Message Writing for Class 9 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Message Writing for Class 9 CBSE

A message is a short, informal piece of writing conveying information received over the telephone, public address system or in person, to a person for whom the information was intended but who was not at hand to receive the information.

In other words, it is a piece of information given by a third person to be passed on to a particular person. Messages must be brief, yet have all the information. It is usually a telephonic message that has to be reported/passed on to someone.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 9 English Chapter wise.

Message Writing for Class 9 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises PDF

Sometimes, information is received over the telephone, public address system or in person. A message is a short, informal piece of writing conveying the information to a person for whom the information was intended but who was not at hand to receive the information.

Message Writing Sample Message for Class 9 CBSE

Read the following telephone conversation that took place between the salesman of an electrical appliances shop and an unsatisfied customer. The manager is away from the shop. The salesman leaves a message for him. Write the message using not more than 50 words.

Customer: Hello! Is this Taj Electrical Appliances?
Salesman: Yes, Madam. What can I do for you?
Customer: I’ve got a problem with the hairdryer that I bought last week.
Salesman: I’m sorry to hear that. What is the problem?
Customer: Well, first of all, I ordered it two months ago but I received it only last week. Secondly, I find it useless.
Salesman: Does it work?
Customer: It doesn’t dry my hair. When I switch it on, it just goes ‘buzzzzz’ but it does not get hot at all.
Salesman: Madam, I apologize. We’ll be happy to replace the dryer for you. Or we’ll give you a refund instead.
Customer: Oh, great! I’d like a refund then.

Message

22 March, 20xx

5:30 p.m.

Sir,
An angry customer who bought a hairdryer last week rang up. Said she’d ordered it two months ago but received it only last week. Secondly, she found it useless as it didn’t dry her hair and does not get hot at all.

She requested for a refund.
Ram Gopal

Message Writing Practice Message for Class 9 CBSE

1. Read the telephone conversation between Bhavya and Karan. As Karan has to leave for his school, he will not be able to meet his father. He leaves a message for him. Complete the following message in not more than 50 words.

  • Bhavya: Hello! Is that Mr Sakhuja’s residence?
  • Karan: Yes.
  • Bhavya: May I speak to Mr Sakhuja? I am Bhavya Sharma, son of his colleague, Mr Ram Nath Sharma.
  • Karan: Papa is not at home. He’s gone for his morning walk. Is there a message that I can take for him?
  • Bhavya: My father had to leave for Dehradun all of a sudden as my grandfather is admitted in the hospital. So he won’t be able to attend the office for a week. Kindly tell your father to submit his leave application at the office.
  • Karan: Don’t worry, I’ll leave a message. Is there anything else?
  • Bhavya: Yes! Please inform your father that he should attend the meeting of the Board of Directors today instead of Dad.
  • Karan: All right.
  • Bhavya: Thanks. Bye.
  • Karan: Bye.

Message

5 September

4:30 p.m.

Papa,
Mr Ram Nath Sharma’s son Bhavya called up. His father has (a) ………………………… He wants you (b) ………………………… and (c) ………………………… instead of him.

Karan

2. Ramesh is leaving Delhi for Chennai to join his college after the summer break. After hearing the announcement given below he sends a message to his mother with his driver. As Ramesh, write the message in not more than 50 words. Put the message in a box.

Good Afternoon.

This is an important announcement for all passengers leaving by IC 265 to Chennai. We regret that the plane will not leave as scheduled at 5 p.m. due to a technical fault in the landing system. All passengers are requested to move to the lounge for some refreshments arranged for them. We deeply regret the inconvenience caused. We will announce the new schedule for departure as soon as we receive information from the engineer.

3. Below is a telephone message noted down by you for your younger brother. Later, you write a detailed message for him. Refer to your notes and write down the complete message in not more than 50 words. Put the message in a box.

Rajeevan’s phone – reaching Gwalior from Nagpur – 18 April – GT Express – receive at station – arrange trip to Shivpuri National Park – visiting relative at Gwalior – returning Nagpur on 7 May – reserve ticket AC chair car Shatabdi Express.

Story Writing for Class 9 CBSE Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Story Writing for Class 9 CBSE

A story is an account of imaginary or real people and events told for entertainment. Stories cast a magic spell on all of us and have mind-altering effects. Stories give us inspiration and sometimes challenge our beliefs.

Story writing is an art It is the oldest form of written composition. It is a work of imagination that is written in an easily understandable grammatical structure. a short story is meant to be read in a single sitting and therefore it should be as direct and brief as possible.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 9 English Chapter wise.

Story Writing for Class 9 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

The important aspects when writing a story are:

1. Characters
When you write a story, you have to decide who will be in it. The people in a story are called characters. Before you start to write, think about the characters you might put in your story. What will each character do? Why is he or she important to the story? In what ways are your characters alike? How are they different? What can your characters learn from each other? One last thing to remember: your characters don’t always have to be people. If an animal plays a part in the story, that animal is a character too.

2. Setting
A story has to happen in a place. The place where a story happens is called the setting. The setting might be a place you are familiar with or it might even be another planet! A setting doesn’t even have to be a real place.

3. Details
When you write a story, you use your imagination to see everything that happens. Details help readers understand how something looks, how it feels, how it sounds—even how something smells or tastes!

4. Plot
Once you’ve decided on your characters and setting—and made them come alive with details—your characters have to do something! What your characters do is the plot of your story. To make the plot exciting, add problems.

Story Writing Sample Stories for Class 9 CBSE

1. Colonel Vishwanathan, a brave soldier bought an old mansion though many people in the area told him it was haunted. Write a story about Colonel Vishwanathan’s encounter with the ghost of “Teen Batia Bhavan”.

The Teen Batia Bhavan

Colonel Vishwanathan retired from the Army and bought a house called the Teen Batia Bahavan in the quiet town of Hazaria. Having fought three wars, it made no difference to him that the house was supposedly haunted. On his first day in the Teen Batia Bhavan, Colonel Vishwanathan settled down in an armchair in front of his TV with a glass of juice. Suddenly, the lights went off and the room was plunged into darkness.

“Here, Gitten Ram,” Colonel Vishwanathan called out to his housekeeper.
“Beware! Don’t shout,” said a hoarse voice.
The Colonel looked up in surprise. Hovering over him in the air was a soldier in armour.

“My dear fellow,” said Colonel Vishwanathan in a voice filled with admiration, “I don’t know how you do this levitation. Especially seeing as you are dressed for a fancy dress party.”

The Ghost gave a withering cry. “Oh Sir, don’t scream so. I like a bit of peace in the evening,” said the Colonel. “Would you like to have a drink with me?”

The Ghost screamed again and continued to float and walk through walls and doors. The Colonel laughed at his antics.
“Sir, I’ve never been so entertained before. You must entertain my friends too.”

The ghost gave a loud yell and vanished. Colonel Vishwanathan shook his head and muttered, “It’s a pity he left in a huff. The others would have been quite amused by his antics.”

Story Writing Practice Stories for Class 9 CBSE

1. Imagine that you are Jeet/Gita. You have moved into a new house and decide to explore a little. After an hour of going through the rooms, you stumble into the basement. Here, you find a small diary. The diary tells you the story about the person who lived in this house before. Use your imagination to complete the story.

21 June, 1920
It happened again. I’ve tripped on the stairs and bruised my shin. It feels as if the house is changing with every new season or maybe I’m just growing old. My grandchildren came for a visit and John the youngest told me he’ll look at the floorboard in the stairs. It’ll be something easy to fix, I’m assuming.23 June, 1920
The TV keeps going on about the war. The village was also in the line of fire, luckily I managed to move out just before it happened. When I came back the house wasn’t that dirty, maybe someone had used it as a shelter. I don’t care about who stayed in the old house, when you’re in your 80s there is very little that you care about except for the annoying visitors who keep trying to enter my house on some pretext or the other. The same three people keep visiting. They look very fishy.24 June, 1920
My grandson came in to have a look and we decided that the next day we’d break the floorboard and fit in a new piece. The old house is getting really old.

25 June, 1920
I can’t believe it. This is like a Christmas miracle in the middle of summer. After deciding to break the floorboards and put in new ones, my grandson, John gets his hammer and starts breaking them. The moment he took out one of the floorboard, we found a lot of money and jewelry. It was as if the stairs was hiding a secret and couldn’t keep in and had to tell someone and that someone was me. A few days later, I found out that the three visitors were the same people who took shelter in my house. After they told me their secret, I was reluctant but I gave them their treasure. They were embarrassed at my gesture and decided to take only a portion of the treasure. If you’re reading this diary then go check the last floorboard on the stairs.

2. Yoii\are Ajay. You have forgotten to do your homework and without a legitimate excuse, you’re sure to get punished by the teacher. In an attempt to make an excuse, you have decided to come up with an elaborate story to make the teacher believe your excuse or at the very least have a good laugh. Use any of the word prompts given in the box below to help you write your ruse. Write the story in about 150-200 words.

Homework School Bicycle Water Ate
Dinosaur Giant Flying Dirty Father

I’m sorry ma’am, I couldn’t do my homework because … I was on my way back from school yesterday thinking about all the chores and homework I have to do. Then suddenly, my bicycle got a flat tyre and skidded down a slope. I was lucky I didn’t have a bad fall. So I was dragging my bicycle along and on the way I saw two elephants and their mahouts training. It was exciting to see them and somehow these elephants looked special. The first elephant started flapping his ears and before you know it, it got bigger and bigger and he started flying. I asked them if they could drop me, they agreed to make me ride the flying elephant but with one condition, I had to feed the elephant the next day. Feeling ecstatic, I just said, ‘Yes’.

I was over the moon when the elephant started flying. It buzzed through all the traffic and I reached home within minutes. I thanked the mahouts and dashed in to the house to tell my story. After dinner, I completed my homework and decided to hit the sack.

In the morning, a loud trumpet woke me up. I saw that the elephant was back and remembering what the mahout said, I got a couple of snacks from the fridge. The elephant wouldn’t eat anything. Then all of a sudden, the elephant raised his trunk and started sucking in air like a vacuum and all the leaves in the garden and the paper from all the books in our library flew straight into the elephant’s mouth. The mahout mentioned that his elephant liked paper. After eating it flew off with the mahout.

I went back in to get ready for school and I realised that my homework was gone and I couldn’t write a new one because the elephant ate all the paper in our house!

Diagnostic test 6

Write a short story of about 150—200 words on the theme, ‘In the Jungle’. Make sure you use at least five words from the box given below.

Scared, Birds, Bear, Bb, Gun, Catapult, River, Trees, Evening, Light, Sleepingm Cave Fly

No one would have said that is was merely (a) ………………………………………… The sky was overcast with clouds as Meigha and John made their way back to their camp (b) ………………………………………… Suddenly, John heard a faint growl following by rustling of leaves. He motioned Meigha to stop and listen, (c) ………………………………………… There was another growl. John scanned the area (d) ………………………………………… (e) ……………………………………….. . that was slowly strolling towards the two children. Meigha aimed her catapult towards it. It walked closer to them It seemed merely curious.

As they looked at each other, it decided to sit down and make itself comfortable. He did not seem to have any intention of leaving. On Meigha’s gesture, the two slowly started walking backwards, (g) ……………………………………….. .
Answer:

“In the Jungle”

Jitu was one of the best sharp shooter in the village. He always hung his trusty catapult on the side of his shoulder and carried it everywhere. All the boys used to praise Jitu when he used to shoot birds and squirrels. One day, Jitu and his gang decided to go hunt in the jungle. Excited, Jitu rushed off with his catapult and a few pellets. One of his friends spotted a flock of birds fly past them. He whispered, ‘quick, quick’.

Jitu positioned himself, aimed and fired a pellet at one of the birds. The pellet flew up only to miss by a hair’s breadth. All of a sudden, they heard a loud growl coming from one of the bushes. The growl was from a huge brown bear coming at them. The pellet must’ve missed and landed on the sleeping bear.

The boys screamed in fear and ran for their lives. They dashed headlong through bramble, bush and tree. Finally, Jitu and his gang managed to outrun the bear. They vowed never to go recklessly into the jungle or shoot at any bird or bear.

Story Writing Practice Stories for Class 9 CBSE

1. Captain Risha Meher, the captain of a merchant ship S.S. Ashwamedha, found the ship caught in a storm off the coast of Nicobar Islands. She ordered her team to take the lifeboats and abandon the ship. Captain Risha Meher was the last to leave the ship, along with her first mate, Jatin Handa. The two were carried to an island. The next morning, strange sounds woke up Captain Risha Meher. She found Jatin was not there with her. Stealthily moving forward, she peeped to see what the shouts were about. She found a tied and bound Jatin surrounded by some stranger. As Captain Risha Meher, write the story of your adventure in 150-200 words.

2. An eminent bacteriologist, Dr Hargobind Narula, went to the tropical rainforests of South America to study some new strains of disease-causing bacteria. There, while carrying out his explorations, he came across a remote, uninhabited area and set up his camp there. A few months later he wrote to his friend.
Given below is an excerpt from his letter:

“You are aware that the country around some parts of the Amazon is still only partially explored. I had occasion to spend a night at a small Indian village at a point where a certain tributary—the name and position of which I withhold—opens into the main river. There perched on a tree I saw a dimorphodon or pterodactyl, a flying reptile of the Jurassic period.”

As Dr Hargobind Narula, write a story about your adventure with the dinosaurs. Do not exceed 150 words.

3. This is the year 3500. While cleaning up the garage in your house, you come across your great-great-grandfather’s diaries about his days in school.
Using the hints given, write a story about the changes that have taken place between 20XX (the current year) and 3500 (150 words).

20XX  3500
dress-T-shirts, jeans, shoes air-conditioned bodysuits
school-community schools  individual schools/specially programmed robots as teachers
Transport-bikes, cars  jet engines fitted as backpacks
Books-paper  moving screen with pictures

4. Choose one of the well-known characters/people given below in the box and write a short story on a day in their life. Remember to use your imagination to make them come to life even if you don’t know the characters. Write the story in about 150-200 words.

Wonder, Woman, Helen, Keller, Tintin, Birbal, Charlie, Chaplin, Serena, Williams, Tansen, Hermione, Granger

5. Imagine that these two aliens, who look like giant ants, came to your school one day. Write a story in about 150-200 words about the incident.

