
smacking – bringing together with force so they make a sound
ushering – bringing
piecan – stupid person
severely – strictly
glowering – angry
putting ’em in their places – making them behave properly
doing ’em all a world of good – helping them to learn how to behave properly
eating out of your hand – completely under your control
glumly – sadly
crying her eyes out – crying uncontrollably
at sixes and sevens – in total confusion
bitterly – angrily
intimidated – frightened
taunting – teasing
tiddly – slightly drunk
in despair – hopelessly
a flash of temper – sudden anger
ticking her off – reprimanding her
’cos – because
go soft on – treat gently
spirit – enthusiasm
apprehensively – anxiously
rummy – a card game
cluster round – surround

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English by Patrick Pringle

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Albert Einstein At School is written by Patrick Pringle.

Learncram.com has provided Albert Einstein At School extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Albert Einstein At School summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English by Patrick Pringle

About the Author Patrick Pringle

Author Name Patrick Pringle
Born 1917 (age 103 years), London, United Kingdom
Books Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy
Nominations Edgar Award for Best Fact Crime
Patrick Pringle - albert einstein at school summary in english class 11
Patrick Pringle

Albert Einstein At School Theme

This biographical piece discusses the childhood of Albert Einstein, the famous physicist. The chapter starts with Einstein’s disagreement on rote learning with his history teacher. Einstein wanted to get away from the system of education followed in Munich. So he decided to get a doctor’s certificate declaring that he has had a nervous breakdown and needs rest for six months. Only his maths teacher admired Einstein for his brilliance. But before Einstein could get an appointment with the head teacher to present the certificate, he was asked by the head teacher to leave the school due to poor conduct. So he felt happy on leaving.

Albert Einstein At School About the Characters

Albert Einstein: During his schooldays at Munich, he was not interested in the rote learning methods of school education and expressed his frank opinion. Nobody except his maths teacher recognised his genius. In the end he was expelled by the school authorities.

Mr Braun: He was Einstein’s history teacher who believes in the rote learning system of education.

Yuri: He was Einstein’s good friend and a very helpful person.

Elsa: She was Einstein’s cousin who advised him that he will eventually succeed if he continues in his school.

Dr Ernst Weil: He was a newly qualified doctor who understands Einstein and helps him by giving the medical certificate which he required.

Mr Koch: He was Einstein’s maths teacher who understood his genius and gave him the reference he wanted.

Head Teacher: He is an administrator who simply takes the disciplinary action required by requesting Einstein to leave the school.

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English

Einstein in History Class
The narrative begins with Einstein being’ asked by his history teacher, Mr Braun, about the year in which the Prussians defeated the French at Waterloo. Einstein frankly replied that he did not remember and he didn’t see any point in learning dates. Mr Braun was amazed that Einstein didn’t believe in learning facts. According to Einstein, learning facts was not education at all. He thought that ideas were more important than facts. The teacher asked him to explain ‘Einstein’s theory of education’. Einstein shyingly elaborated that he would be more interested in learning the reason why soldiers killed each other instead of learning years or dates, or which of the armies killed more men.

Einstein Gets Scolded
Mr Braun was shocked and furious. He believed that Einstein had no desire to learn and was wasting his father’s money. Mr Braun did not agree with Einstein’s views on education. He punished Einstein by asking him to stay for an extra period in school. He also told Einstein that he was a disgrace to the school and ought to be ashamed of himself. The teacher suggested Einstein to call his father to take him away.

Einstein Hated the Atmosphere of Slum Violence
Einstein felt miserable that day. He wished his father would take him away. His father was not rich. So, Einstein lived in one of the poorest areas of Munich. He hated the slum violence there.

Einstein had no comfort there. The atmosphere was bad as his landlady beat her children regularly and every Saturday her husband, a drunkard, beat her. The only comfort for Einstein was when he played his violin, but that was also, stopped by his landlady because its sound disturbed her. All this made him miserable.

Einstein shared his pain with Yuri, his only friend in Munich. Yuri tried to convince by telling him that he was lucky to at least have his own room.

Yuri also told Einstein that he was sharing a room with students who were not civilised at all and they fought with each other. One of the students got killed the previous week in such a duel. The authorities did not take action and merely told them not to engage in such fights. Einstein got disgusted after hearing this account.

Einstein Met his Cousin Elsa
Einstein was doubtful about passing his exams for the school diploma. He told Elsa, his cousin, the same when she next came to Munich. She used to visit Einstein occasionally but she lived in Berlin, where her father had a business. Elsa tried to counsel him. She told him that she knew a lot of boys who were more stupid than him and they all had passed the exam. She counselled him to continue his studies in the school. Einstein explained his helplessness by saying that he was no good at learning things by heart. He was reading a book on geology, which was not even a part of his diploma. Still, he was studying it because he liked it. Apart from books on science, his only comfort was playing his violin, until his landlady asked him to stop.

Einstein’s Plan to Get Away from School
Einstein thought that it was meaningless for him to stay on in Munich. It was no use wasting his father’s money and everyone’s time. Einstein suddenly got an idea. He met Yuri and asked him if he knew a doctor. Einstein wanted to get a medical certificate to show that he had a nervous breakdown and he should stop going to school. Yuri doubted that the doctor will believe Einstein. Einstein commented that he would have a real nervous breakdown to make matters easier for the doctor.

The Doctor Gives Einstein a Medical Certificate
Yuri found a recently qualified doctor, Dr. Ernst Weil. Yuri warned Einstein against trying to deceive Ernst, but to be frank and honest.

Einstein met Dr. Ernst the next day. Dr. Ernst informed him that Yuri had told him about his troubles. Einstein informed him about his plans to move to Milan. Dr Ernst gave him a medical certificate stating that Einstein was suffering from nervous breakdown and should stay away from school for six months. Einstein thanked the doctor and took Yuri for a meal.

Einstein Seeks a Reference
Einstein told Yuri that he would leave school forever as he never wanted to come back to that school. Yuri suggested him to take a reference letter from his maths teacher, to Mr. Koch, before going to the headmaster. Mr. Koch really admired Einstein for his brilliance and gave him the reference.

Einstein Summoned By Head Teacher
Before Einstein had a chance to give the medical certificate to the head teacher, he was summoned to the head teacher’s office. The head teacher told him that he was expelled from the school and he should leave immediately.

When Einstein wanted to know the reason, the head teacher told him that his presence disturbed the class so much that no teaching could be done.

Einstein Happy to Leave the School
When Einstein heard this, he felt sad that he had unnecessarily wasted time and effort in procuring a medical certificate. Einstein was tempted to tell the head teacher what he thought about the school or about the teachers but somehow stopped himself. But he did not feel ashamed of being expelled and walked out keeping his head high. .He did not say goodbye to any teacher or student inside the school.

The only person he wanted to meet before leaving was Yuri, who wished him good luck and wished that he would be happier in Milan as it was a wonderful place.