6. Use the given words as hints and write a story in about 150-200 words. Also give a suitable title.

Break In, Robbery, House, Broken, Glass, Streetlight, People, Police, Dash, Escaped, Money

7. Your school is celebrating Road Safety Week. You are participating in a short story competition to make people aware of the importance of road safety.
Write a moving short story titled “The Rules of the Road” in about 150-200 words.

Diary Entry for Class 9 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples

Diary Entry for Class 9 CBSE

Diary writing is the writing down of events, transactions and observations in a highly personalized manner. It is wrapped around creative thoughts and is basically the outpouring of what one feels or has experienced with regard to a particular stimulus. A diary can be written on a daily basis or at intervals, depending on the inclination of the writer.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 9 English Chapter wise.

Diary Entry Class 9 CBSE Format, Topics, Examples, Samples Pdf

A diary entry is a form of writing where an individual records an account of the day. We record important and significant days and with it our personal feelings. Thus, it is a personal document. The general format of a diary is given below.

Date, Day

  • What you saw/experienced
  • Your reaction to what you saw/experienced

Style

  • A diary entry is personalized so write in first person.
  • At times you may leave out the pronoun ‘I’. For example, “am really excited …’’/“Went to the beach today …”
  • Refer to personal memories and give details.
  • Use conversational and friendly language.
  • Refer to parents, friends, etc. as how you would address them in person. For example, “Mom said …’’/“Rohit came along …’’/“Shweta just wouldn’t listen ….”
  • Stress on feelings, emotions, reactions rather than on the event itself.
    You may mention the time of the entry as well.

Diary Entry Exercise Solved Examples for Class 9 CBSE

Question 1.
Today when you were on your way to school, a man walking just in front of you dropped his wallet. He did not realize he had dropped it. What did you do? Write a diary entry about the incident.

day; date Tuesday, 20 June.
feelings I am really proud of what I did today!
incident I saw a man drop his wallet as he got into the car. The wallet was stuffed with cash. Tried to call out but he drove off. Got contact number from the wallet and called up. Was Trappy to get his wallet back.
further action
follow up Praised me for my honesty.

Question 2.
All the news channels were reporting the earthquake in Nepal on 25 April 20XX. After watching the effects of the natural disaster, write a diary entry about what you were feeling at that point of time.

25 April, 20XX
10 a.m., SundayI am really sad by what happened yesterday.I was watching the news when suddenly I got to hear that a big earthquake had hit Nepal. I was shocked to see so much destruction in just a matter of minutes. I was genuinely scared by what happened and hoped there would be less casualties. Was praying my friend in Nepal would be okay. I tried calling but I could not get through.I’m very worried. I have sent a message, hoping he’ll call back.

(your name)

Question 3.
It was your first time traveling in a local train in Mumbai. Record the events you experienced in your diary in about 100-150 words.

(date)
7 p.m., FridayLocal trains in Mumbai are the worst.I had a very bad experience in one of the local trains in Mumbai. This is my third time in the city. Although the city is very nice, I don’t like the public transport. The roads are small and the traffic in the train station itself is overwhelming. After catching the train I realised that it was very crowded and at one point of time, I was almost pushed off the train. It was quite dangerous.Hope I don’t have to catch a local train in Mumbai again.

(your name)

Question 4.
The annual examination results have been declared and you found out that you have secured first division but your closest friend was unsuccessful. Write a diary entry about how that made you feel and what you think would help to motivate him/her to work harder and try for a re-examination.

(date)
(time), (day)The annual exam results got declared today. I was very happy that I could get at least a first division. My parents would be very happy when they hear about this. But I’m also slightly sad and worried for my friend Raj. He couldn’t clear his exam and he is very upset. I think I’ll go cheer him up sometime tomorrow and help him get back on his feet. I’ll tell him its not too late. He can appear for the re-examination paper now instead of waiting for next year.I hope things work out.(name)

Diagnostic test 3

You had the most difficult test today but you knew everything on the paper. You answered all the questions and you are really happy with how things turned out. Write a diary entry about it. Start with the anxiety you felt before you saw the question paper.

(day, date)
I was (a) ………………………………….. . I couldn’t (b) ………………………………….. . I thought I would in this subject. I could believe (d) ………………………………….. . I actually knew (e) ………………………………….. . I could answer all the questions. I can’t wait (f) ………………………………….. .

Answer:
(a) was really worried about the test today
(b) last night because I kept thinking about it
(c) definitely fail
(d) believe my eyes when I saw the question paper
(e) how to answer all the questions
(f) for the results to be announced

Score yourself for each diagnostic test:
5 – good
4 – satisfactory
3 or less – you need to develop writing skills through adequate practice

Diary Entry Practice Exercise for Class 9 CBSE

Question 1.
Have you ever disobeyed specific instructions given by your parents? If so, what did you do? What was the consequence of your disobedience? Write a diary entry about the time you disobeyed your parents leading to serious consequences.

Question 2.
Your Summative Assessment examinations are round the corner. The syllabus is vast and whenever you sit down to study you are unable to concentrate as you are very nervous. You feel you may let down your parents and your teachers who have a lot of expectations from you. Write a diary entry about your feelings in about 100-150 words.

Question 3.
Your friend wants your opinion on a new friend whom you do not approve of. Will you tell your friend your true feelings or what he/she would like to hear? Write a diary entry in about 100-150 words about your dilemma.

Question 4.
Write a diary entry that begins, “I wish I could forget the time I… because …” in about 100-150 words.

Question 5.
You saw a 3D film. Write a diary entry in about 100-150 words about the experience.

Question 6.
You are Hritik/Ritika. One of your classmates has decided to skip school without informing the teachers. Write a diary entry about what you did and what happened? Give an account of the events in the form of a diary entry in not more than 150 words.

Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE Format, Examples

Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE

Articles are written to give information in a wide range of contexts for magazines or newspapers. They are a relatively long and sustained piece of writing. They give information on a variety of themes such as describing an event, person, someone’s life and actions, places, and experiences. They can also be an expression of the writer’s opinions on topics of social interest or arguments for or against a topic and they often offer suggestions.

In this section, we are giving some examples on Article Writing Class 9

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 9 English Chapter wise.

Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE Format, Examples Pdf

Format:

  1. Heading
    • eye-catching; encapsulating the central theme
      Byline
    • by whom the article is written
  2. Introduction
    • the opening paragraph (called the introduction) must:
    • state what the article is about
    • catch attention
    • arouse interest
    • limit and control what you plan to discuss in your article
    • use clear and precise language: may even contain a definition or quotation
  3. Develop a cause-effect relationship
    • use facts
    • give examples to support your views
    • present arguments in a coherent, logical and convincing manner
  4. Comparison and contrast
    • give views contrary to yours
    • compare and justify why your views are better
  5. Conclusion
    • summing up—consolidation of ideas
    • offering suggestions/measures to improve the situation
    • personal observations and predictions

Remember:

  • Don’t attempt to write about every single piece of information—select relevant information.
  • The article must be written in the appropriate format and style.
  • Remember to keep within the word limit.

Sample Articles

Question 1.
Raj Sinha has read about the manifold increase in the number of vehicles in major Indian cities. This causes problems as is evident from the photograph given below. Using ideas from the photograph along with your own ideas, w rite an article on how the increase in the number of vehicles causes traffic jams and accidents. Suggest a few solutions to curb the problem. Write the article in about 150 words.
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 1
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 2

Question 2.
With the coining of the rains, there has been an outbreak of malaria in your locality. Write a newspaper article explaining the dangers caused by the outbreak and the preventive measures that need to be undertaken. Write the article in about 100-150 words.

Heavy Rains Result in Malaria Outbreak
(your name)

The constant ram for the past few weeks has brought about an epidemic in the city. The coming of the rains marks not only a change in season and temperature but it also signifies the onset of a series of health issues. Public health officials have notified that because of the constant rain, mosquitoes have been found breeding in many parts of the city which has stagnant water and this has resulted in the outbreak of malaria.

Malaria is an infectious disease that is spread by mosquitoes. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, vomiting as well as headaches. Malaria can even lead to deaths. The city already has 27 confirmed cases of malaria victims and many patients have been kept under the provision.

Public health officials have notified the public to keep their surroundings clean and prevent water from stagnating in and around their homes. The public has also been advised to use mosquito repellents and if any one shows symptoms of malaria, they are requested to head straight to the hospital for treatment.

Question 3.
While going through your old school magazine, you found an interesting article by Ravi Jatav about what it would be like 5 years from now. Complete the magazine article by using your own ideas and thoughts. Write the article in about 100-150 words.

Five years from now
Ravi Jatav

We won’t be the same five years from now. Maybe you would have lost your Mohawk hairstyle and I, my love for guitar. Maybe five years from now I will have new friends or maybe I’ll still be with my old school friends. I keep thinking of what would happen after school and where will I be five years from now and this same thought is what makes us all anxious.

Being in school for all these years never prepares you for what’s next. Maybe it’s right to be anxious because one has to decide about what career to take up and where to go in life. By five years time, we would have made our choices and decisions.

Maybe five years from now I’ll be selected for an internship by a company I’ve always dreamed of working at and I would have never started pursuing this dream if I hadn’t been sleeping and dreaming in class.

Diagnostic test 4

Here is an old picture that appeared in an article of Protect, a magazine that focuses on environmental issues. Read the incomplete article fromt he magazine. Fill in the blanks with reference to the picture to complete the article.
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 4

Tigers are on the verge of extinction in the sub-continent. Although the number of tigers in India (a) …………………………. the number (b) …………………………. Environmentalists believe (c) …………………………. the Forest Department. The big cat population (d) …………………………. due to poaching, with tiger parts sold to the Chinese medicine industry. Large development projects such as mining and building of dams and highways (e) ………………………… . The Indian Government has so far been unable to check the clandestine trade in tiger bones and skins.

Answer:
(a) showed an increase between 1972 and 1989 when their numbers increased from 1827 to 4334
(b) fell from 4334 in 1969 to 1414 in the year 2009
(c) the earlier figures/ numbers were inflated by
(d) is rapidly diminishing,
(e) are also taking their toll on the tiger and its habitat

Article Writing Practice Exercises for Class 9 CBSE

1. Saryug Mathur is a Secretary in the Ministry of Environment. He saw the following data on atmospheric pollution. Help him write an article explaining his views on emission of gases and waste in cities and what are the measures to curb pollution in about 100-150 words.
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 3

2. Rising violence among youth is a cause for concern. A recent survey listed the reasons for this trend. Study the following graph showing causes for the growing violence against others and themselves. Write an article based on the available data and give your own thoughts in 100-120 words.
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 5

3. Awadhesh Kumar, Secretary of the Environment Preservation Society, saw the following table on the increase in the number of vehicles in major Indian cities. He thought about how the increase in vehicles would enhance pollution. Using ideas from the table and your own ideas, write an article in 100-150 words on the topic.

TRAFFIC CHAOS
The annual increase in the number of vehicles in major Indian cities (percentage)
City (in descending order of population) Passenger Freight
Private Intermediate Public Buses Trucks Others Total
Two-wheelers Cars and Jeeps Taxis Three-wheelers
Mumbai 12.7 6.9 5.6 2.9 -0.5 7.5
Kolkata 18.2 6.2 9.2 32.7 19.4 -5.4 29.8 10.4
Delhi 18.7 19.4 3.6 18.2 8.5 14.7 -43.8 18.2
Chennai 42.5 31.3 36.8 -1.3 -7.5 17.7 64.4 36.7
Bangalore 16.0 8.0 1.2 8.2 -9.3 8.2 15.3 13.5

Diagnostic test 5

You are a member of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in your locality. The following pie chart reflects the attitude of the people towards animals. In response to this, you write an article to be published in the forthcoming issue of ‘The Week’ on how animals are ill-treated and what can be done to prevent it. As Ramesh/Ranjini, complete the article in 150 words using the hints given below.
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 6

(a) ………………………….
-Ramesh/Ranjini

It is ironical that though we have lived with animals for years, we are yet to give them the status of fellow beings. (b) …………………………., 15% of the people feel that animals are not like humans to do not need to be cared for, (c) …………………………. turn a blind eye to them.

Stray cattle, dogs, pigs and at times even monkeys (d) …………………………. (e) …………………………. and animals impounded from road-show owners. (f) …………………………. in newspapers and magazines and by NGOs like PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals).

Answer:
(a) Animals Have Rights Too!
(b) While 50% of people feel animals are exploited for selfish interests.
(c) another 35% see the atrocities being committed and
(d) are a common sight on Indian roads
(e) Animal shelters must be established to house and care for stray cattle
(f) Public awareness for animal welfare and animal rights could be created through campaigns

4. Rajat/Reetika Raina recently attended a one-day seminar on vocational courses—‘A Step Towards Self-Employment’. At the seminar, the speakers talked about:

  • various vocational courses like computer programming, graphic design, textile technology, travel and tourism, office management, book-keeping and so on.
  • need to propagate such courses—reduce pressure on colleges, ensure a vocation for children.
  • the result—lowering of stress level, lowering of unemployment.

As Rajat/Reetika, write an article in about 150 words for your school magazine on the importance of vocational courses. Give your article a suitable heading.

5. Sudhanshu Rao, is shocked and enraged to see the intolerance widespread in the world. He is disheartened by a series of incidents that have come into light recently. He is deeply disturbed and writes an article for his school magazine regarding the impact of such acts and the need to be alert in any eventuality. Using the ideas given in the report and your own ideas, write the article in 120 words.

A New Design Of Terror
Once again, terror has shown its ugly head. This time, terror is in the form of intolerance and self-centric opinions and acts that all of us have been indulging in.

6. Shocked by the increase in the number of incidents of violence against old people and women, Shiv/ Shivani decides to write an article for the school magazine on changing values and increasing violence. You may use the information provided in the graph below that shows data from the last 7 years with 20XX being the current years and each line representing one year mark. (100-150 words)
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 7

7. A survey was conducted to find out how teenagers spend their free time. The following trends were observed. Using the data given in the pie chart and your own ideas write an article in about 120 words for your school magazine on how teenagers spend their free time.
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 8

8. Nikunj/Nikita Parekh of Tejas School, Ahmedabad, sees the following data about the effect of pollution on migratory birds in northern India. He/She decides to write an article on the relationship between increasing levels of pollution and the declining bird population. Study the graphs given below and write the article for Nikunj/Nikita. (150 words )
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 9

9. Look at the picture given will be change to on the next page id the illustration is not on the same page. It is a humorous representation of the room of a disorganized person. Based on the picture, write an article for your school magazine on the problems of a disorganized person and their solutions. You are Kamini/Kaushal studying in class IX-C .
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 10

10. Yogesh/Yogeeta, a student of Class IX of Pragati Public School, Rohtak feels highly disturbed to see that many students and other people in society have taken to smoking. Aware of the adverse effects of smoking, he/she decides to write an article on the hazards of smoking. Write the article in about 150 words. Give your article a suitable heading.

11. The Delhi administration has launched a drive against the use of crackers because of the increased levels of air pollution during Diwali due to the bursting of crackers, the adverse health impacts and the employment of child labour in the firecracker industry, which leads to many casualties. The objective should be to let Diwali be a glowing festival of the year and not a noisy, polluting, chaotic and accident- filled event.

Look at the poster given below, your own ideas and the ideas given above, write an article to be published in your school newsletter on the need to “Say No to Crackers”.

You are Abhileena/Abhijeet Sarcar, Head Girl/Head Boy of Roshanara Public School, Agra. (150 words)
Article Writing Topics for Class 9 CBSE 11

Unseen Passage for Class 9 CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage for Class 9 CBSE

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 9 English Chapter wise.

Unseen Passage for Class 9 CBSE With Answers Pdf

Diagnostic test 1

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (8 marks)

1. The family of snakes called vipers includes some of the most poisonous snakes in the world. These snakes live mostly in rain forests and wet places. They also dwell inside small caves in the mountains. Some examples of the snakes in this fearsome group are the water moccasin, rattlesnake and copperhead—all of which are found in the United States of America; the bushmaster and the fer de lance of South America, and the puff adder of Africa.

2. Vipers have thick bodies, short tails, and triangular heads. The fangs in their upper jaws inject poison into their victims’ bodies almost like a hypodermic needle. When the snakes bite, they contract the muscles around their poison sacs. These sacs are located behind the eyes. The poison squirts out through the hollow fangs. Almost half a teaspoon of poison is put into a victim at one time. Vipers mainly eat amphibians, small mammals, lizards and nestlings. The venom of the snake is not used for predators, meaning, they don’t fight with the venom, but they use it only for the prey. Their venom has more than a dozen toxic components. Fortunately, many of these snakes are small, so their bite is not fatal. An interesting fact is that these snakes can go without eating for a year. According to folklore, the touch of the tongue of the viper snake could heal a person.

3. The viper snake can have a lot of babies. During the month of August, the female snake gives birth to about 20 young ones in a litter. The eggs stay inside the mouth of the female viper. They are fed by the mother till they are old enough to take care of themselves. When the young are ready to come out, they are set free in the wild.

4. There are actually two main types of vipers—the true vipers and the pit vipers. The pit vipers live in Asia and the Americas. The name comes from a small hollow in the side of the snake’s head just below the eye. This small hollow or pit has a special nerve or a temperature-sensing mechanism. This nerve helps the pit viper to find its warm-blooded prey. Their organs have the same function as that of a mammal’s. True vipers don’t have this special nerve and must rely on their keen sense of smell to find their food. Vipers don’t usually strike unless they are disturbed or are looking for food. Still, it is a good idea to stay away from them.

1. Complete the following statements in your own words based on your reading of the passage.

(a) The pit viper gets its name from ………………………………
(b) The viper’s bite is compared to an injection because ………………………………
(c) We know that the mother viper is very protective from the fact that ………………………………

2. Fill any two blanks in the table.
The vipers found in the following continents are:

North America South America Africa
water moccasin
rattlesnake
(a) ……………………..
(b) ……………………..
(c) ……………………..
(d) ……………………..

Find words/phrases from the passage which mean the same as the following.
(a) young birds (para 2): …………………………….
(b) poisonous (para 2): …………………………….
(c) deadly (para 2): …………………………….

Score:
7-8 – Good
5-6 – Satisfactory
4 or less – You need to develop reading skills through adequate practice.

Diagnostic test 2
Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (12 marks)

1. For more than four exhausting years, the Polish-bom Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre, worked in a large dilapidated wooden shed near their Paris lodgings. This shed, which was like a hothouse in summer and draughty and cold in winter, was the place where they spent the happiest years of their lives. It was here on a September night in 1902 that they finally discovered the radioactive element that they named ‘radium’ from the Latin word radius, meaning ‘ray’.

2. Radium provided the first effective treatment for some types of cancer, destroying the diseased human cells by bombarding them with radioactive particles.
3. The Curies had spent the historic day pouring measures of purified pitchblende into some 6,000 evaporating bowls. Marie Curie believed that the black mineral ore contained a completely new and dynamic element whose rays could destroy unhealthy body tissues. By constantly filtering and re-filtering the pitchblende, she hoped that the elusive element would crystallize in the bowls.

4. When they went home that evening the miracle had still not occurred. Then, just as they were about to go to bed, Marie decided to have another look at the particles in the bowls. She and Pierre hurried through the dimly-lit streets.

5. They let themselves into the darkened shed—with its rows of wooden tables and clutter of laboratory equipment—and Marie asked Pierre not to light the lamps. They moved cautiously forward and there, all around them, rays of light came from inside the small glass-covered bowls. Marie turned to her husband and said quietly, ‘Do you remember the day you said to me: “I should like radium to have a beautiful colour?” Look … Look!’

6. The bowls that lined the tables and the shelves on the walls gave off a soft, bluish-purple glow.

1. Answer the following in a sentences or two.
(a) Who researched on radium and where?
(b) How did they discover radium?
(c) Why did they decide to name the element so?
(d) Why was the discovery of radium important?

2. Find words/phrases from the passage which mean the same as any four of the following:
(a) run-down (para 1)
(b) letting in sharp currents of air (para 1)
(c) attacking with vigour and persistence (para 2)
(d) difficult to find (para 3)
(e) a crowded and disorderly collection of things (para 5)

Score:
7-8 Good 5-6 Satisfactory
4 or less You need to develop reading skills through adequate practice.

Type 1 Questions

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. A few countries are using powerful electromagnets to develop high-speed trains called maglev trains. Maglev is short for magnetic levitation, which means that these trains will float over a guideway, using the basic principles of magnets to replace the old steel wheel and track trains.

2. If you’ve ever played with magnets, you would know that opposite poles attract and like poles repel each other. This is the basic principle behind electromagnetic propulsion. Electromagnets are similar to other magnets in that they attract metal objects, but the magnetic pull is temporary. A small electromagnet can easily be created by connecting the ends of a copper wire to the positive and negative ends of an AA, C or D-cell battery. This creates a small magnetic field. If you disconnect either end of the wire from the battery, the magnetic field is taken away.

3. The magnetic field created in this wire-and-battery experiment is the simple idea behind a maglev train rail system. There are three components to this system: a large electrical power source; metal coils lining a guideway or track and large guidance magnets attached to the underside of the train.

4 The major difference between a maglev train and a conventional train is that the former does not have an engine—at least not the kind of engine used to pull typical train cars along steel tracks. Instead of using fossil fuels, the magnetic field created by the electrified coils in the guideway walls and the track combines to propel the train.

5. The magnetized coil running along the track, called a guideway, repels the large magnets on the train’s undercarriage, allowing the train to levitate between 0.39 and 3.93 inches (1 to 10 cms) above the guideway. Once the train is levitated, power is supplied to the coils within the guideway walls to create a unique system of magnetic fields that pull and push the train along the guideway.

6. Maglev trains float on a cushion of air, eliminating friction. This lack of friction and the trains’ aerodynamic design allow these trains to reach unprecedented ground transportation speeds of more than 310 mph (500 kmph), or twice as fast as Amtrak’s fastest commuter train. At 310 mph, you could travel from Paris to Rome in just over two hours!

7. Germany and Japan are both developing maglev train technology, and are currently testing prototypes of their trains. In Germany, engineers have developed an electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system, called Transrapid. While maglev transportation was first proposed more than a century ago, the first commercial maglev train made its debut in Shanghai, China, in 2002, using a carriage developed by a German company.

8. Today several countries, including India, are planning to start this service.

1.1 Complete the following statements in your own words based on your reading of the passage. (1 x 5 = 5)

(a) The two ways in which Maglev trains are different from traditional trains are …………………………………….. .
(b) The principle on which these trains work is …………………………………….. .
(c) Maglev trains help reduce pollution because …………………………………….. .
(d) These trains are called frictionless because …………………………………….. .
(e) The first country to adopt Maglev technology was …………………………………….. .

1.2 Find words in the passage that mean: (1 x 3 = 3)

(a) forward movement (para 2) …………………………………….. .
(b) parts (para 3) …………………………………….. .
(c) traditional (para 4) …………………………………….. .

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Origami is the Japanese art of creating shapes and figures simply by folding pieces of paper. In Japanese, oru means to “fold”, and kami means “paper”, so literally, the word origami means “to fold paper”. I can make paper animals, flowers, birds, insects or even objects like boats or windmills without the help of scissors or glue. You can easily learn it too. Once you learn the different types of folds that we use in origami, for example, the valley fold, the mountain fold, the reverse fold, the petal fold or the pleat, you can start making the basic shapes.

2. The finished origami figure is called a ‘model’, the method for folding a model is called a ‘design’, and drawn instructions for a model are called ‘diagrams’. An origami artist is usually called a ‘paperfolder’. Though washi is our traditional paper for origami, nowadays we use almost any type of paper or material so long it can crease and be folded. I have used paper made of rice, hemp, wheat and bamboo and materials like aluminium foil, paper and cloth napkins, and even currency notes! We can also put waste paper to use in origami. The only requirement for origami is a piece of paper, which makes it one of the most accessible and inexpensive arts. Origami today has expanded greatly and evolved beyond birds and boats.

3. Certain combinations of basic folds form bases which are starting shapes that are used to fold different models. The four most common bases are the ‘kite base’, the ‘fish base’, the ‘bird base’ and the ‘frog base’. The names of the bases reveal that many paperfolders like me enjoy folding models of animals and all other living creatures. Besides the many animal models, we can make models of almost all physical objects including people, faces, plants, vehicles and buildings. Some paperfolders fold abstract or mathematical shapes and others specialize in ‘modular origami’, where many simple shapes are assembled to form large elaborate structures.

4. There are now over 80 different types of origami styles like traditional, simple, complex, abstract, action, technical, and so on. There are many books available with diagrams showing how to make the origami pieces. You can also search origami diagrams from the Internet. Most origami sculptures are made from a few basic shapes, like those of a bird, fish, kite and frog. If you are really keen to learn and appreciate origami, you can attend workshops and exhibitions held almost all around the world.

5. Origami can be a rewarding hobby as it contributes to our all-round development. It teaches assimilation of concepts and ideas. It hones fine motor skills while introducing us to geometrical angles and triangles. It has taught me the value of patience and given me immense peace and joy. Though it may appear complicated at first, it is really very simple. All you need is to persevere and follow instructions carefully, then you too can easily create a magical world of your own.

2.1 Complete the following statements in your own words based on your reading of the passage. (1 x 5 = 5)

(a) The literal meaning of origami is …………………………………….. .
(b) The difference between a ‘model’ and a ‘diagram’ is that …………………………………….. .
(c) Origami is an inexpensive art because …………………………………….. .
(d) Modular origami is a kind of origami which is formed by …………………………………….. .
(e) The one quality that the narrator has inculcated from her hobby of origami is …………………………………….. .

2.2 Find words in the passage that mean: (1 x 3 = 3)

(a) isolated/distant (para 1) …………………………………….. .
(b) available/easy to get (para 2) …………………………………….. .
(c) sharpens/polishes (para 5) …………………………………….. .

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. An NGO is a non-governmental organization, which means it is not a part of the government and is not controlled by the government. NGOs tend to fill gaps in government service, providing research, facilities and services that a government is unable or unwilling to provide. There are both national and international NGOs working all over the world. NGOs usually have a core of paid staff and a wider group of volunteers who assist in their efforts. They tend to rely on donors and funders to keep the organization running and to pay for individual projects.

2. NGOs typically follow a participatory leadership style. All staff members are involved in the planning and decision-making processes, and the organization draws on the skills and expertise of all members as needed. An organization may be correctly labelled an NGO if it fulfills the four characteristics identified by The Commonwealth Foundation, a London-based NGO study group. NGOs are formed voluntarily by citizens with an element of voluntary participation in the organization, whether in the form of small numbers of board members or large numbers of members or time given by volunteers.

3. They are independent within the laws of society, and controlled by those who have formed them or by elected or appointed boards. The legal status of NGOs is based on freedom of association—one of the most basic human rights. The International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights, developed by the United Nations Organization in 1966 and since ratified by 135 countries, grants the right to assemble.

4. NGOs are not for private personal profit or gain. NGOs may, in many countries, engage in revenue-generating activities, but must use the revenue solely in pursuit of the organization’s mission. Like other enterprises, NGOs have employees who are paid for what they do. Boards are not usually paid for the work they perform, but may be reimbursed for expenses they incur in the course of performing their duties. The aims of NGOs are to improve the circumstances and prospects of people and to act on concerns and issues detrimental to the well-being, circumstances or prospects of people or society as a whole.

5. NGOs are known by other names such as Nonprofit or Not-for-profit Organizations, Private Voluntary Organizations (PVO) and the Voluntary Sector, Independent Sector or the Third Sector, Philanthropic Sector or Charitable Organizations, Social Sector, Community Based Organizations (CBO) and Civil Society Organisations (CSO) where the name of the organisation reflects the distinguishing characteristics of the group.

6. NPOs are non-profit organizations. They may be the beneficiaries of endowments or. grants and they may also charge for their services, but they do not show profits. Any money earned is put back into the organization. An example of a large NPO is The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. There are many smaller NPOs providing social services around the world. NPOs typically have a larger paid staff than NGOs, and easier access to funds. In South Africa, there are many small NPOs working for the betterment of their communities.

7. Beyond providing services, a second and perhaps more important function of NGOs is as a facilitator of citizens’ participation in their societies. NGOs enable all voices to be heard when individuals form a group with others who have similar values and interests. NGOs often aim to promote understanding between citizens and the state.

3.1 Complete the following statements in your own words based on your reading of the passage. (1 x 5 = 5)

(a) An organization that works without aiming at making a profit is called while an organization that works for the welfare of the people without any support from the government is called. …………………………………….. .
(b) By saying that NGOs are not for private personal profit or gain, the narrator means that …………………………………….. .
(c) Donors are very important for NGOs because …………………………………….. .
(d) Volunteers are people who …………………………………….. .
(e) One benefit that NPOs have over NGOs is that …………………………………….. .