Albert Einstein At School Chapter Highlights

  • The chapter opens in history class where Mr. Braun is asking Einstein a question related to dates. Einstein gives a frank reply that he does not remember the answer.
  • The conversation between Einstein and his history teacher Mr. Braun turns unpleasant when the teacher talks in a sarcastic manner about Einstein’s theory of education. The teacher calls him a disgrace and punishes him.
  • Einstein feels very miserable due to many factors: the school environment, the place where he lived etc.
  • The atmosphere where he lives is also depressing. He hates the atmosphere of ‘slum violence’ where the beating of children by their mother and the beating of a wife by a drunk husband is a regular feature.
  • Einstein discusses about all this with his friend Yuri who lives in a shared room.
  • Yuri says that his room was no better than Einstein’s, as students became violent over small matters.
  • Einstein discusses about the problems at school with his cousin Elsa who occasionally visited him.
  • Elsa thinks there is no reason that he cannot pass by remembering facts even though he does not understand them.
  • Einstein is greatly interested in reading books on science. Elsa points out to him that reading those books will not help him to pass his examination.
  • Einstein discusses with Yuri about getting a medical certificate from a doctor so that he can stay away from his school.
  • Yuri sends him to a newly qualified doctor, Ernst Weil. He is an understanding person and gives a certificate stating that
  • Einstein is close to a nervous breakdown and should keep away from school for six months.
  • Yuri suggests to Einstein to meet his maths teacher first for a reference before Einstein went to meet the head teacher with the medical certificate.
  • Einstein’s Maths teacher, Mr Koch, appreciates his brilliance. He gives a glowing reference to Einstein which can get him admission in a college or institute for higher education in maths.
  • Einstein is called by the head teacher who informs him that he is being expelled from the school. The head teacher tells him of his misbehaviour in class.
  • Einstein happily leaves the school with head held high. He does not bid goodbye to any teacher or student of that school,
    Before leaving for Milan, he meets his best friend Yuri, who wishes him good luck for the future.

Albert Einstein At School Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
physicist – scientist who studies physics
expulsion – forced removal
unthinking – spontaneous
amaze – surprise
heavy sarcasm – mockery
flushed – became red in confusion
stay in – remain
lodgings – place of residence
squalor – filth
slum violence – fights in the poorest areas of the town
came drunk – became drunk
civilised – polite, well-mannered
duel – fight between two people
scar – injury mark
badge of honour – mark of pride
glumly – sadly
learning things by heart – remembering things perfectly
wailing – long and loud sound made by the violin
gets on one’s nerves – annoys
howling – crying
absurd – silly
turn out – end in the result that
gleamed – shone brightly
nervous breakdown – mental illness

Ranga’s Marriage Summary in English by Masti Venkatesha Iyengar

Ranga’s Marriage Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Ranga’s Marriage is written by Masti Venkatesha Iyengar.

Learncram.com has provided Ranga’s Marriage extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english Ranga’s Marriage summary in hindi, analysis, line by line explanation, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Ranga’s Marriage Summary in English by Masti Venkatesha Iyengar

About the writer Masti Venkatesha Iyengar

Writer Name Masti Venkatesha Iyengar
Born 6 June 1891, Hosa Halli
Died 6 June 1986, Bengaluru
Education University of Madras
Awards Jnanpith Award
Movies Kakana Kote

Masti Venkatesha Iyengar

Ranga’s Marriage Theme

The story ‘Ranga’s Marriage’ dates back to the early days of British rule, when life in villages was slow and child marriage was common. It very interestingly shows the manipulations done by the narrator to bring a change in the idealistic views of Ranga about marriage and gets him married to a eleven year old girl, Ratna. Due to the narrator’s meticulous planning with the village astrologer, Ranga ultimately gets married to Ratna, with whom he had fallen in love on first sight.

Ranga’s Marriage About the Characters

Ranga: Ranga, the son of an accountant, gets educated outside his village, at Bangalore. But he has not changed much when he returns as he follows the traditional courteous behaviour towards elders. However, Ranga’s views about marriage are non-traditional, The narrator’s strategy succeeds in making him agree to the traditional arranged marriage.

Shyama (the narrator): He is Ranga’s neighbour He is impressed by Ranga’s cultured behaviour and plans a strategy, takes the village astrologer into confidence, and finally makes Ranga agree to marry a eleven year old orphan Ratna.

Ratna: She is a eleven year old orphan girl who is staying with her uncle, Rama Rao. She is pretty and . sings very sweetly. She also knew how to play the veena and the harmonium. She impresses Ranga so that he changes his views on marriage.

Shastri: He is the village astrologer who plays his role to -perfection, as tutored by Shyama. But he does not want to be treated shabbily and tries to assert his knowledge of the Shastras when Shyama tried to make fun of him.

Ranga’s Marriage Summary in English

No Fancy Title of the Story
The narrator comments why he had not given any elaborate title to the present story, like ‘Ranganatha’s Vivaha’ or ‘Jagannatha Vijaya’. The reason is that the story is about a common boy, Ranga, and his marriage. He is an accountant’s son and native of village Hosahalli.

The Village of Hosahalli
The narrator mentions that this village is very small and it is not mentioned in geography books. Still he speaks highly. about Hosahalli. Even the local doctor, Dr Gundabhatta, who has visited many places outside India, finds it an impressive village.

The village is famous for its sour mangoes and creepers growing in the village pond. The leaves of this creeper could serve as good plates for serving afternoon meals.

But the narrator, Shyama, says that real appreciation of the village can be felt only if one visits it personally and gets acquainted with it.

Ranga’s Home Coming was a Great Event
Shyama recalls an incident that happened ten years ago. The village accountant was the first one to gather enough courage to send his son to Bangalore to study. Not many people knew English then. That was why Ranga’s homecoming was a great event. A big crowd went to greet him.

The narrator rushed to see him. Everyone was surprised to see that Ranga had not changed. Once they realised that Ranga was unchanged, the crowd of people slowly disappeared. Only the narrator continued to stand there. Ranga had a smile on his face. He still followed the rituals of his caste by respectfully touching the narrator’s feet.

The Narrator Decides to Get Ranga Married
The same afternoon Ranga went to the narrator’s house with a couple of oranges in his hand. The narrator thought that such a fine and generous boy should get married and settle down. He enquired about his plan to get married. Ranga said that he didn’t want to get married soon. He was searching for the right girl who was mature enough. Secondly, he wanted to marry a girl he admired. He was not in favour of the arranged marriages prevalent in society. Till he got a girl of his choice, he wanted to remain a bachelor.

The narrator was distressed to learn about Ranga’s views on marriage but he made up his mind that very soon he would get Ranga married.

The Narrator Found a Suitable Girl for Ranga
The narrator found the most suitable girl for him. It was Rama Rao’s niece Ratna, a pretty girl of eleven who had come to stay with him after her parents died. She was from a big town, so she knew how to play the veena and the harmonium. She also had a sweet voice.

The Narrator Starts Playing Match-Maker
The next morning, the narrator told Rama Rao’s wife to send Ratna to his house to fetch some buttermilk. Ratna knew the narrator as he was a frequent visitor to Rama Rao’s place. Ratna came to the narrator’s house. When Ratna came, he requested her to sing a song. It was Friday, so she was wearing a saree.

Ranga’s Disappointment
Meanwhile, Ranga came to the narrator’s house and stopped at the threshold. He didn’t want the singing to stop, but he was curious to see the singer. He was enchanted by her and kept glancing at her. After a while Ranga asked about Ratna. The narrator quite cunningly told him that she was married a year ago. Ranga was extremely disappointed to hear this. The narrator noticed signs of disappointment on Ranga’s face. Ranga left after sometime.