3.2 Find words in the passage that mean: (1 x 3 = 3)

(a) gave money back (para 4) …………………………………….. .
(b) donation/gift (para 6) …………………………………….. .
(c) someone who acts as a catalyst (para 7) …………………………………….. .

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Bom in Kasauli on 19 May 1934 in pre-independence India, Ruskin Bond is the quintessential Indian writer in English and a lifelong lover of India. Bond spent his early childhood in Jamnagar, Dehradun and Shimla. His parents divorced when he was young and he had a rather solitary childhood. In 1944, Ruskin’s father passed away, succumbing to malaria. He was raised by his mother (who remarried an Indian businessman), and other relatives. He completed his schooling at Bishop Cotton School in Shimla in 1952.

2. Ruskin’s love for books and writing had come early to him, since his father always surrounded him with books and encouraged him to write little descriptions of the surrounding natural beauty, as he took Rusty on hikes around the hills. It was after school that he began to carve out a niche as a writer.

3. Soon after his schooling, Ruskin left India to live in London. There, he took up odd jobs like working for a travel agency and a photograph shop. He lived there for four years, but memories of India continuously haunted and overwhelmed him.

4. Bond wrote his first story, Room on the Roof at the age of 17. It won him instant recognition and also the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize in 1957, awarded to a British Commonwealth writer under 30. The book captured the vibrant mystique of the Himalayas, and evidently earned him his passage to India too. With the money that he earned from this book, he bought a ticket to India—his home for the rest of his life.

5. Upon returning, Bond chose to settle in the charming landscape of Dehradun and begin his career as a freelance writer. He wrote Vagrants in the Valley, as a sequel to The Room on the Roof These two novels were published in one volume by Penguin India in 1993. The following year, his much-acclaimed non-fiction books, Rain In the Mountains, Delhi Is Not Far, The Best Of Ruskin Bond, were also published by Penguin India. Bringing the past and the present together is Ruskin Bond’s speciality. A career now spanning four decades has won him tremendous critical acclaim. His writing is full of unassuming humour and quiet wisdom. His stories are sensitive and manifest a deep love for nature, Indian people and their eccentricities.

6. In 1987, the Indian Council for Child Education recognized his pioneering role in the growth of children’s literature in India, and awarded him the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1992 for Our Trees Still Grow in Dehra. He won the Padma Shri in 1999.

7. Bond’s novel The Flight of Pigeons has been adapted into the acclaimed Merchant Ivory film Junoon. The Room on the Roof was also adapted for a television serial. Short stories from collections such as The Night Train at Deoli, Time Stops at Shamli and Our Trees Still Grow in Dehra have been included in school text books.

8. In the year 2007, the Bollywood director Vishal Bharadwaj made a heart-warming film based on his popular novel for children, The Blue Umbrella. The movie won the National Award for Best Children’s Film. Media-shy, Bond prefers the quiet life of the hills and currently lives in Landour, Mussoorie’s well-known Ivy Cottage, which has been his home since 1964.

4.1 Complete the following statements in your own words based on your reading of the passage. (1 x 5 = 5)

(a) Ruskin’s childhood was not very happy because …………………………………….. .
(b) Ruskin’s father played a great role in his becoming a writer because …………………………………….. .
(c) We know that Ruskin was not happy in London because …………………………………….. .
(d) Ruskin “earned his passage to India” means …………………………………….. .
(e) Ruskin’s stories are loved because they are …………………………………….. .

4.2 Find words in the passage that mean:

(a) a typical example of something (para 1) …………………………………….. .
(b) giving in/surrendering (para 1) …………………………………….. .
(c) a special position (para 2) …………………………………….. .

5. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Bats are one of the most misunderstood creatures in the animal kingdom. Persecuted because of their – poor image—a result of the spreading of misconceptions and myths fanned by the public’s ignorance- bats have been shown to be intelligent, clean, gentle and likeable by emerging scientific evidence.

2. There are two distinct lineages in the bats’ evolution history: the megachiropterans and the microchiropterans. The former, more commonly known as flying foxes, are usually larger, feed exclusively on fruit and nectar, and dwell in huge tree colonies; while the latter, comprising about 760 species, are mostly insectivorous. However, scientists have yet to agree on the ancestry of the bats as one camp argues that both lineages share a common ancestor, whereas another believes they evolved separately.

3. Bats are the only mammals that possess the power of flight. Their unique wing structure earned them the Greek name, Chiroptera, meaning ‘hand-wing’. Just like birds, the flight characteristics of bats differ according to their various specialities; hence, the shape of their wings varies among the different species. Most bats are specialized nocturnal hunters though.

4. One common feature among bats is echolocation—their ability to navigate, hunt and communicate with the use of echoes of ultrasound. However, most fruit and nectar feeders depend on their highly developed sense of smell instead of echolocating. Certain species even use their excellent hearing to locate their prey by listening to the prey’s own calls. An interesting predator-prey relationship was discovered in the early 1980s when researchers found that frog-eating bats in Panama focused on the male frogs’ mating calls which later resulted in the frogs altering their call behaviour.

5. Like many other unfortunate animals, many bat species are facing the threat of extinction because of human short-sightedness. Fearing bats for all ignorant reasons, people have chosen to eliminate these ‘unwanted pests’, without fully understanding that bats play a key role in many of the world’s ecosystems. Subsequently, bat populations everywhere have been declining rapidly. For example, the population at Eagle Creek Cave, Arizona, has decreased by 99.9 per cent from 30 million to 30,000 since the 1960s! While some people target only a species they identify as pests, such as the vampire bats in Latin America, they often end up destroying many other species indiscriminately.

6. Unknown to many people, bats are actually a cornerstone species. That is, they are solely responsible for pollinating certain plants vital to the ecosystem. Without the bats providing their services, such plants could die out and affect many species dependent on them for survival, thus starting a chain reaction in the ecosystem.

7. Bats also help to keep the population of insects in check. About 75 per cent of the bat species feed on insects. Feeding on large quantities of whichever type of insect is most abundant, some North American bat species have been known to consume 600 mosquitoes in an hour! As people eliminate bats, they rely more on chemicals to control the increasing insect population. Consequently, they put the surrounding ecosystems and their own health in danger.

8. Even the fruit-eating bats, considered pests by the tropical fruit growers, help provide an important service. By eating the fruits too ripe for commercial harvest, they are actually removing attractions for real pests such as the Mediterranean fruit fly.

9. As more facts about bats are revealed in recent studies, the need for reversing trends of declining bat populations has become more urgent. However, this is possible only when people are educated on how indispensable bats are.

5.1 Fill in anv five blanks in the table below with the facts discussed in the passage. (1 x 5 = 5)

Common name (a) ………………………………
food habits (b) ………………………………
(c) ………………………………
(d) ………………………………
(e) ………………………………
hunting time (f) ………………………………
move about with the help of (g) ………………………………
types (h) ………………………………
(i) ………………………………
importance to the environment (j) ………………………………
keeping insects under control

5.2 Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following, from the paragraphs indicated. (1 x 3 = 3)

(a) legends (para 1) …………………………………….. .
(b) family tree/roots (para 2) …………………………………….. .
(c) randomly (para 5) …………………………………….. .

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (8 marks)

1. Manufacturers of various products are currently competing with each other to produce a form of green packaging, that is, environment-friendly packaging. It is important because packaging is an important part of marketing these days, but much of it is a threat to the environment. There are two reasons for this threat. Firstly, the production of such packaging uses up a great deal of energy and secondly, the cartons and wrappers in which the goods are packaged are often difficult to dispose of when they are no longer in use. Therefore, they become waste material and a hazard to the environment.

2. People in most countries have become aware of the damage which modem living is doing to the environment and many of them are concerning themselves with the conservation of the environment for future generations. Thus, both politicians and scientists are now looking at issues of energy-saving and waste disposal with a view to making them more environmentally friendly.

3. Therefore, as far as packaging is concerned, it is vital that it is either recyclable or biodegradable. For example, instead of throwing out newspapers and glass bottles with their household rubbish, people in several countries are today being encouraged to put them in special containers to allow the material to be recycled. Some household waste, such as vegetable peelings, is naturally biodegradable and so decomposes gradually until it disappears.

4. Man-made goods are not so easily disposed off. Goods and packaging made of plastic create waste material that is particularly difficult to discard. This means that huge landfill sites have to be dug out so as to bury the plastic waste underground. This possibly is causing greater problems for the future generations.

5. Just as much of a problem is industrial waste i.e., waste that is generated by industries. This is a matter of grave concern since the effluent from factories often contains chemicals and these chemicals are generally released into water bodies like ponds, lakes and rivers, which leads to the pollution of water supplies. So it is of vital importance to ensure that waste from factories be monitored carefully in order to avoid such a calamity.

6. Technological advances fueled by nuclear power have added to the problem of waste disposal. The disposal of nuclear waste causes particular concern because it is radioactive and so possibly dangerous to life. The recent leaks from nuclear reactors in Japan and in Chernobyl in Russia have all added to this problem.

7. The high standard of living, which the people of many countries now enjoy, has resulted in a huge increase in waste material called carbon footprints. This could have a terrible effect on the ecology of the planet in the near future. Therefore, there is no doubt that urgent action must be taken by both the governments of all the countries and their people to save the environment from a terrible disaster even sooner than we realize.

6.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage, complete the following table. (1 x 5 = 5)

Types of Waste Examples Effect on environment
recyclable waste (a) ……………………………… does not cause any harm, can be recycled
industrial waste (b) ……………………………… (c) ………………………………
nuclear waste radioactive leaks (d) ………………………………
(e) ……………………………… vegetable peelings causes no harm, disappears with time

 6.2 Find words from the passage which mean the same as anv three the following from the paragraphs indicated.
(a) substances that will decay naturally (para 3): ………………………………
(b) a site where waste material has been buried (para 4): ………………………………
(c) liquid waste matter (para 5): ………………………………
(d) an occurrence that causes great distress or destruction (para 7): ………………………………

7. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. After water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world. Its popularity has survived thousands of years and has played an important role in many cultures. It is enjoyed both hot and cold, as a refreshing drink, as part of a ceremony, or as a tonic for improved health.

2. The drink of Asia for hundreds of years, tea is believed to have been brought to Europe by the Dutch. Today, from remote Ladakh in India to Buckingham Palace in London, tea is synonymous with cheer. It is rightly said that there will be no agreement on a perfect cup of tea. Though for tea drinkers the brew is addictive, the preferred method of preparation and taste differ from person to person and region to region. From traditional black teas, to the newer, and extraordinarily healthy white teas, and recognizable flavoured teas such as Earl Grey, to exotic blends such as Rooibos Love, there is a flavour and a blend for everyone. Today many varieties of tea and tea brands are available in the market. An innovation is the tea-bag that is easy, quick and less messy than traditional ways of brewing tea. Green tea is popular in China and the Far East.

3. In Japan, the tea ceremony is a traditional way of greeting guests and is a social occasion. Unlike the tea we are familiar with, green tea is not drunk with sugar or milk. It is an olive-coloured liquid served in porcelain cups. In Morocco, green tea is infused with freshly plucked mint.

4. Some scientists believe tea prevents tooth decay because it is a rich source of fluoride.

5. Tea is also a folk remedy for stomach upsets, flu and diarrhoea. Tea is also said to have antioxidants that fight cancer and also has anti-ageing properties that fight the free radicals in our bodies. Research suggests that drinking tea reduces the risk of heart disease and cancer and lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.

6. A welcome thought for inveterate tea drinkers. Tea is the new apple-a-day to keep the doctor away!

7.1 Read the questions given below and write the option you consider the most appropriate for any six. (1 x 6 = 6)

(a) Tea is believed to have been introduced to Europe by the:
i. Chinese.
ii. Japanese.
iii. Moroccans.
iv. Dutch.

(b) “Tea is synonymous with cheer” means:
i. a cup of tea is always welcome.
ii. a cup of tea makes people happy.
iii. a cup of tea is good for health.
iv. a cup of tea can be found in any part of the world.

(c) A new and convenient way of making tea is:
i. without adding milk or sugar.
ii. by adding mint leaves.
iii. by boiling tea leaves.
iv. by using tea bags.

(d) The tea ceremony is a way of greeting guests in:
i. Morocco.
ii. China.
iii. the Far East.
iv. Japan.

(e) The fluorides in tea are useful in preventing:
i. headaches.
ii. cancer.
iii. tooth decay.
iv. heart problems.

(f) An inveterate tea drinker is one who:
i. hates drinking tea.
ii. loves drinking tea.
iii. is addicted to tea drinking.
iv. has never tasted tea in his/her life.

(g) The antioxidants present in tea make it a beneficial drink for patients suffering from:
i. headaches.
ii. tooth decay.
iii. flu.
iv. cancer.

7.2 Find words in the passage that mean the opposite of the following: (1 x 2 = 2)

(a) central (para 2): ………………………………
(b) unconventional (para 3): ………………………………

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Antarctica is a very harsh continent. There are no inhabitants and all one sees are kilometres and kilometres of snow all around. The temperatures can sink to minus 60 degrees in winters and remain around minus 20 degrees in summers. There is no sunlight for three to four months in winters. Conversely, in summers, daylight can stretch round the clock for months. Strangely, here the sun rises from the east and also sets in the east.

2. Summers are so disorienting that thick curtains have to be hung so one can lull oneself into believing that it is dark and time to go to sleep. In winters, special lights that emit rays like sunlight are installed to help distinguish between day and night.

3. While staying in Antarctica one can view the Aurora Australis, which is a celestial phenomenon of beautiful dancing lights in the sky in different colours and shapes caused by electrified particles emitted by the sun.

4. The Indian station called Maitri (Friendship) measures 10 by 8 cubic feet and is made up of wood on iron plates. It has individual rooms, a large dining room, library and common area. Heaters run by a powerful generator provide warmth and water is pumped from a nearby lake, Priyadarshini, named after Indira Gandhi. There is complete camaraderie among the team members at Maitri without any superior- subordinate relationship. Every team member contributes to the work. This includes clearing of snow and garbage disposal. Maitri is India’s second station. The first, Dakshin Gangotri, constructed in 1983, submerged in ice in 1989.

5. As per an inter-nation environment treaty, it is mandatory upon all teams to keep the area pollution-free. Garbage has to be burned and even the ashes are taken back to India. Environment enforcement can be done by any visiting expedition with a 24-hour notice.