The Narrator’s Plan
The next morning, the narrator met the astrologer, better known as Shastri, and tutored him about his plan in Ranga’s case. In the afternoon, the narrator met Ranga, who appeared as disturbed as he was yesterday. The narrator suggested to meet Shastri and enquire about what was worrying him. Ranga did not protest and went to meet Shastri with the narrator. Shastri pretended surprise and spoke about meeting the narrator after a long time.

The narrator almost ruined his own plan by saying that he had already met Shastri that very morning but Shastri saved it by changing the sentence.

The narrator told Shastri that something was worrying poor Ranga and they had come to seek his help. After making a pretence of some calculations, Shastri said that it was about a girl. To the narrator’s question as to who that girl was, Shastri said that she had the name of something found in the ocean – Kamala, Pachchi, Moss, Pearl or Ratna – the precious stone.

The Narrator’s Plan Succeeds
The narrator’s plan was bearing fruit. There was some surprise on Ranga’s face and even some happiness. On their return, Shyama passed in front of Rama Rao’s house.

Ratna was standing at the door. The narrator went inside Rama Rao’s house and came back a little later. He had a surprised look on his face. He told Ranga that there was some wrong information given to him. Ratna was not married. He also enquired of Ranga whether what Shastri had indicated was true. Shyama asked Ranga that he is thinking about Ratna. Ranga admitted that whatever Shastri said about the girl was true. Now, he wanted to get married to Ratna.

Ranga and Ratna Get Married
Finally Ranga and Ratna got married. All the idealism of Ranga was forgotten as he was totally fascinated by Ratna’s beauty and sweet voice. They named their first child Shyama, as because of Shyama’s (the narrator) efforts they had got married. Years’ later, Ranga invited the narrator for dinner on the occasion of his 3 year old son’s birthday. The son was also named Shyama in honour of the narrator. Thus, Ranga was leading a happy married life with Ratna.

Ranga’s Marriage Chapter Highlights

  • This story deals with the marriage of Ranga, a native of village Hosahalli, who had returned after being educated in Bangalore.
  • Hearing of Ranga’s return, the villagers came to find out whether Ranga had changed due to studying in a city school. To their surprise and pleasure he was the same Ranga who was treating everyone with respect.
  • In the afternoon, during Ranga’s visit to Shyama’s house, he asked Ranga about his plans for marriage. Ranga replied that first he must find the right girl whom he admired and who would be mature.
  • Shyama was unhappy that Ranga, who could prove to be a good husband, had decided to remain a bachelor at present.
  • So Shyama made up his mind that, irrespective of Ranga’s opinion about marriage or his decision to remain a bachelor, he would try his best to get Ranga married quickly.
  • Shyama knew a eleven year old orphan girl Ratna, who was his neighbour Rama Rao’s niece and stayed with him at present. The girl was beautiful, had a sweet voice and could play musical instruments (veena and harmonium) well.
  • Shyama chalked out a plan to let Ranga meet the girl and see her himself, by inviting Ranga to come to his home when Ratna was called there on purpose.
  • When Ratna came to Shyama’s house, he requested her to sing so that, when Ranga arrived, he could hear her.
  • Ranga was impressed with her singing as well as her beauty and enquired about her.
  • Shyama lied to Ranga by telling him that she was already married, which disappointed Ranga.
  • Next day, Shyama tutored the village astrologer, known as Shastri, to speak as Shyama wanted when Ranga was brought to him.
  • Ranga, meanwhile was looking sad and so Shyama suggested to him that they should consult Shastri to find out what was worrying him, to which Ranga agreed.
  • Shastri pretended to make some calculations and declared that a girl was responsible for Ranga’s condition and her name was of something found in the ocean, like Kamala, Pachchi, Moss, Pearl or Ratna.
  • Shyama mentioned that the Ratna whom they knew was already married, but the astrologer stuck to his words.
  • Returning from Shastri’s house, the narrator stopped at Rama Rao’s house, went inside for some time and then returned.
  • He pretended to look surprised and told Ranga that just now he had found that Ratna was not married and the earlier information was incorrect.
  • He now asked Ranga whether what Shastri had indicated was true. Ranga admitted that whatever Shastri said was true and he wanted to get married to Ratna.
  • So Ranga and Ratna got married, naming their first child the same name as that of the narrator, as he was the one responsible for them being happily married.

Ranga’s Marriage Word Meanings

Word – Meanings
rare-breed – uncommon persons
mill around – throng
pursue – continue
mouth-filling – long or complicated
cartographer – a person who makes or draw maps
karigadabu – sweet coconut samosas
glowingly – with much praise
annayya – respectful term for an elderly person
flea-pestered – troubled persistently by fleas
sure to go straight to your brahmarandra – very sharp
rambling – talking aimlessly
pice – a unit of coinage in India before 1957
muttering – complaining in a low tone
priceless commodity – valuable knowledge
widespread – well-known
homecoming – returning home after a length of time
his doorstep – just outside his home
courtyard – within the home’s compound but outside the home
Black Hole of Calcutta – refers to the incident in 1756 when many prisoners confined to a small cell died due to suffocation
janewara – the sacred thread worn by Brahmins
lost his caste – changed from living according to the rules of his caste
melted away – gradually disappeared
jerking – suddenly moving
wand – a slender stick or rod
pleasantries – courteous social remarks
troupe – a group of actors
admires – adores and respects
get him married – arrange his marriage

Memories of Childhood Summary in English by Zitkala-Sa, Bama

Memories of Childhood Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Memories of Childhood is written by Zitkala Sa, Bama.

Learncram.com has provided Memories of Childhood extra questions and answers pdf, Memories of Childhood theme, class 12 english Memories of Childhood summary in hindi, important question and answers, lesson plan, class 12 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Memories of Childhood Summary in English by Zitkala-Sa, Bama

Memories of Childhood by Zitkala Sa, Bama About the Author

Born Gertrude Simmons Bonnin, (Zitkala-Sa) (22 February 1876 – 26 January 1938) was a Sioux writer, editor, musician, teacher and political activist. She was the co-founder of the National Council of American Indians in 1926. Her articles were published in the ‘Atlantic Monthly’ from 1900 to 1902 and in ‘Harper’s Monthly’. Most of her work is focused on tensions between tradition and assimilation and literature and politics. She was also an active member of the society of ‘American Indians which published the ‘American Indian’ Magazine. She worked for the recognition of native American culture and traditions but at the same time advocated US citizenship rights for American Indians to bring them into the mainstream.

Bama (Born: 1958-) is a Tamil novelist. Her autobiographical novel Karukku (1992) brought her fame. After this she wrote two novels Sangati and Vanmam along with two collections of short stories. Kusumbukkaran and Oru Tattvum Erumaiyum. She was born in a Roman Catholic family in Madras.

Most of her novels focus on caste and gender discrimination and that prevailing in Christians and Hindus. Her works embody the Dalit feminism and celebrate the inner strength of the subaltern woman.