6. Apart from India, 27 countries have put up 44 stations in Antarctica mostly for the purpose of scientific experiments. Russia has five, America four and India, China, Japan and South Korea one each.

8.1 Read the questions given below and write the option you consider the most appropriate. (1 x 8 = 8)

(a) A peculiar phenomenon of Antarctica is that:
i. there is no sunlight for months together.
ii. no. inhabitants can be seen for kilometres around.
iii. temperatures vary from -60 to -20 degree Celsius throughout the year.
iv. the sun rises from the east and sets in the east.

(b) The celestial dancing lights visible in Antarctica are called:
i. Aurora Americanis.
ii. Dakshin Gangotri.
iii. Aurora Australis.
iv. Priyadarshini.

(c) Summers in Antarctica are disorienting because:
i. there is no sun for six months.
ii. there is daylight all the time.
iii. there is snow all around.
iv. there are no inhabitants to be seen.

(d) Maitri is:
i. a hotel in the Antarctica.
ii. a ship anchored in the Antarctica.
iii. the Indian station where scientists conduct research in Antarctica.
iv. the name of a scientist who is the chief of the Indian scientists at Antarctica.

(e) The line that tells us that there is complete understanding among the people at Maitri is:
i. There is complete camaraderie among the team members.
ii. Every team member contributes to the work.
iii. Every member engages in clearing of snow and garbage disposal.
iv. all of the above.

(f) Antarctica is called a harsh country because:
i. it is extremely cold.
ii. it is extremely cold and there are no inhabitants to be seen.
iii. it is extremely cold, has no inhabitants and has months of daylight and months of night time.
iv. it has months of daylight and night time at a stretch.

(g) The word “emitted” means:
i. taken out.
ii. given out.
iii. taken in.
iv. thrown out.

(h) The word “camaraderie” means:
i. team members
ii. companionship
iii. loyalty
iv. family relations

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Hong Kong: Conservationists are blaming the freak weather phenomenon known as El Nino for the continuing decline in Asia’s once plentiful population of sea horses.

2. At a meeting in the Philippine province of Cebu recently, conservationists heard that the predicament of sea horses has become critical. “We still.have time but there is grave cause for concern,” said Heather Hall of the Zoological Society in London.

3. The El Nino weather effect has had a damaging impact on marine life throughout Asia. In some Asian waters, which have played host to large numbers of sea horses, the phenomenon of “red tides” has killed off huge quantities of fish and other marine life by depriving them of oxygen.

4. The “red tides” are so called because they are composed of vast amounts of dead algae which float to the surface and form a reddish hue. Recent “red tides” virtually wiped fish out of the local market for weeks.

5. The threat from El Nino compounds the problems sea horses already face from the practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine.

6. Sea horses’ bodies have been put to medicinal use for centuries, the bodies being pulped and then boiled to make an evil-smelling broth.

7. Traditional Chinese doctors use the broth to treat problems with the kidney, which they regard as one of the five vital organs of the body.

8. The kidney is considered to be a cooling or water element, which helps revive or soothe other parts of the body that have become inflamed.

9. The kidney is also seen as the source of a successful sex life, hence the belief that the sea horse acts as an aphrodisiac.

9.1 Read the questions given below and write the option you consider the most appropriate. (1 x 8 = 8)

(a) According to the experts El Nino has caused:
i. a decrease in the number of sea horses.
ii. a decrease in the number of fishes in the ocean.
iii. an increase in the number of sea horses.
iv. an increase in kidney problems.

(b) “Red tides” are harmful to marine animals because they:
i. inflame their body parts.
ii. cut off oxygen supply to the marine animals.
iii. supply them with too much oxygen.
iv. damage their kidneys.

(c) The sea horses are threatened by:
i. the conservationists.
ii. the Chinese doctors.
iii. the people of Philippines.
iv. the people of Hong Kong.

(d) Medicine from the sea horses is prepared by:
i. boiling the sea horses.
ii. reducing them to a pulp.
iii. first beating them to a pulp and then boiling them.
iv. roasting them.

(e) The kidney helps to cool the body by:
i. filling it up with water.
ii. sending water to the various organs.
iii. soothing parts that have been inflamed.
iv. being one of its vital organs.

(f) Two medicinal properties of sea horses according to the Chinese system of medicine are:
i. of curing headaches and colds.
ii. of curing kidney problems and diarrhoea.
iii. of curing brain fever and acting as an aphrodisiac.
iv. of curing kidney problems and acting as an aphrodisiac.

(g) The meaning of revive is:
i. to freshen up.
ii. to bring back to life.
iii. to destroy.
iv. to change.

(h) The word “phenomenon” means:
i. an occasion
ii. an event
iii. an accident
iv. a disaster

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Ernest Hemingway is one of the United States of America’s most beloved 20th century authors. He was bom in 1899. During World War I, he served as a volunteer ambulance driver in Italy, and later served in the Italian infantry. Hemingway was badly wounded in 1918.

2. Hemingway’s wartime experiences had a considerable influence on his writing. In fact, most of his novels focus on the need for physical and psychological strength to cope with difficulty and often violence. He was quite disillusioned by the war and became a leader of a group of young writers living in Europe who were known as the ‘lost generation’.

3. Hemingway was fascinated by the sport of bullfighting and described it in many of his novels and short stories. He also hunted big game in Africa, such as elephants, buffaloes, lions and tigers. He described his experiences as a hunter in a non-fiction book entitled The Green Hills of Africa.

4. Like Hemingway himself, his fictional heroes presented a tough, masculine image. Yet his strong men had to courageously accept their fate. In The Old Man and the Sea, one of Hemingway’s most renowned short novels, an old fisherman struggles for hours to bring in a huge and beautiful fish—only to have the fish eaten by sharks.

5. Towards the end of Hemingway’s life, he became sick, both physically and mentally. This man, who had written so eloquently about facing adversity with courage and grace, committed suicide in 1961.

10.1 Read the questions given below and write the option you consider the most appropriate for any six. (1 x 6 = 6)

(a) The effect Hemingway’s war experience had on his writing was that:
i. he wrote on the need for physical and psychological strength to cope with difficulty and violence.
ii. he wrote on the ill effects of war.
iii. he wrote books on hunting.
iv. he became a leader of a group of young writers living in Europe.

(b) In the book The Green Hills of Africa, Hemingway:
i. wrote about his experiences as a hunter.
ii. wrote about his love for bull fighting.
iii. wrote about his experiences of war.
iv. wrote about his life.

(c) In his book Old Man and the Sea the sharks finally eat the:
i. old man.
ii. fish.
iii. strong man.
iv. no one.

(d) One sport that fascinated Hemingway was:
i. hunting.
ii. sailing.
iii. bull fighting.
iv. fishing.

(e) Hemingway was bom in:
i. 1961.
ii. 1899.
iii. 1918.
iv. 1920.

(f) It was ironic that Hemingway committed suicide when:
i. he. had become so popular.
ii. he had always been so happy.
iii. he had established himself as a writer.
iv. he had always written eloquently about facing adversity with courage and grace.

(g) Which of these words in the passage means ‘with great fluency and clarity’?
i. adversity
ii. suicide
iii. eloquently
iv. grace

10.2 Find words from the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 2 = 2)

(a) soldiers who fight on foot (para 1): ………………………………
(b) very interested (para 3): ………………………………

11. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. So often these days we hear and speak of the conquest of Nature—‘the taming of a river’, ‘the war against insects’, and so on. These phrases are often used without consciously attaching any value to them, but they have an underlying attitude of hostility towards Nature and Nature’s creatures—a viewpoint that seems to assume Nature as an enemy that needs to be vanquished. Alternatively, Nature is seen merely as a ‘resource’ to be ‘exploited’—take the maximum out of it, regardless of what this does to the natural processes and to other creatures that depend on these processes. It is this attitude which views fellow human beings as a resource to be exploited, or other human communities as enemies to be conquered.

2. There is a growing lack of sensitivity and respect for our fellow creatures. This attitude is being drilled into a child by social forces, which can only be countered by environmental education. Sadly, in most cases, this is not done. What is done is to talk about the food web and the energy cycles and the ecological balance and how the removal of any element disrupts the whole system, and how this can affect human beings too. What this approach lacks is the essential interaction with Nature and with other human beings. Indeed, in many environmental activities the opposite takes place. A classic example of this is the making of a herbarium, or even worse, an insect collection, as is common in both formal and non-formal education in India. A child is often encouraged to pluck leaves and flowers and run after butterflies with a net, and is part of a large group of children similarly marauding Nature. It is even worse when the activity is also competitive, that is, who collects the maximum. A lot of knowledge maybe gained, but this knowledge emphasizes exploitation and conquest, not sensitivity and respect. Learning under a tree rather than in a classroom is far more effective and long lasting.

3. The alternative is to take up activities where ecological balance, ecological diversity, animal behaviour, human plurality and other such concepts and systems are introduced, with the stress on their intrinsic worth. Materials, processes and living beings do not exist only for human use—they are worthwhile in themselves.

11.1 Complete the following statements.

(a) People’s attitude towards nature is one of aggression, as we often talk of ………………………………………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..  (1)
(b) In exploiting nature for their benefit, humans do not consider the harm they cause ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (2)
(c) Often, the educational activities of children result in as ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (2)
(d) Sensitivity and respect towards nature can be inculcated only through …………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (1)
(e) The syllabus should include topics like:
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
iii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
iv. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. With increasing traffic and poor facilities, pedestrians seem to be the most vulnerable to fatal accidents amongst road users. Even though in the last six years the number of pedestrian subways in the city has almost doubled, experts feel that most of them are not well maintained or not well designed, discouraging pedestrians from using them.

2. Poorly maintained subways are not frequently used, making them prime spots for criminal activities. Many of them wear a deserted look, making them a usual haunt for people indulging in substance abuse. It is common for drug addicts to find a comer in a deserted subway. However, the police say this should not be a reason for people to avoid subways. ‘There hasn’t been any instance of criminal activities taking place in subways. We take enough measures to insure that subways are kept safe,’ said Deependra Pathak, Spokesperson, Delhi Police.

3. Experts feel that subways are not the best option as it is difficult to maintain them; and most of them are not disabled-friendly, making it impossible for the physically challenged to use them. The traffic- research cell of IIT Delhi carried out a study on traffic signals and suggested solutions to overcome the problem. In a detailed analysis they observed that traffic signals are very long, which results in more violations by pedestrians as well as motorists, putting the pedestrians at a higher risk.

4. ‘We have suggested that traffic signals be redesigned and waiting time brought down to not more than 180 seconds, which will be optimum for motorists and pedestrians. At present it varies from 250-300 seconds,’ said Geetam Tewari, a professor in IIT.

5. ‘On demand responsive signals can be installed. Pedestrians can press a button and the light turns red, giving a time of about 50 seconds for motorists to stop. This is a common feature on roads in the western countries. Free left turns on many roads also lead to accidents,’ added Tewari.

6. The discourteous attitude of motorists towards pedestrians is another reason for their being the usual victims. ‘The motorists are not at all considerate of pedestrians on the roads, which leads to so many fatal accidents. We try to carry out drives to educate motorists to be courteous to pedestrians and give them way to cross roads. Other than that we identify roads with heavy traffic and send proposals to the municipal bodies for construction of subways or over-foot bridges,’ said Qamar Ahmed, Joint Commissioner of Traffic Police.

12.1 Complete the following statements.

(a) Fatal accidents involving pedestrians have increased because of ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (1)

(b) Pedestrians do not use subways as they are: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… (2)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(c) Pedestrians violate traffic rules as: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (2)
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(d) ‘On demand-responsive signals’ …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. (1)

(e) To prevent accidents, the Traffic Police: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. (2)
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

13. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. To build a team is one of the most difficult things to do and also one of the most essential. One has to contend with human beings who are complex, often having a range of individual problems—ego issues, personal agendas, jealousies, rivalries, passions and angers. Yet it is no longer possible to do it alone. However brilliant a single person may be, his ideas can only be implemented if there is a team of people not only willing but also enthusiastic about executing them. Although this realization is increasingly dawning upon institutions and organizations, we stumble because it is difficult to carry diverse people together. But however difficult, the task has to be done if not just the organization but eventually humanity itself has to survive.

2. We have to pass from the age of competition, which is one of individual endeavour to the exclusion of others, to that of cooperation, which means a network of people with a shared vision and work. We have to realize that we are all interlinked or interconnected. One person’s good cannot be obtained at the cost of another. Also, the individual good is dependent on the general good. There is a mutually beneficial relationship between the two.

3. The question arises: what is required to build a team and hold it together? We are obviously all groping because we stumble in our endeavours, but there are some essentials without which no team can be built. For any organization or group to succeed, there has to be a willingness to do so that comes from a shared goal or aim. All the members of the group must strive towards the same goal. Then, the group must have a leader whose authority is unquestioned. This implies that there must be a hierarchy in the group. Leadership does not come merely through external hierarchy, that is, the official position a person holds. The leader has to be a person whose moral integrity is beyond doubt. It is his moral authority that earns him respect and makes him an effective leader rather than his hierarchical position. The group itself has to be organized hierarchically according to the strengths of the individuals that are a part of it. It has to be a hierarchy of capacities and strengths rather than of positions.

4. Further, there has to be faith and humility between each member of the group to individually and collectively surrender their will to the divine will. This immediately takes away egotism and lifts away the burden of victory and defeat from human shoulders. All is, in the final analysis, as the Divine wills. We can only do our best according to our limited understanding. When the time comes our endeavours bear fruit not necessarily in the way we want them to, but in many unforeseen miraculous ways.

13.1 Complete the following statements.
(a) Building a team is a difficult thing to do as ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)

(b) It is necessary to build a team because ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)

(c) Individual effort is different from cooperation as ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)

(d) The two essentials for the success of any group/organization are: ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(e) A group leader must possess the following qualities: ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

(f) The hierarchy should be decided on the basis of ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)

(g) The meaning of egotism is ………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)

14. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Five hundred and fifty million years ago, a giant amalgamated southern super continent—Gondwana— did indeed exist, centred roughly around present-day Antarctica. Things were quite different then: humans hadn’t arrived on the global scene, and the climate was much warmer, hosting a huge variety of flora and fauna. For 500 million years, Gondwana thrived, but around the time when the dinosaurs were wiped out and the age of the mammals got under way, the landmass was forced to separate into countries, shaping the globe much as we know it today.

2. To visit Antarctica now is to be a part of that history; to get a grasp of where we’ve come from and where we could possibly be heading. It’s to understand the significance of Cordilleran folds and pre- Cambrian granite shields; ozone and carbon; evolution and extinction. When you think about all that can happen in a million years, it can get pretty mind-boggling. Imagine: India pushing northwards, jamming against Asia to buckle its crust and form the Himalayas; South America drifting off to join North America, opening up the Drake Passage to create a cold circumpolar current, keeping Antarctica frigid, desolate, and at the bottom of the world.

3. For a person from the tropical region two weeks in a place where 90 per cent of the Earth’s total ice volume is stored is a chilling prospect (not just for circulatory and metabolic functions, but also for the imagination). It’s like walking into a giant ping-pong ball devoid of any human markers—no trees, billboards, buildings. You lose all earthly sense of perspective and time here. The visual scale ranges from the microscopic to the mighty: midges and mites to blue whales and icebergs as big as countries (the largest recorded was the size of Belgium). Days go on and on and on in surreal 24-hour austral summer light, and a ubiquitous silence, interrupted only by the occasional avalanche or calving ice sheet, consecrates the place. It’s an immersion that will force you to place yourself in the context of the earth’s geological history. And for humans, the prognosis isn’t good.

14.1 Complete the following statements.

(a) The giant continent Gondwana which existed ……………………………………………………………………………………….. was located.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (2)
(b) The globe much as we know it today took shape when
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)
(c) The aspects of the history of our planet that can be studied by visiting Antarctica are:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (2)
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
iii. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
iv. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(d) The changes that took place when the Gondwana continent moved northwards include:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (2)
i. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………
ii. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

(e) According to you, human markers are:
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… . (1)

Type 2 Questions

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The French Revolution was a period of radical social and political upheaval that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe. In 1789, old ideas about tradition and hierarchy, of monarchy, aristocracy and religious authority were abruptly overthrown by new principles of equality, citizenship and fundamental rights.

2. France was a powerful country but its people were divided into different groups and there was dissension among these groups. The aristocrats who owned one-fifth of the land in France did not have to pay taxes. They resented the power the ministers had but they themselves were unpopular with the people. The clergy also had special privileges. Not all the clergymen were wealthy but the Catholic Church possessed large areas of land.

3. The middle class were not entitled to the same privileges although they were becoming as rich as the nobles. Some of the peasants owned land but had only sufficient to feed themselves. They had to pay money to their lords as well as hefty taxes to the state.

4. In the late 1780s, the newly appointed finance ministers introduced new taxes which caused much unhappiness to the rich land owners. A committee known as the ‘Third Estate’ was formed to voice the people’s grievances. They condemned the power of the King and adopted the charter, ‘The Declaration of the Rights of Man’. The charter proposed church and government reforms and set out the basic rights of the citizens.

5. Meanwhile, a rebellion was brewing in the streets of Paris as there was a famine. The streets were crowded with starving people who had lost their patience with the long debates that did not seem to achieve any result. The citizens took their guns and stormed the Bastille, which was a large stone fortress.

6. The fall of the Bastille was followed by a second revolution leading to the subsequent end of monarchy. France declared itself a republic and both the King and Queen were guillotined.

1.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) How many groups was France divided into in 1789? Which group was the most exploited?
(b) What happened in 1789?
(c) What was the Third Estate and what did it do?
(d) What happened because of the famine?

1.2 Find words in the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) disruption (para 1): …………………………………………….
(b) severe disagreement (para 2): …………………………………………….
(c) disapproved or censure (para 4): …………………………………………….
(d) suddenly attacked and captured (para 5): …………………………………………….

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Dowry is the payment in cash or/and kind by the bride’s family to the bridegroom’s family along with the giving away of the bride called Kanyadaan. The word is an amalgam of the two words ‘Kanya’ which means a daughter and daan which implies charity. It originated in upper-caste Hindu families as the wedding gift to the bride from her family as insurance in case her in-laws mistreated her. Although dowry was legally prohibited in 1961, it continues to be highly institutionalized.

2. Unfortunately, the practice of dowry abuse is rising in India. The most severe form of abuse is bride burning, the burning of women whose dowries were not considered sufficient by their husbands or in-laws. Most of these incidents are reported as accidental bums in the kitchen or are disguised as suicide.

It is evident that there exists deep-rooted prejudices against women in India. Cultural practices such as the payment of dowry tend to subordinate women in Indian society.

3. When the dowry amount is not considered sufficient or is not forthcoming, the bride is often harassed, abused and made miserable. This abuse can escalate to the point where the bride loses her life. The official records of these incidents are low because they are often reported as accidents or suicides by the families. In Delhi, a woman is burned to death almost every twelve hours. The number of dowry murders is increasing. In 1988, 2,209 women were killed in dowry-related incidents and in 1990, 4,835 were killed for the same reason.

4. Despite the existence of rigorous laws to prevent dowry-deaths under a 1986 amendment to the Indian Penal Code (IPC), convictions are rare. Hence the crime continues unabated.

2.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) Explain the basic act of dowry.
(b) Is dowry legal? What does it being legal or illegal signify?
(c) How does dowry affect women?
(d) What do the statistics about deaths tell you?

2.2. Find words in the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) a blend (para 1): …………………………………………….
(b) established in practice or custom (para 1): …………………………………………….
(c) increase rapidly (para 3): …………………………………………….
(d) a minor change or addition; an article added to the Constitution (para 4): …………………………………………….

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Physical health affects the mind and vice versa. Which of the two is the more important is like asking the age-old question: what comes first, the chicken or the egg. For our present subject, let us be clear that a sound mind in a sound body are prerequisites for high efficiency and good quality work in the office, factory or field, which leads to a sense of achievement and fulfillment.

2. Our health is, of course, important not only to us but also to our families and even to our employers. No wonder then that companies everywhere have a stake in the health and fitness of their employees and are willing to spend considerable money towards this purpose. Japanese companies particularly excel in this and the more successful among them start off the day with a body-bending and stretching session and even with the singing of the company song designed to promote loyalty and motivation among the workforce! This is considered an important factor contributing to high productivity and quality. Here is a lesson which has been emulated elsewhere in the world and could work wonders in India.

3. It is estimated that some 20,000 American firms have established in-house health clubs. Typical of these is a soft drink manufacturer which has spent about $2 million in setting up a health club at its head office in New York State. Such expenditure has proved to be a wise investment in achieving better efficiency and higher productivity. It has, indirectly, also helped reduce the premium on the health insurance of its staff. This business has grown so large that hundreds of consultancies have sprung up for the management of health clubs and fitness centres.

4. In some cases, there is a nominal contribution by the employees on the premise that they will value and use the facilities all the more. Some insurance companies have teamed up with employers in such ventures as better health contributes to a longer life and hence more premium! Though many firms in India have generous medical schemes, the movement towards health clubs and the like is yet to gain momentum.

3.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) According to the author, what are the most important qualities required for efficiency in work?
(b) How do Japanese companies take care of their employees?
(c) What have American companies done for their employees and how have their actions helped them in return?
(d) What role to insurance companies play to ensure mental and physical health?

3.2 Which words in the passage mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) something required as a prior condition for something else to happen (para 1): …………………………………………….
(b) to have a special interest in something (para 2): …………………………………………….
(c) spending in a scheme or idea for profit (para 3): …………………………………………….
(d) very small; far below the real value or cost (para 4): …………………………………………….

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. With at least a month-and-a-half break in the school schedule for the summer, entertaining children can be a tough challenge. While students look forward to vacations to let off steam, looking after them or taking them on a holiday is a tough task. With the changing scenario on the home front, as more and more couples are taking to work seriously and opting out of the joint family fold, children’s recreation options during vacations are limited to just television or comics. Sending a kid to a summer camp or a creche during vacations, a phenomenon unheard of till a few of decade ago, has become an unavoidable circumstance today.

2. These summer camps are conducted over a short period of four to five weeks involving interesting and fun-filled activities. A whole new world is opened up for the child, who can have a taste of adventure or sports or can be a part of a personality development camp. Camps offer four to five weeks of engaging and absorbing activities from artistic pursuits like painting, origami, art, music; hobby classes like craft and cookery; opportunities for enhancing knowledge through computer courses and even spoken English to lessons in physical pursuits like yoga, cricket and tennis, or even trekking, rafting, and rock climbing. Parents can pick and choose the camp they think is most suited to their child.

3. Changing times and trends have made parents productivity oriented. They desire to tap their child’s potential and want him to participate in ‘productive play’. And where better to achieve this than at summer camps! These camps provide the child an opportunity for developing creative talents and for exciting the imagination. They also promote a sense of achievement and pride. Children make craft objects and take them home to show them to their parents. This gives them a sense of accomplishment.

4. Camps and creches develop the child’s confidence, as he/she is encouraged to do things on his/her own. Hyperactive and aggressive children are benefited by these camps as their energies are fruitfully channelized. Camps and creches are an ideal place for the child to learn social skills and also have some fun in the process.

4.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) Why does the author say that it is difficult to entertain children?
(b) What were the children mostly doing before creche or summer camp came into play?
(c) How do summer camps work? What do they offer to the children?
(d) How to summer camps help children?

4.2 Find words in the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) development of events or situation (para 1): …………………………………………….
(b) a nursery where babies and young children are cared for during the working day (para 1): …………………………………………….
(c) focussed or leaning towards any specific objective (para 3): …………………………………………….
(d) extremely active (para 4): …………………………………………….

5. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Most of us would agree that it is admirable to be loyal—we approve of loyalty to our friends and loyalty to our country. When we speak of loyalty here we mean a readiness to help people when they are in difficulty or in danger, and a constant interest in their well-being at all times. It is often very clear when a person is being disloyal—when he lets his parents suffer without showing any concern, or fights in any army against his fellow countrymen, indiscriminately. For such people, most of us would feel disapproval.

2. However, there often arise situations in which it is harder to decide if a person is being disloyal or not. A clever child may resist his parents’ appeals to stop studying and pick up a job in order to help them financially. He may believe that he will be able to repay his parents more fully in the near future if he continues his studies for a few years longer, whereas, if he stops now, his talent will be wasted and never serve any purpose to anybody. On the other hand, if a boy’s parents are in great poverty, it might be disloyal for him to refuse to help them by going out to work and even if later in life he is successful, he may regret his disloyalty as a boy.

3. A more difficult problem sometimes is that of a human being’s relationship with the government of his country. A group of people who sincerely love their country and are anxious for its prosperity, may revolt against the government because they believe the government is bad for the country. They will immediately be called rebels and traitors. Calling them rebels may be correct, but not traitors, for they may be more truly loyal to the interests of their fellow countrymen than the government. Here we have to wait and see if they were inspired by true loyalty or by selfish interests.

5.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) According to the writer who is a loyal person?
(b) How is disloyalty different from treachery?
(c) Why is it not correct to call people rebelling against their government for the benefit of the country traitors?
(d) Why is the boy mentioned in the passage called sensible?

5.2 Find Words in the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) without showing care (para 1): …………………………………………….
(b) struggle against (para 2): …………………………………………….
(c) rise in opposition of authorities (para 3): …………………………………………….
(d) motivated (para 4): …………………………………………….

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. One of the most important changes in education in the last century is the effort that many countries and communities are making to educate adults who did not get the education they wanted or needed when they were in school, or who did not have the opportunity to go to school at all.

2. Governments and Non-governmental Organizations (NGO) organize programs to teach adults how to read and write, how to do their jobs better, how to farm, and how to be healthier and take better care of the health of their families. Programmes are also meant to help adults finish high school. Adult education programmes are under way in in almost all the countries in the world.

3. The basic belief behind adult education programmes is that a country will be economically and politically stronger if its people are educated and are able to read, write and do useful work. Countries worry that their citizens who cannot read or write and cannot understand the news or participate in political life. These people will not be represented in the government. Farmers who do not know enough about modem farming techniques to use technology effectively. Without the help of these farmers, the country’s agricultural output and income will be lower.

4. However, adult education faces many obstacles. Adults are not accustomed to returning to school and sitting for long hours listening to teachers and reading books. Also, many adults are ashamed or afraid to go back to school. They often think that they will appear to be unintelligent or that they will fail. Adults often have little time for education. They have jobs and families and cannot spare four to eight hours every day to go to school. Because of these problems, adults often cannot go to school, so the school must go to the adults.

5. Education can be taken to adults in different ways. In India, for example, television has played an important role in bringing education to rural areas. Educational television programmes that do not require the learners to be able to read or write are broadcast using satellite transmission. The programmes are about how to have better health, how to improve farming, and how to make small businesses work better. Adults in rural areas watch these programmes and discuss them with an educational adviser who travels from town to town.

6. However, adults have some advantages in education. Adult learners often know exactly what they need to learn. Because they have the experience of life, they know what knowledge will be useful to them and what will not. If they cannot read or write, they have experienced the problems that illiteracy can cause.

If they cannot do their jobs well, they have experienced the loss of income or of job opportunities that lack of vocational training can cause. Adults have usually accumulated a wealth of experience of life in general that can help them in learning. They have more practical, everyday experience that can help them understand what they learn in school.

6.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) Why do countries feel that adult education is essential for the country’s growth?
(b) How does education benefit individuals?
(c) What are the difficulties that adults face going back to school?
(d) How is it easier for people to learn as adults?

6.2 Find words from the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) hindrances or difficulties (para 4): …………………………………………….
(b) lack of ability to read or write (para 6): …………………………………………….
(c) gathered (para 6): …………………………………………….
(d) of or relating to an occupation or employment (para 6): …………………………………………….

7. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Headaches may be due to neurological causes, ophthalmic causes, ENT causes, vascular causes or dental causes.

2.. Those arising out of neurological disorders are usually associated with symptoms like nausea, vomiting, blurred vision and fits. This type of headache may be a warning of increased intracranial tension or intracranial tumors. Ophthalmic disorders like glaucoma and refractory errors may cause headaches. Dental caries and other disorders in the teeth may also cause severe headaches which can mimic sinusitis. Migraines cause more trouble and are usually episodic associated with an aura. They are also one-sided.

3. The most common cause of a headache, however, is sinusitis. This may be associated with nasal obstruction, a running nose, postnasal discharge, a dry cough and other such factors. With the nose being subject to various environmental pollutants and infections, sinusitis has become an increasingly common problem.