Author Name Zitkala-Sa
Born 22 February 1876, Yankton Reservation, South Dakota, United States
Died 26 January 1938, Washington, D.C., United States
Spouse(s) Raymond Bonnin
Movies and TV shows New England Conservatory of Music (1897–1899), Earlham College (1897)
Nationality American
Zitkala-Sa - memories of childhood summary in english class 12
Zitkala-Sa

Memories of Childhood Theme

‘Memories of Childhood’ depicts the fact that children are extremely sensitive to their surroundings and react very strongly against the discrimination and indignities meted out to them. Zitkala-Sa, representing the Native American woman, condemns the dogma and evil of oppression.

On the other hand, Bama criticises untouchability and caste discrimination. The narrative has a universal theme which highlights the reaction to the hatred and cruelty meted out to the downtrodden and the discrimination on the basis of caste, creed and social hierarchy.

Memories of Childhood Summary in English

The Cutting of My Long Hair

The story begins with the introduction of the Carlisle Indian school. The narrator describes her first day at the school. It was very cold and unpleasant as there was a lot of snow around. The extract deals with the shingling of hair of Zitkala-Sa. Zitkal-Sa found the school a strange place where everything seemed to be mechanical. A very loud and metallic bell rang for breakfast. There was annoying clatter of feet on the entire bare floor. She was unnerved because of so much of noise.

She found all the girls marching to the dining room after hearing the bell. They were supervised by a palefaced woman. Small girls wore aprons, and had shingled hair. The girls were dressed in clinging clothes. Breakfast was served and eaten very mechanically. There was a bell to stand, another to sit, next to pray and after that another to start breakfast. All this was totally new for the narrator.

Her friend Judewin warned her that the palefaced woman was talking about the cutting of her long hair. The narrator did not want her hair to be shingled because in her community, shingling of hair was considered as inauspicious and undignified. Only traitors or the mourners had their hair shingled. Though her friend told her that they would have to submit as others were stronger, the narrator decided to struggle and not to submit. She crept upstairs unnoticed and hid under the bed in a dark corner. But finally, she was discovered and dragged out.

She scratched and kicked but was forcibly taken downstairs and was tied fast to a chair. Her thick braids were cut off. And with this she lost her spirit. She realised the indignities suffered by her after she was separated from her mother. She was tossed here and there like a wooden puppet and felt humiliated. She was treated like an animal and no one came to comfort her.

We Too Are Human Beings

In this story, Bama narrates the experiences of a young dalit school girl in a south Indian village. The narrator had never heard of untouchability being talked about openly by anyone but she felt, experienced and was humiliated by what she saw. While coming back from school, she used to spend a lot of time in watching all the fun and games, entertaining novelties, oddities, shops in bazar on the way. She used to watch performing monkeys, a man pedalling for days, the activities at Maariyaata temple, the statue of Gandhiji, the sweets and snacks, hunter gypsy and wild lemurs in cages. She used to hear the political parties giving speeches, saw the puppet show, street plays, coffee shops, fruit trees and peddlers selling fruits, snacks, halwa and iced lollies.

While on the way, she saw an interesting scene outside the landlord’s house. Here a threshing floor was set up with the landlord watching the proceedings. Some people were driving cattle for threshing the corn. She saw an elder of her community carrying a big packet in a funny manner which made her laugh. He gave this packet which contained vadais to the landlord without touching it and the landlord opened the packet and ate the vadais.

Bama narrates this incident to her brother with all the comic details. But to her surprise her brother is not amused. The narrator is told that the landlord was of upper caste and the elder’s touch would pollute the food. This made the narrator sad and angry and she felt outraged at the exploitation. She condemns it as a curse against humanity. She believed that their community should boycott and refuse to do petty errands. She came to know that despite being so educated, tier brother was questioned about his caste. All the dalits used to live together in a separate place away from the upper class.

Annan, her brother, told the narrator that they were not respected or given dignity due to their community. He said that education was the only way to gain respect. The narrator was advised to work hard and learn. She obeyed her brother and studied hard with great determination. She stood first in her class. Many people tried to befriend her.

Character Sketch of Zitkala-Sa in Memories of Childhood

Zitkala-Sa: Zitkala-Sa was a native American who was sent to the Carlisle Indian school at a young age. She faced indignity, discrimination and exploitation at school. She was forced to get her hair shingled against which she protested to the best of her capacity but finally had to surrender. She was treated like a wooden toy. She is symbolic of all the native American women who were exploited at the hands of their masters. They used to enslave them, plundered them and destroyed their culture. She suffered extreme indignities and felt humiliated. Her long thick braids were cut off which let her spirit down. She was treated like an animal. Despite of all this barbarism, Zitkala-Sa showed her resistance. She didn’t give up meekly and struggled and protested though she didn’t succeed.

Character Sketch of Bama in Memories of Childhood

Bama: Bama is a small innocent school girl from a Dalit community in south India. She is unaware of the discrimination on the basis of caste. She is surprised to see distinction based on class and caste. When she is told by her brother, about the reality, she is angry. She protests against this. She is astonished to realize the fact that the rich and upper caste people have lost all humanity. She felt that they too were human beings. She has a rebellions nature and wants to protest against this evil. Told by her brother that it is only education which can bring change, she determines to choose a constructive path and studies hard and tops the class. In this way, she wins everyone’s respect and becomes a role model for all Dalits.

The Address Summary in English Marga Minco

The Address Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Address is written by Marga Minco.

Learncram.com has provided The Address extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english The Address summary in hindi, analysis, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

The Address Summary in English Marga Minco

About the Poet Marga Minco

Poet Name Marga Minco
Born 31 March 1920 (age 100 years), Ginneken en Bavel, Netherlands
Spouse Lambertus Hendrikus Voeten (m. 1945–1992)
Awards P. C. Hooft Award, Ferdinand Bordewijk Prize
Movies Het Bittere Kruid
Nationality Dutch
Marga Minco - the address summary in english class 11
Marga Minco

The Address Theme

This story is a touching account of a girl who goes in search of her mother’s belongings after the Second World War in Holland. But even after finding what she so much wanted to touch, to see, to feel and remember, she leaves everything behind as it could not bring her dead mother back. She decides to move on and live with only memories of the former times. The address that held so much importance till she visited that place, lost its value and the girl realised that it could get her nothing but pain.

The Address About the Characters

The Daughter: She is the narrator, who returns to Holland to go to the address where her mother’s precious belongings were kept. As normalcy had returned after the Second World War in Holland, she wanted to see all possessions that were a bond between her family and herself.

Mrs S – The Narrator’s Mother: In the story, the narrator’s mother has been called as Mrs S. She was a simpleton who could not see the manipulating and fraudulent nature of Mrs Dorling, her acquaintance. She trusted Mrs Dorling and allowed her to keep all her precious belongings for the time being.

Mrs Dorling: She has been described as an old acquaintance of‘Mrs S. After a long gap, she appeared again during the war. She possessed a cunning personality. She is most reluctant to recognise the daughter and does not allow her to enter the house.

The Address Summary in English

Mrs Dorling’s Indifferent Attitude Towards the Narrator
The narrator knocked at the door of a house, but the door was opened only a little. She asked the owner if she knew her. The narrator told her that she was Mrs S daughter. But the owner of the house, Mrs Dorling, denied knowing her. Mrs Dorling’s face gave absolutely no sign of recognition and she kept staring at her without speaking any word.

The narrator thought that perhaps she was mistaken and had rung the wrong bell. Then the narrator got a glimpse of her mother’s green knitted cardigan which Mrs Dorling was wearing. This confirmed to her that she had reached the correct address. But Mrs Dorling excused herself by saying that she could not talk to the girl that day and she should come again later. Then she shamelessly closed the door.

Someone Watching the Narrator from the Window
The narrator stood for some time on the steps even after the door closed. Someone was watching her from the bay window. The girl presumed that someone other than Mrs Dorling must be watching her and must have asked why the narrator came there.

The Narrator Remembers What her Mother had Told her
After this refusal, the narrator walked back to the station thinking about her mother. Her mother had given her Mrs Dorling’s address years ago. It had been in the first half of the war. The narrator’s mother told her about Mrs Dorling, an old acquaintance.

She also informed her that every time when Mrs Dorling came, she took something home with her. The reason Mrs Dorling gave for her actions was that she wanted to save all the good things, as the narrator’s mother would not be able to save everything if they had to leave suddenly. The narrator’s mother had accepted the idea. She was rather obliged towards Mrs Dorling that she was carrying such heavy luggage every time she visited, as it was really risky during the war.

The Narrator Remembers When She Met Mrs Dorling
The narrator arrived at the station without having paid much attention to things on the way. She was walking in familiar places again for the first time since the war. She didn’t want to upset herself with the sight of streets and houses full of memories from a previous time. In the train she remembered the first time when she had seen Mrs Dorling. It was the morning after the day her mother had told her about Mrs Dorling, who was wearing a brown coat and a shapeless hat. The narrator had asked from her mother if she lived far away, as she was carrying a heavy case. Her mother told her that Mrs Dorling lived at Number 46, Marconi Street.

Initially the Narrator was Reluctant to See the Family’s Old Belongings
The narrator had remembered the address, but waited a long time to go there. Initially after the war was over, she was not interested in all their belongings lying with Mrs Dorling. She was afraid to see the things that had belonged to her dead mother. She did not want to see their belongings lying in Mrs Dorling’s house in boxes and cupboards and needing to be put back in their old places again. She was scared that the things might make her very nostalgic. But gradually her life became normal again and one day, she became curious to know about all the possessions.

The Narrator Decides to Visit Again
After her first visit did not yield any result, she decided to visit a second time. This time a girl of about fifteen opened the door, as her mother was not at home. The narrator asked about Mrs Dorling. She was told that Mrs Dorling was not at home. She followed the girl along the passage. She noticed an old-fashioned iron candle-holder which they never used. They went into the living-room.

The narrator was horrified. She found herself in the midst of their old belongings, but they oppressed her as they were kept in strange surroundings and in a very tasteless manner. She was hurt to see her family’s belongings lying in a tasteless way with the ugly furniture and muggy smell. The table cloth, the silver cudery and even the still life showing the apple on the tin plate belonged to her family.

The Narrator’s Keen Observation of Mrs Dorling’s Daughter
She was keenly observing the girl, who had a broad back similar to that of Mrs Dorling. The girl was placing tea¬cups for tea to be served. She was pouring tea from a white teapot which had a gold border on the lid and then she took out some spoons from the box. All this crockery and cudery belonged to the narrator’s family, but perhaps the girl was not aware of this fact. She cracked a joke about eating dinner in those antique plates. The narrator also found a burn mark on the table cloth. The narrator indirecdy hinted to the girl that they missed things which are either missing from their original place or have been loaned to somebody.

The Narrator Remembers About Polishing the Silver Outlay
The narrator remembers the time when her mother was alive and the narrator was at home either bored or ill. Her mother asked her to polish the silver cudery. She was surprised to hear that the cudery that they were using was made of silver and even Mrs Dorling’s daughter was surprised to hear that they were using silver cudery for everyday eating.

The Narrator’s Final Resolution
The narrator decided that she could not stay there any more. The address was correct but the narrator didn’t want to remember it any more. She felt that the objects were linked to a memory of a time which no longer existed. They had lost their value in the strange surroundings.

She comforted herself by thinking that her present house was too small to accommodate all the old stuff. She left the house, leaving all her family’s belongings behind.

The Address Chapter Highlights

  • The narrator decides to visit the address that was given to her by her mother, where all her family’s precious possessions were kept safely by Mrs Dorling.
  • The first time when the narrator visited the address, Mrs Dorling behaved in the most absurd manner. She refused to recognise the narrator and did not let her enter the house. So the narrator returns empty-handed.
  • The narrator is reminded of her mother (Mrs S) who had given this address to her years ago, when inspite of war, they were living in Holland and she saw Mrs Dorling who was introduced to her as an old acquaintance of her mother.
  • The narrator noticed many precious items missing from their places. Then Mrs S told her that Mrs Dorling was helping her by taking her table cloth, silver cutlery, antique plates, large vases and crockery to her house to keep in safe custody, in case they had to leave the house suddenly.
  • The narrator decided to revisit the house of Mrs Dorling as she felt the urge to see all her mother’s belongings. She wanted to touch them, feel them and remember them.
  • On her second visit to 46, Marconi Street, she could get entry into the house as Mrs Dorling’s 15 year-old daughter opened the door. Her mother was not at home.
  • The girl led her to the living room where, to the narrator’s dismay, things belonging to her mother were arranged in a bad manner.
  • Mrs Dorling’s daughter innocently told the narrator that they were using all the antique plates, crockery and cutlery.
  • The narrator took an impulsive decision to leave everything behind as the precious objects owned by her mother had lost their value. Also, these objects associated with her mother were now in strange surroundings.
  • The narrator decided to forget her past as it brought back bitter memories. Her mother was no more there to revive the pleasant memories.
  • The narrator walked out of Mrs Dorling’s house, deciding that she would never come back to this house to see or take away her family’s possessions as she had no place to keep all of it.

The Address Word Meanings

Word – Meaning
poignant – arousing sadness
evoke – arouse
resolves – decides
chink – narrow opening
fleetingly – for a short time
cardigan – sweater with buttons
musty – stale
bay window – large window sticking out of the wall of a house
jamb – doorpost
struck – occurred to
apparently – evidently
acquaintance – known person
turned up – appeared
antique – a collectable object, old and often valuable
table silver – cutlery (knives, forks and spoons) made of silver
lugging – carrying
crick – strain
reprovingly – with disapproval
beckoned – called
stored stuff – belongings kept in a safe place
confronted – come face to face with
endured – survived
errand – work involving going out of the house
hanukkah – used in the Jewish festival of lights
cumbersome – unmanageable
oppressed – saddened
still life – painting of an arrangement of flowers and/or fruits
fancied – desired.
pewter – tin alloy
jingling – light metallic sound
severed – cut off
shreds – tiny pieces

Evans Tries An O-Level Summary in English by Colin Dexter

Evans Tries An O-Level Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. Evans Tries An O-Level is written by Colin Dexter.