4. Sinuses are normal spaces or cavities within our skull. Ventilation and drainage of their secretions is essential for proper functioning of the nose. Our nose acts as a common drainage point for all sinuses. When the sinus pathway is obstructed, secretions collect in sinuses, leading to bacterial and fungal infections. The nasal obstruction may be caused by variations in the anatomy of the nose like deviation of the septum and formation of soft tissues like polyps.

5. Evaluation of patients with sinusitis requires a detailed examination by the doctor. The advent of nasal endoscopes has revolutionized the treatment of sinusitis. This reveals the complex anatomy and the changes causing disease in the nose and sinuses. The patient can also see all this on the monitor. Blood tests, X-rays and CT scan of the sinuses complement the endoscopy and play a vital role in evaluation.

6. Patients are initially treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy. The use of nasal endoscopes has brought about a great change in the treatment of the disease and surgical aspects. The earlier surgical methods like puncturing and lavage, which did not establish adequate drainage, are all obsolete now.

7. The latest surgical procedure called Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) uses the advanced nasal endoscope. This procedure precisely eliminates the blockage of natural pathways of the sinuses, restoring the normal flow of secretions. It also has a cosmetic advantage as it produces no external scar. The surgery can be performed as a day care procedure. Deviation of the septum, when present, is also corrected in the same sitting. There is no need for repetitions as in the older procedures.

8. Advanced surgical tools like Microdebrider help in adequate and efficient treatment which also makes FESS a safe and advanced technique in the management of sinusitis. The use of Microdebrider provides good mucosal preservation, reducing complications like bleeding. Therefore, it gives good post-operative results. Microdebrider also plays a vital role in polyp surgeries as it reduces the recurrence rate.

9. The nasal endoscope is also a great tool for performing other surgeries. Its role in removing orbital tumours with minimum invasive technique and in neurosurgery has revolutionized these fields.

10. Therefore, with these advanced options available in modem medicine, sinusitis is no longer a headache.

7.1 Answer the following. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) What are the common causes of headaches?
(b) How does a migraine differ from a normal headache?
(c) How are patients with sinusitis evaluated?
(d) How does Microdebrider help?

7.2 Find words in the passage that mean: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) imitate (para 2) …………………………………………….
(b) outdated/old-fashioned (para 6) …………………………………………….
(c) divergence/variation (para 7) …………………………………………….
(d) effected a radical change in (para 9) …………………………………………….

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Classrooms and schools have not only become a place of learning how to read and write but also where children pick up social skills. Sometimes these social skills range from learning how to speak with people or how to conduct oneself in various occasions but at times, children also leam other negative habits such as teasing and bullying. Unfortunately, teasing is seen as a part of growing up. Every child, no matter where they are, has experienced teasing or bullying in one form or the other. But teasing isn’t always innocuous, it can take a wrong turn when it becomes excessive or repetitive or even with a conscious intent to hurt another.

2. What seems to be an innocent name calling can actually turn out to be verbal bullying and this could also lead to psychological or physical bullying. Psychological bullying normally happens when a child is either intimidated or excluded from a particular social group or activity, which is the same as social ostracism, or when rumours are being spread about him/her.

3. Throughout the world, cases of bullying in schools as well as other institutions are very common and they happen to children of different socio-economic backgrounds, ethnicity, race etc. Researchers estimate that 20 to 30 per cent of school-age children are involved in bullying incidents, as either perpetrators or victims. The victims are usually students who seem to be different or are shy or physically weaker than the other children. They are easy targets for bullies as do not retaliate.

Bullying might result in both physical and mental trauma for the victims. The first sign of bullying can be seen in a sharp decline in a child’s academic progress as well as attentiveness in class. If unchecked, this could lead to a low self esteem and depression that may last into adulthood. Some of the signs a parent, guardian or a teacher could look out for possible cases of bullying are physical symptoms such as stomach aches or headaches, cuts and bruises and even a drop in their grades. Bullied children also show signs of passivity and not wanting to go to school and avoid social activities.

4. Studies have shown that most bullies themselves do not come from safe and secure environment that would provide them proper emotional growth. They too are affected even into adulthood. They have trouble forming positive relationships and are more apt to use abusive substances which may also lead to other criminal offences.

5. A parent or a teacher has the responsibility to address these issues and handle them with tact. It is very important as an adult and a caregiver to notice these signs, and not to belittle it by saying, ‘it happens to everyone’. The child should be given an opportunity as well as a safe space to interact and express his/her emotions without any hindrance.

The child should be given full empathy regarding any issue, especially if it is related to bullying. It is important for the child to be able to express themselves and if it is not possible for the child to verbalize his/her feelings, one should not rush them but continue to show empathy and maybe even read a story about bullying. The children can be encouraged to act out their frustrations and problems.

6. A mediator needs to be chosen to act as an intermediary so that adults can intervene and solve the issue. It is also the responsibility of the teacher to mediate between parents just so that the needs of the child can be addressed, whether they are the victim or the perpetrators, to judiciously solve the problem of bullying from both ends.

8.1 Answer the following. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) Explain bullying in your own words.
(b) How does bullying affect the victim?
(c) How does bullying affect the bully?
(d) How can bullying be prevented?

8.2 Find words from the passage that mean the same as: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) not harmful (para 1) …………………………………………….
(b) exclusion (para 2) …………………………………………….
(c) compassion (para 5) …………………………………………….
(d) a go-between or mediator (para 6) …………………………………………….

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Lately, parenting forums have been buzzing with parents looking for ideas on how to keep their teenagers from spending a lot of time on the computer and the Internet.

2. It seems that teenagers these days are hooked on to the computer just as they were hooked to the television just a decade ago. Whether they are spending time on social media, blogging, chatting or surfing the Internet, mounting evidence shows that teenage computer use can in some cases be classified as either a compulsion or even an addiction.

3. How do you know as a parent when your teenager’s computer use is going too far?

4. There is no easy litmus test here. If your teenager loves to play online games, he/she may not be alone. However, if your teenager seems to be sacrificing social opportunities or spending more than 25 hours a week in the online gaming arena, maybe something is wrong.

5. One of the Internet’s most popular games, the World of Warcraft, is a self-contained online world with millions of different players from dozens of countries around the world. This online realm sucks teenagers in easily, and some have been known to stay on the World of Warcraft site for more than 70 or 80 active hours per week.

6. Today’s teenager also has access to a variety of services available on the computer and over the Internet. Instead of using the telephone, they use instant messaging. They don’t get their pictures printed at the comer photograph shop anymore but upload digital pictures to MySpace and share them with friends and anyone else instantly.

7. Even the ever-present radio or stereo have fallen out of vogue because improved sound system can be attached to the computer. Watching a movie on television has been replaced with playing a DVD on the computer.

8. Some teenagers may even do their homework and school projects on the computer.

9. Considering that many people get addicted to the Internet, parents should be able to recognize when their teenager is developing a bad habit. The isolating, repetitive nature of computer work in general can be stunting in terms of development. In addition, parents should be concerned if their teenagers are not getting enough exercise, nutrition and sleep.

10. A friend of mine told me just a few days ago, “I caught my 11 year old son playing games on the Internet at four o’clock in the morning!

11. I am no exception; I also spend way too much time on the computer. Since our kids tend to do as they see, more often than not they do not do as they are told.

12. To establish a good and argument-proof plan when approaching your teenager, it is vital that you know exactly what your teenager is doing while on the computer and how much time he/she is spending on each particular activity. Establish which activities you will allow, and which websites or activities are off limits.

13. The Internet has become an unsafe place for teenagers in many respects, so you might also consider one of the software packages available that allow you to set parental controls similar to the parental controls which block certain TV programmes. Set an example yourself. If you’re an online junky or a solitaire addict, cut back on your computer use time and provide a good example. Take time to connect with your teenager and to bring your family together for non-computer/TV related activities and you’ll likely see their computer use time decrease.

9.1 Complete the following statements in your own words based on your reading of the passage.

(a) Why is it said that computers have become an addiction for teenagers?
(b) How can a user’s addiction for computers be identified?
(c) How has the computer affected other devices of entertainment?
(d) How can teenagers be discouraged from using computer continuously?

9.2 Find words from the passage that mean the same as:

(a) an urge or insistent desire to do something (para 2) …………………………………………….
(b) a territory or area (para 5) …………………………………………….
(c) popularity; a period of general or popular usage or favour (para 7) …………………………………………….
(d) important (para 12) …………………………………………….

10. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. It is generally well known that a number of ‘dangerous’ countries either possess or have the technology to produce nuclear weapons, and may be tempted to act irresponsibly. It is also worth remembering, however, that the country which possesses more nuclear weapons than any other, the United States, is the only power ever to have used nuclear weapons against people.

2. Nuclear weapons were first developed in the United States during the Second World War to be used against Germany. However, by the time the first bombs were ready for use, the war with Germany had ended and, as a result, the decision was made to use the weapons against Japan instead. Hiroshima and Nagasaki have suffered the consequences of this decision to the present day.

3. The real reasons why bombs were dropped on two heavily-populated cities are not altogether clear. A number of people in 1944 and early 1945 argued that the use of nuclear weapons would be unnecessary, since American Intelligence was aware that some of the most powerful and influential people in Japan had already realized that the war was lost, and wanted to negotiate a Japanese surrender. It was also argued that, since Japan has few natural resources, a blockade by the American navy would force it to surrender within a few weeks. If a demonstration of force was required to end the war, a bomb could be dropped over an area of low population.

4. All of these arguments were rejected, however, and the reasons why this decision was reached seem quite shocking to us now.

5. Since the beginning of the Second World War, both Germany and Japan had adopted a policy of genocide. Later on, even the US and Britain had used the strategy of fire-bombing cities (Dresden and Tokyo, for example) in order to kill, injure and intimidate as many civilians as possible. Certainly, the general public in the West had become used to hearing about the deaths of large numbers of people, so the deaths of another few thousand Japanese, who were the enemy in any case, would not seem particularly unacceptable -a bit of ‘justifiable’ revenge for the Allies’ own losses, perhaps.

6. The second reason is not much easier to comprehend. Some of the leading scientists in the world had collaborated to develop nuclear weapons, and this development had resulted in a number of major advances in technology and scientific knowledge. As a result, a lot of ‘normal, intelligent people’ wanted to see nuclear weapons used; they wanted to see just how destructive this new invention could be. It no doubt turned out to be even more ‘effective’ than they had imagined.

10.1 Answer the following in your own words.

(a) Which countries are referred to as “dangerous”?
(b) Why were the bombs dropped on Japan?
(c) What does the author feel about the use of nuclear weapons?
(d) What does the author feel about the number of casualties in the war?

10.2 Find words in the passage that mean the following:

(a) important, because of being powerful (para 3): …………………………………………….
(b) a sealing off a place to prevent goods or people from leaving or entering (para 3): …………………………………………….
(c) killing as many people as possible, including civilians (para 5) …………………………………………….
(d) worked together (para 6): …………………………………………….

11. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. According to a Buddhist saying, anger is like a piece of burning coal that we use to hit out against someone else. The hurried piece of live coal may hit the person, even injuring him as we intend at the moment. But the most injured, the most seared, is the one who hurls the coal, the one who held it in the first place.

2. Today, when religion is misused as a focus of anger, it is spirituality that will rescue the day. All religions warn against anger as a provocation, a hurdle in the path towards self-realization. Yet, we keep lapsing into it, conditioned by our animalistic zest where anger was a self-preservative tool. Today, it is no longer so since we are ‘civilized’, priding ourselves on being more than a step ahead of other animals in the evolutionary ladder. And science increasingly points out how anger has outlived its evolutionary use and today it is a double-edged knife, hurting us most, erupting as diseases—blood pressure, diabetes, heart problems, skin diseases, weakened immune system, and thus sapping but very real chronic fatigue.

3. Yet, we invest anger with controlling power, see those who throw tantrums as powerful. But science is categorical that anger is a symptom of complete loss of control. While the skeptics may see this as psycho-babble, it is a scientific fact. The symptoms of anger are, for the most part, similar to fear! The iris widens, the heart pumps blood faster; the pressure on the circulatory system is heightened. The hair follicles on the body stand up, even the blood chemistry changes. The fight-or-flight hormones, in fact, are the same for anger and fear: adrenalin and non-adrenalin. In effect, the entire sympathetic mechanism is on a chronic alert, bombarding the system to prepare itself just as fear does. The first flush of anger may be ‘useful’, but the next one and the next keep circulating in the blood as chemicals that have outlived their moment, keeping us in a state of heightened sympathetic system arousal, which is a diseased state, leading to chronic ailments.

4. Anger disrupts even the simple mechanism of digestion, since the blood is busy running around to ‘help’ you hit out at the enemy. Other life-sustaining systems in the body too are in the go-slow mode in the person who is chronically angry. Over time, this causes adrenal gland exhaustion, causing the new-age disease called hypo-adrenalism, which leads to a variety of chronic diseases, including fatigue, migraine, and blood-pressure. Doctors may shut up these symptoms with pills, but long-term cures lie in erasing anger out of the system.

11.1 Complete the following blanks in your own words. (8 marks)

(a) Why does anger hurt the angry person the most?
(b) How anger and fear are similar?
(c) What are the diseases caused by anger?
(d) How does anger affect the digestive system?

11.2 Find words from the passage which are similar in meaning to the following words. (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) scorched; burnt (para 1): …………………………………………….
(b) unaffected (para 2): …………………………………………….
(c) tiredness (para 4): …………………………………………….
(d) removing (para 4): …………………………………………….

12 Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Almost everyone knows that outdoor air pollution can damage one’s health and lungs. But not many people are aware about indoor air pollution.

2. Your house, your office, school or college, and your work environment, shops and restaurants—all contribute in their own small way. In other words, about 80 per cent of our time is spent indoors without knowing that we are damaging our health.

3. Poor indoor air quality has been linked to lung diseases like allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), and lung cancer. People who already have asthma and smoking-induced bronchitis suffer the most. Old people who are constantly indoors can also get pollution-related lung diseases.

4. Entry of air into the house is ventilation. Air can enter the house in many ways: natural ventilation when we open the doors or windows, or by infiltration through the cracks in the walls, floors or ceilings, or through exhaust fans or air conditioners.

5. These pollutants which invade our houses cause dry throat and cough in a very slow manner. One may forget that indoor air pollution may be the cause. Most of the unexplained coughs or cough-variant asthmas result from these causes.

6. Children seem to be more sensitive than adults. They are more sensitive to tobacco smoke. Patients who are allergic to mites or moulds suffer most when they enter a room that has carpets, curtains, and air conditioners. The effect can start in the womb if the mother or father smokes.