Learncram.com has provided Evans Tries An O-Level extra questions and answers pdf, Evans Tries An O-Level theme, class 12 english Evans Tries An O-Level summary in hindi, important question and answers, lesson plan, class 12 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

Evans Tries An O-Level Summary in English by Colin Dexter

Evans Tries An O-Level by Colin Dexter About the Author

Colin Dexter (29 September 1930 – 21 March 2017) is a British crime writer who is known for ‘Inspector Endeavour Morse’ who appears in detective novels authored by him. These novels written between 1975 and 1999 were adopted as a television series from 1987 to 2000. Dexter has received many awards and accolades, including two Silver Draggers, two ‘Gold Draggers’ and a ‘Cartier Diamond Dragger’ for lifetime achievement in 1997. He was conferred with the 1996 Macavity Award for his story ‘Evans Tries an O-level’. In the year 2000, he was appointed an ‘Officer of the Order of British Empire’ for his services to literature.

Author Name Colin Dexter
Born 29 September 1930, Stamford, United Kingdom
Died 21 March 2017, Oxford, United Kingdom
Spouse Dorothy Cooper (m. 1956–2017)
Movies and TV shows Inspector Lewis, Endeavour, Inspector Morse, Inspector Morse: Service of All the Dead
Nationality British
Colin Dexter - evans tries an o-level summary in english class 12
Colin Dexter

Evans Tries An O-Level Theme

This is’ a detective fiction dealing with the account of the jailbreak by Evans, a criminal, who was an expert in escaping from prison. The story deals with his smartness, foresight and planning his escape. With his meticulous planning and keen observation, Evans outsmarts the prison authorities. The story deals with the clever escape of Evans and the Governor’s pursuit to catch him. Evans, with his ready wit and charm, proves at the end that ‘things are not what they seem to be’ and we should not jump to the conclusions hastily.

Evans Tries An O-Level Summary in English

The story begins in the Oxford Prison where the Governor contacts the Secretary of Examination Board on the telephone. Evans, one of the prisoners, wanted to appear for the O-Level German exam. He was already taking private tuitions. The Governor, when asked by the board, confirmed that Evans was not violent but a congenital kleptomaniac. It was decided that he would appear for the exam in the cell; a parson from St. Mary’s Church would invigilate and Evans should remain ‘incommunicado’.

All the preparations for Evans’s examination were made. He had escaped from the jail three times earlier and was supposed to be shifted to another house later. The Governor was very irritated by Evans and did not want to take any chance.

On June 7, at 8:30 p.m., the German tutor, who was giving private tuitions to Evans, wished him ‘Good luck’ as he had his exam the next day. On 8th June, Mr. Jackson and Stephens, the two jail officers, entered Evans’ room and took all the precautionary steps. They took away his razor after he shaved along with his nail scissors and nailfile. They asked Evans to take off his untidy white and red hat but Evans requested them to let it remain with him as it was his lucky cap. At 8:45, Reverend McLeery left his flat and reached the prison. He had a small brown briefcase containing a sealed question paper, a yellow immigration form, a special ID card, a paper knife, the Bible and a newspaper.

The exam was to be held at 9:15 in Evans’ cell. At 9:10, the Governor switched on the receiver. Evans’ cell was locked and prison officers were on alert. The examination started with the paper no. 0251 and Index no. 313 and centre no. 271. At 9:40, the Governor got a call from the Examination Board that a correction slip was left behind and so the Governor allowed the correction slip with the spelling of ‘Golden Lion’. The Examination continued and Stephens kept a watch on the cell. At 10:50 Evans requested for permission to wrap a blanket around him. At 11:25, the exam got over. Stephens personally escorted McLeery to the prison gate. He was looking slimmer and his Scots accent was more prominent. Everything went off well. Stephens thought of having a last look at Evans before getting relieved and was shocked to find a man lying in Evans’ chair, covered with blood.

It was McLeery. Evans was reported to have escaped. Police and ambulance were called. McLeery showed the question paper and said that he knew where Evans was. The Governor instructed McLeery to be taken to hospital. He was shown a photocopied sheet. Detritus Carter arrived and took McLeery along with him to provide medical assistance to him on the Elsfield Way where Evans could be found as this was the message written on the question paper.

After some time, Carter reported that Evans could not be traced and he had left McLeery at Radcliffe hospital. The Governor called at the hospital and found that there was no McLeery. Later it was discovered that the real McLeery was found gagged and bound in his house. Now the fact came to the notice that it was Evans who had stayed as McLeery in the cell.

Meanwhile Evans was enjoying his freedom at a luxurious hotel. But he was surprised and shocked to find the Governor in his room. Evans felt defeated and confessed that there was no mistake in the spelling of Golden Lion but it had been done, since the hotel had not been fixed. Correction slip was used to convey the name of the hotel and know what time the exam had started. The Governor told Evans that when he put 313/217 he knew that it referred to the middle of Chipping Norton. McLeery had worn two collars, two black fronts, etc. and Evans had changed all this get-up under the blanket. The governor was keen to know from where did he get blood to pour on his face. Evans admitted that it was pig’s blood in the rubber ring that McLeery had brought.

Now Evans is handcuffed and ushered into the prison van. The van left and it turned right from Chipping Norton. The prison officers unlocked the handcuffs and asked Evans where he would like to go.

In fact, they were Evans’ friends. Evans had once again outsmarted the Governor.

Character Sketch of Evans in Evans Tries An O-Level

Evans: Evans is a ‘congenital kleptomanic’ and is known as ‘Evans the Break’. He is a genius in planning and is an excellent manipulator. His entire plan is well thought-out and each step is calculated. Apart from being clever, Evans is a keen observer. It is due to his intelligence, presence of mind and cleverness that he is taken out of the prison house by Carter himself. He is unware of the fact that the man who he is taking out is not the parson but Evans himself. Evans is an excellent actor and understands human psychology very well. He knew that the jail authorities will never think that it was Evans who stayed back and it is McLeery who ran away. He acted so well that nobody doubted him. He was a genius as finally, in spite of being arrested by the Governor, he was able to escape because of his friends disguised as police officers.

Character Sketch of Governor in Evans Tries An O-Level

The Governor: The Governor of H.M. Prison is a very intelligent and vigilant person but at times he overestimates himself. He is overcautious in Evans’ case but is too much dependent on his staff and makes hasty conclusions. He is full of ideas and many a time his hunches prove true but he never investigates them. Though he is always conscious of Evans’ cleverness, he fails to understand Evans’ psyche.
His conjectures help Evans in his plans. He does not cross-examine the identity of the wounded man and is led on. However, he is intelligent and analytical. He is able to put two and two together and locate the Golden Lion hotel and reach Evans. But as usual, in his zeal to look efficient, he does’not check the identify of the prison officers. This results in the escape of Evans.

Character Sketch of Jackson in Evans Tries An O-Level

Jackson: Jackson is a young and alert prison officer. Like the H. M. Prison governor, he is very alert and enthusiastic about his duty. He is very keen and serious and being senior is good at giving instructions and orders to his subordinate Stephens. Though he looks stern, he is soft at heart and is gullible. He allows Evans to keep his cap on and doesn’t doubt him. He is so excited that he fails to notice small but important details. He is careless not to check McLeery thoroughly and so failed to note two cloaks, two beards and two collars that McLeery was wearing. He was so casual about his duty that didn’t even bother to go and check Evans after the exam was over.

On The Face of It Summary in English by Susan Hill

On The Face of It Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. On The Face of It is written by Susan Hill.

Learncram.com has provided On The Face of It extra questions and answers pdf, On The Face of It theme, class 12 english On The Face of It summary in hindi, important question and answers, lesson plan, class 12 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

On The Face of It Summary in English by Susan Hill

On The Face of It by Susan Hill About the Author

Susan Hill (born on 5 February 1942-) is an English author of fiction and non-fiction works. Her novels include The Woman in Black, The Mist in the Mirror and I’m the King of the Castle. She received the Somerset Maugham Award in 1971 for her novel I’m the King of the Castle. She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2012 Birthday Honours for her services to literature. She is known to explore the inner fears and loneliness. Her works reflect honest suffering and optimism.

Author Name Susan Hill
Born 5 February 1942 (age 78 years), Scarborough, United Kingdom
Education King’s College London, Barr’s Hill School & Community College, Scarborough Convent School
Awards Somerset Maugham Award, Nestle Smarties Book Prize for 6 to 8 years, John Llewellyn Rhys Prize, Costa Novel Award
Movies The Woman in Black, The Woman in Black: Angel of Death, Je Suis le seigneur du chateau
Susan Hill - on the face of it summary in english class 12
Susan Hill

On The Face of It Theme

The play On the Face of It depicts the fears of the handicapped of being isolated and discarded from the mainstream society. Both Mr. Lamb and Derek, suffer from physical disability. But their attitude to life is totally different. Mr. Lamb, in spite of having a tin-leg, keeps his doors and windows open and welcomes everyone. Derek, a young boy, who has one side of his face burnt, is angry and is hated by everyone. The play highlights the fact that the sense of rejection and alienation is more painful than physical impairment.

On The Face of It Summary in English

The play revolves around two characters, Derry, a small boy of fourteen years, and Mr. Lamb, an old man. Derry got his face burnt on one side due to spilling of acid and Mr. Lamb lost his leg in a bomb explosion during the war. Derry is repulsive and has a very negative attitude to life, whereas Mr. Lamb is optimistic.

One day Derry strolled inside Mr. Lamb’s garden and found him there. They both started talking. Mr. Lamb tried to comfort Derry and asked him not to fear anything. To this, Derry said that he was not afraid instead people were afraid of him due to his burnt face. They either ignored him or pitied him. They called him ugly and made fun of him. Mr. Lamb consoled Derry by giving his own example. He said children called him ‘Lamey Lamb’ but he didn’t feel bad about it. He asked Derry to face the harsh realities of life bravely.

Mr. Lamb tried to convince Derry that it is the inner beauty of a person that matters. But Derry didn’t agree. He said that even his mother kissed him on the other side of the face. He regretted the fact that he would spend all his life with half face. Mr. Lamb told him that his entire body was in perfect working condition. So he should not feel handicapped due to his half burnt face.

Mr. Lamb told Derry to look around for the so many interesting things. He gave his own example. In order to remain occupied, he looked at the buzzing bees and flowers in the garden. He listened to the sound of birds and insects and enjoyed sitting in the sun. To this, Derry said that he too wanted to have a big house with a big lawn. Mr. Lamb offered him to stay with him but Derry left as his mother was waiting. Before leaving, Derry promised to come back.

Derry went home and told his mother about Mr. Lamb. She warned him not to go to meet him. But Derry was determined to do so. In the meantime, Mr. Lamb climbed up a ladder to pluck crab apples from the tree. He fell down and died. When Derry returned to Mr. Lamb he found him lying dead on the ground. Though Derry lost his only friend, yet he became strong and positive to face the world.

Character Sketch of Derry in On The Face of It

Derry: Derry, is a fourteen years old boy who is disfigured and ugly because half of his face was burnt due to spilling of acid. He is conscious of the fact that his ugliness is revolting to others and so everybody wants to ignore him or pity him. He suffers from inferiority complex. He becomes too arrogant and avoids any social interaction. He hears people using nasty comments about him and so bears a grudge towards the society.

He suspects everyone and lacks trust. Derry started listening to Mr. Lamb because Mr. Lamb was also handicapped. It is only when Mr. Lamb bestowed on him love, trust and generosity that his mindset started changing. Due to the wise words of Mr. Lamb, Derry got transformed completely.

Character Sketch of Mr. Lamb in On The Face of It

Mr. Lamb: Mr. Lamb is an old man who lives alone in a big house with a big lawn. He is handicapped, having lost his leg in a bomb explosion during the war. He is very optimistic. His openness is reflected through the open doors and windows of his house. He makes toffees, jam and jelly to attract people. He grows crab apples. He is never perturbed at being called ‘Lamey Lamb’.

Mr. Lamb accepted his handicap in a very mature manner. He is a great motivator and encourages Derry to look at everything in a positive way. He is a patient listener and holds a positive attitude to life. He fills Derry with confidence. He has great love for life and believes that we should not fritter away our lives aimlessly. Mr. Lamb is instrumental in changing the attitude of Derry to his handicap and, finally, accepting it as part of life.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English by William Saroyan

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English and Hindi Pdf. The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse is written by William Saroyan.

Learncram.com has provided The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse extra questions and answers pdf, theme, class 11 english The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse summary in hindi, analysis, note making, ppt, lesson plan, class 11 ncert solutions.

Students can also check the English Summary to revise with them during exam preparation.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English by William Saroyan

About the Poet William Saroyan

Poet Name William Saroyan
Born 31 August 1908, Fresno, California, United States
Died 18 May 1981, Fresno, California, United States
Awards Academy Award for Best Story, Pulitzer Prize for Drama, New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award for Best American Play
Movies The Human Comedy, Ithaca, My Heart Is in the Highlands
Nationality American
William Saroyan - the summer of the beautiful white horse summary class 11
William Saroyan

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Theme

The story is about two poor Armenian boys who are fond of riding horses. Aram (9 years old) and Mourad (13 years old) belong to the Garoghlanian tribe, whose people were well-known for honesty and trust. Mourad is able to steal a horse and after enjoying riding for one month, he invites his cousin to join him in horse-riding. Finally, they decide to return the horse to its owner as they did not want to bring any shame for their family.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse About the Characters

Mourad: He is a 13 year old cousin of the narrator (Aram). He is a lively and crazy person but with love for his cousin Aram, whom he offers the horse to ride for some time. He knows how to handle a horse.

Aram (the narrator): He is a 9 year old boy. He and Mourad belong to the Garoghlanian tribe. He justifies Mourad’s stealing of the horse for the purpose of horse-riding, as they did not intend to sell it off.

John Byro: He is a farmer and owner of the beautiful white horse which was stolen by Mqurad. He is sad over the sudden disappearance of his horse a few weeks ago.

Uncle Khosrove: He is the narrator’s uncle who was considered to be a crazy man. He has been described as a man with a short temper and irritable nature.

The Summer of The Beautiful White Horse Summary in English

Aram’s Recall of an Experience
Aram remembers an experience when he was 9 year old. The world for Aram, at that time, seemed to be delightful and joyous. Mourad, whom everybody considered crazy, came at four in the morning and woke up Aram by tapping on the window of Aram’s room. It was summer, with daybreak just around the corner. Aram jumped out of bed and could not believe his eyes. Mourad was sitting on a beautiful white horse. Mourad asked him to be quick if he wanted to ride. Aram had always longed to ride a horse, but they were poor. They couldn’t afford a horse.

The Garoghlanian Family
The Garoghlanian family was poor as they had no money. Their whole tribe was poverty-stricken. But most important of all was that they were famous for their honesty. From a long time, they had built up a reputation for being proud and honest. They would never even take advantage of anyone.

Aram’s Explanation About the White Horse
Aram asked Mourad if he had stolen the horse. Mourad called him out instead of answering. Aram was sure that the horse was stolen as they were both very crazy about riding horses. To console himself in a childish manner, Aram thought that stealing a horse for a ride was not the same as stealing something like money. It wouldn’t have been stealing until they offered to sell the horse.

Aram could not Resist the Offer
Aram got ready and jumped out of the window. As they lived on the boundary of the town on Walnut Avenue, there was the vast countryside full of orchards, vineyards and irrigation ditches nearby. In a few moments, both Aram and Mourad were having a wonderful time riding the horse. Mourad started singing out of excitement and enjoyment.

The Family’s Crazy Streak
Mourad was considered the natural inheritor of the crazy streak of their tribe. Before Mourad, uncle Khosrove was considered as crazy in the family. Khosrove had a powerful head of black hair and the largest moustache in the San Joaquin valley. Mourad was considered a crazy boy, though his father, Mr Zorab, was a practical man without having any crazy streak.

Aram Rides the Horse Alone
After enjoying the horse ride together, Mourad wanted to ride the horse alone. Mourad kicked the horse and it started running. After five minutes, Mourad stopped. Now, Aram also wanted to ride the horse alone. Mourad was not sure that Aram could ride the horse alone, as he did not know that how to control a horse.

Aram leaped on to the back of the horse and for a moment felt a fear like he had never felt before. He kicked into the muscles of the horse; then it started running. Instead of running across the field, the horse ran to the vineyard and leaped over seven vines before Aram fell. Mourad came running, as he was worried about the horse. He wanted to get hold of the horse and take him back before anyone could see him. The horse got lost. Both of them searched for the horse in different directions. It took half an hour for them to find it.

The Boys Decided to Hide the Horse
It was morning and Mourad was thinking either to take the horse back or hide it until the next morning. Aram concluded that Mourad was going to hide it. Aram again asked Mourad if he had stolen the horse. Mourad avoided answering the question.

He told Aram to tell everyone that they started riding the horse that very morning, if someone found out. They took the horse to the deserted vineyard of a farmer named Fetvajian and hid it in the barn.

John Byro’s Sadness Over his Missing Horse
In the afternoon, uncle Khosrove came to Aram’s house for coffee and cigarettes. Then another visitor arrived, a former named John Byro. He said that his white horse which was stolen the previous month was still missing and untraceable. John Byro also explained that his carriage was no good without a horse and he had to walk ten miles to reach there.

Aram Informed Mourad About John Byro
Aram went to Mourad and informed him about John Byro’s visit. He further informed Mourad that he should not return the horse until Aram had learnt riding. Mourad replied that it would take him a year to learn and they could not keep a horse for one year, as it would amount to stealing.

Finally, they decided to return it after six months to its true owner. Every morning, for two weeks, they rode the horse. Every time the horse threw Aram and ran away. But Aram kept his hope alive and hoped to ride the horse the way Mourad rode. One morning they were on their way to the vineyard when they encountered John Byro. He inquired about the name of the horse with them. Mourad said that its name was ‘My Heart’. John Byro kept observing the horse very keenly.

The Boys Decide to Return the Horse
The farmer looked into the horse’s mouth and found that the teeth matched those of his stolen horse. He said that he could swear that the horse was his, if he didn’t know their parents and the fame of their family for honesty. But the horse appeared to be the twin of his stolen horse.

Early the following morning, the boys took the horse to John Byro’s vineyard and left it there. The dogs followed them silendy. Aram thought they would bark. Mourad said that he had a way with dogs-and that’s why they didn’t bark. That very afternoon, John Byro came to the narrator’s house. He was very happy and thanked God. His horse had become stronger and better tempered. Uncle Khosrove again shouted at him to be quiet, as his horse had been returned.

The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse Chapter Highlights

  • Mourad and Aram were two poor Armenian boys aged 13 year and 9 year respectively. Both belonged to the
  • Garoghlanian tribe which was known for its pride and honesty.
  • The tribe was poverty-stricken, but its people were not dishonest and did not believe in stealing.
  • Mourad and Aram both had intense longing for horse-riding.
  • Going against the family reputation, Mourad stole a white horse of a farmer.
  • Aram was unable to understand how Mourad got that beautiful white horse, when he was so poor that he could not afford to buy a horse.
  • Aram could not resist the temptation of riding the horse, though he could make out that his cousin had stolen the horse.
  • Aram watched Mourad riding the horse and controlling it in an easy manner.
  • Aram rode the horse alone but could not manage to control it.
  • Mourad was considered a crazy person, the descendant of his crazy uncle Khosrove.
  • Uncle Khosrove, a big and powerful man, was a very impatient man. He did not allow anyone to speak and shouted loudly.
  • Mourad and Aram continued horse-riding for some weeks, though Aram was not able to control the horse.
  • One day both the boys came face to face with the horse’s owner John Byro, while they were taking the horse to its hiding place.
  • John Byro examined the horse and studied it tooth by tooth. He mentioned that the horse looked identical to his stolen horse.
  • But he never suspected the boys as he knew their family and parents, well-known for their honesty.
  • The boys returned the horse the next day quietly by taking it to John Byro’s place. Perhaps they felt guilty and they did not want to bring any shame on their family.
  • Next morning, John Byro visited Aram’s parents to tell of a great miracle. His horse, that had disappeared mysteriously, had returned. It was in better health and a better temper.

The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse Word Meanings

hallmarks – typical characteristics or features
magnificence – greatness, excellence
mysterious – strange, not known or understood, full of mystery
crazy – insane
tapping – hitting quickly and lightly with fingers
around the corner of the world – away
stuck – pushed out
longings – strong and continuous desires
poverty-stricken – suffering from extreme poverty
Garoghlanian – an Armenian tribe
comical – silly
bellies – stomachs
take advantage of – deceive, trick
pious stillness and humour – innocence and unconcern
edge – border or boundary
trot – used for horse or similar animal running at its slowest speed
streak – an inherent quality
descendant – someone deriving appearance, function or trait of character from a parent
furious – very angry
irritable – bad tempered
trimmed – made neat or tidy by clipping
roared – shout at a high pitch
capricious – impulsive, unpredictable
vagrant – not fixed
have a way – have success in dealing.
Vazire – a word in Armenian language meaning ‘run’
hind – back legs of an animal
snorted – a noisy sound made by breathing through nostrils
fury – burst
dripping – extremely
imaginable – which could be thought of
reared – raised
dawned on – occurred to
barn – a large building on a farm in which animals and their feed are kept
deserted – abandoned
vineyard – a plantation of grapevines
hearty – substantial
dweller – resident
surrey – a light four wheeled carriage
stalked – marched
slamming – shutting with force
homesick – acutely longing for one’s home
ran into – met accidentally
studied – examined
swear – guarantee
suspicious – full of mistrust
whispered – spoke in a low voice
patted – stroked lightly
better-tempered – well-behaved