7. Levels of outdoor pollution are measured although little action is taken by anyone. Some countries have set guidelines for indoor air quality, but setting them in India will be difficult. For example, in a multi¬storeyed residential complex one does not worry about petrol pollution, but the vehicle exhaust enters homes thanks to basement car parks!

8. Self-discipline, individual choice, and control over what we use in our homes and how we ventilate them is the only way out. It is hard to control, check, establish, and maintain good levels of air quality in schools, offices, shops, and restaurants. However, we can be aware of the risks and make an effort to reduce them. Only individual effort, not law, can make the earth pollution-free.

12.1 Answer the following in your own words. (2 x 4 = 8)

(a) Which two kinds of people are prone to lung diseases?
(d) How can basement parking lots affect the residents living in the multi-story buildings?
(c) How have countries tried to tackle air pollution?
(d) How can individuals contribute towards reducing air pollution?

12.2 Find words in the passage which mean the opposite of the following: (1 x 4 = 4)

(a) indifferent (para 6): …………………………………………….
(b) business establishment (para 7): …………………………………………….
(c) safety (para 8): …………………………………………….
(d) increase (para 8): …………………………………………….

Rearrange Jumbled Sentences for Class 11 CBSE With Answers

Jumbled Sentences for Class 11 CBSE

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 11 English Chapter wise.

Jumbled Sentences Exercise With Answers for Class 11 Pdf

Rearrange Jumbled Sentences Practice Examples for Class 11 CBSE

1. Rearrange the following to form meaningful sentences.

The first one has been done as an example.

  • feared by/snakes are/in our/worshipped and/many/country
    Snakes are worshipped and feared by many in our country.

(a) of the/are venomous/only/300 out/species/2700 known
(b) which is/yellow liquid/water/snake venom/90% of/is a
(c) expelled/poison gland/that is/it is/from the/substance
(d) of thick/are/connective/these glands/made/tissues
(e) used it/in the/to treat/doctors/12th century/leprosy

2. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. Write the correct sentences in your answer sheet against the correct numbers.

(a) the/is/world/wrestling/oldest sports/in/the/one of
(b) of/Europe/ancient/people/cave/wrestling/have been/drawings/in/found
(c) television/amateur wrestling/very different/the/from/is/professional wrestling/on/seen/the
(d) sport/not/money/amateur wrestlers/do/wrestle/love/for/they/wrestle/for the/of the
(e) the/Olympics/the top goal/nearly/at/every/of/is/to compete/amateur wrestler

3. Rearrange the following to form meaningful sentences.

(a) communications/not matter/were slow/it did/between different/when the/parts of the world
(b) for a/people feel/our times/the need/but in/common language
(c) to the put forward/solutions/problem/have been/various
(d) unconnected with/creation of/the first/an artificial language/was the/any existing language
(e) invention of a/natural/based on/the second solution/synthetic language/was the
(f) governments of the/international language/almost unlikely/to an/world will agree that the/it is

4. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. Write the correct sentences in your answer sheet against the correct numbers.

(a) synthetic,/world’s scientists/the need/during/severe shortages/or/World War I,/alerted/a number of/the/to/man – made materials/for
(b) headed by/called nylon/thus/first/by 1934,/synthetic fibre,/a/Wallace H. Carothers/research team/the/had developed
(c) surprisingly/turned out,/the development/a/profound effect had/as it/of nylon/on world affairs
(d) fashion/true,/first/use/its/was/in
(e) sheer nylon hose/in 1939,/women/the Dupont company/marketing/for/began
(f) hit/nylons/sold off/were/a spectacular/immediately/and/the shelves/almost

5. Rearrange the following words and phrases to form meaningful sentences. The first one is done for you as an example.

(a) of its residents/becomes a/it reflect /a house/the personality/home when
(b) has to look/no rules/how our/ there are/as to/home
(c) thing is/inhabiting them/should enjoy/the important/ that we
(d) about/houses are/our lives/personal statements
(e) the confidence/in ourselves/they reflect/we have
(f) we have/will be/the more/individualistic/confidence/the more/ our homes

Modals Exercises for Class 11 CBSE With Answers

Modals Exercises for Class 11 CBSE

What are modal verbs?
Modals (also called modal verbs, modal auxiliary verbs, modal auxiliaries) are special verbs that behave irregularly in English. They are different from normal verbs like “work, play, visit…” They give additional information about the function of the main verb that follows it. They have a great variety of communicative functions.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 11 English Chapter wise.

Modals Exercise For Class 11 CBSE With Answers PDF

Use suitable modals to complete the dialogue given below.

Dr. Grewal: I hate to say this, Mr Rai, but you are in terrible shape.
Mr. Rai: I know, what …………………………. I do?
Dr. Grewal: Well since you are so overweight you …………………………. go on a diet.
Mr. Rai: You are right. I …………………………. not eat so much fried stuff.
Dr. Grewal: That’s right, and you …………………………. also start exercising.
Mr. Rai: …………………………. I start with walking for an hour every day?
Dr. Grewal: Yes, but what is most important is that you …………………………. quit smoking immediately.
Answer:
Dr. Grewal: I hate to say this, Mr Rai, but you are in terrible shape.
Mr. Rai: I know, what should I do?
Dr. Grewal: Well since you are so overweight you must go on a diet.
Mr. Rai: You are right. I should not eat so much fried stuff.
Dr. Grewal: That’s right, and you should also start exercising.
Mr. Rai: Could I start with walking for an hour every day?
Dr. Grewal: Yes, but what is most important is that you must quit smoking immediately.

The words that describe the ‘mode’ of the verb are called modals. They are also called modal auxiliaries. They are never used alone. Together with the verb which follows them, they express the mode or manner of the action denoted by the verb.

The main modals are:
can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, ought to, need to have to

The negative modals are:
couldn’t, wouldn’t, shouldn’t, mustn’t, needn’t, oughtn’t/ought not to

Modal Example Uses
can/can’t She can swim very well.
It can rain today.
Can you help me?
Can I help you with this work?
ability
possibility/probability
request
offer
could/couldn’t Could you please repeat what you said?
We could go for a movie today.
I think you could come first this time.
There was a time when I could run with the hare.
request
suggestion
possibility/probability past ability
may May I have some sugar?
May I help you?
May I open the window?
India may become a super power by 2020.
May God bless you.
request
offer
permission
possibility/probability
wish/desire
might They might give us a good discount. future possibility/probability
will/won’t It is raining so I will stay at home.
I will help you if you come over.
Will you help me?
It will rain tonight.
I will get you a laptop from Australia.
intention
offer
request
prediction
promise
would/wouldn’t Would you mind if I take an off tomorrow?
Would you pass the salt?
Would five o’clock suit you?
Yes it would.
Would you have dinner with us tonight?
Would you prefer tea or coffee?
permission
request
making arrangements
invitation
preference
shall/should Shall I help you?
Shalt we meet at 3.00 p.m.?
We should check the timings of the train.
You should listen to your conscience.
offer
making arrangements
recommended action
advice
ought to You ought to serve your parents.
The bus ought to be here any minute.
advice
probability
must/mustn’t We must make a move now.
You must do your duty.
obligation
necessity
need He need not go to the market.
You need to lose weight.
I need to take time off.
necessity
compulsion
insistence

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals.

If we sit in an incorrect posture, we …………………………. strain our backs. As far as possible, this …………………………. be avoided. If the posture becomes a part of habit, a low back pain invariably develops. It …………………………. be cured if we become conscious of our posture. We …………………………. also take time out to perform a few exercises. If the exercises are done regularly, the backache …………………………. certainly be cured. It …………………………. also improve blood circulation within the spine.
Answer:
If we sit in an incorrect posture, we will strain our backs. As far as possible, this should be avoided. If the posture becomes a part of habit, a low back pain invariably develops. It can be cured if we become conscious of our posture. We should also take time out to perform a few exercises. If the exercises are done regularly, the backache will certainly be cured. It will also improve blood circulation within the spine.

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals.

Whenever I think of my school Principal, I feel highly impressed by his habit of going on a regular morning walk. He …………………………. get up early. Rain or storm, he …………………………. go for a walk. Even when he fell ill, no one in the house …………………………. stop him from going out. He …………………………. always say that morning walks …………………………. cure him of illnesses and he was right. He never fell ill. At the age of seventy – five, he …………………………. run for miles together and …………………………. leave youngsters far behind. Now he is running ninety miles …………………………. he live long!
Answer:
Whenever I think of my school Principal, I feel highly impressed by his habit of going on a regular morning walk. He would get up early. Rain or storm, he will go on for a walk. Even when he fell ill, no one in the house could stop him from going out. He used to always say that morning walks—cure him of illnesses and he was right. He never fell ill. At the age of seventy—five, he—run for miles together and even leave youngsters far behind. Now he is running ninety miles. May he love long!

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals.

The art of cooking was perfected in ancient India. When people were eating raw meat the world over, Indians …………………………. prepare hundreds of food items from one single commodity. Even today we know that we …………………………. prepare many items from milk alone. It …………………………. be curd, butter, cheese, sweet burfis, etc. Unfortunately this milk-producing country is running short of milk. We …………………………. not improve this condition unless we pay serious attention to our milk – cattle. We …………………………. improve their breed by new scientific methods. Attention …………………………. also be paid to their proper nourishment.
Answer:
The art of cooking was perfected in ancient India. When people were eating raw meat the world over, Indians would prepare hundreds of food items from one single commodity. Even today we know that we can prepare many items from milk alone. It may be curd, butter, cheese, sweet burfis, etc. Unfortunately this milk—producing country is running short of milk. We will not improve this condition unless we pay serious attention to our milk—cattle. We ought to improve their breed by new scientific methods. Attention must also be paid to their proper nourishment.

Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 CBSE With Answers

Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10

Transformation of sentences means to change the form of a sentence without changing its meaning. A simple sentence can be changed into a complex or a compound sentence and vice versa. Similarly, an interchange of affirmative, negative, and interrogative sentences can be done; without changing their meaning. Given below are some of the ways to transform a sentence.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 10 English Chapter wise.

Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 CBSE With Answers PDF

Sentence Transformation Exercises Practice Examples for Class 10 CBSE

1. Complete the news stories accompanying the following headlines by filling in the blanks. Write only the correct answers against the correct blank numbers in your answer sheets. Do not copy the whole sentence. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

(a) Homework for Kids Makes Parents Fret
Summer vacation may be great for children but not always for hapless parents who ……………………………. set by the school.

(b) IIM Bangalore Retains Old Fee
IIM Bangalore has ……………………………. after months of deliberations and meetings.

(c) Sri Lanka Beat Malaysia to Take Peace Cup
Sri Lanka won ……………………………. Snooker Tournament played in Chandigarh.

(d) DU a Hit with Foreign Students
The increasing number of foreign students at the Delhi University proves ……………………………. foreign students.

(e) Lok Sena Opposes Caste-based Job Reservations
The Lok Sena ……………………………. government and private sectors.

(f) Pet dog Saves the Life of Toddler
A pet dog ……………………………. toddler by alerting neighbours about a fire in the room.

2. Complete the following dialogue between Diana and her mother discussing hotel reservations. Write only the correct answers against the correct blank numbers in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

Diana: Mother, how are we going to Puri?
Mother: (a) …………………………… .
Diana: Oh! that’s nice. Which plane are we flying by?
Mother: Well, I have managed to book tickets with the Indian Airlines.
Diana: (b) …………………………… .
Mother: I have booked rooms at the Sea Queen Hotel.
Diana: (c) …………………………… .
Mother: Yes, it is situated on the beach itself.

3. Complete the following dialogue between a secretary and her boss. Write only the correct answers against the correct blank numbers in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

Boss: John, why haven’t you put away the files as yet?
John: Sir, I am sorry but I was just going to do it today.
Boss: (a) …………………………… .
John: I was waiting for the new filing cabinet that I have ordered.
Boss: (b) …………………………… .
John: It was supposed to be delivered this morning.
Boss: (c) …………………………… .
John: No, Sir I was busy completing the work that you had left for me.
Boss: How can you possibly work in such an untidy environment?

4. Complete the following dialogue between a garage mechanic and a customer. Write only the correct answers against the correct blank numbers in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

Mechanic: Yes, Sir what can I do for you?
Customer: (a) …………………………… .
Mechanic: Are the brakes giving you some trouble?
Customer: (b) …………………………… .
Mechanic: Very well, you will have to leave the car for a day with me.
Customer: (c) …………………………… .
Mechanic: It will cost you about 200 rupees.

5. Complete the following dialogue between two friends. Write only the correct answers against the correct blank numbers in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

Tom: Sam, guess what, I have got two tickets for the new movie. Would you like to go with me?
Sam: (a) …………………………… .
Tom: (b) …………………………… .
Sam: Thursday evening! No way, I have my guitar classes.
Tom: (c) …………………………… .
Sam: No, way, if I don’t go even for one day I will miss a lot of course.
Tom: In that case I will ask Sharon

6. Read the comic strip and complete the passage that follows. Write the correct answers in your answer sheets against the correct blank numbers. Do not copy the whole sentence. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 5

One evening Tim asked his father (a) …………………………… . His father replied that he did. Then Tim wanted to know (b) …………………………… . His father once again replied that he would. But when Tim kept on insisting, his father got suspicious and shouted at him, asking him (c) …………………………… .

7. Read the comic strip and complete the passage that follows. Write the correct answers in your answer sheets against the correct blank numbers. Do not copy the whole sentence. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 6
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 7

Rohan went up to a policeman and informed him (a) …………………………… . The policeman wanted to know where Rohan was that time. Rohan replied (b) ……………………………. at that time. Then the policeman wanted to know at what time he had been there and for how long. Rohan said that he had been there from 7:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. Finally the policeman said that (c) ……………………………. be tough.

8. Read the comic strip and complete the passage that follows. Write the correct answers in your answer sheets against the correct blank numbers. Do not copy the whole sentence. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 1

One day a worried Will told Tina that the teacher had told Jack that (a) …………………………… . However he was a little relieved because he felt that Jack (b) ……………………………. but unfortunately he had (c) ……………………………. the back.

9. Read the comic strip and complete the passage that follows. Write the correct answers in your answer sheets against the correct blank numbers. Do not copy the whole sentence. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 2

Jean told Stuart that she had heard that (a) …………………………… . He replied that (b) ……………………………. and he was thinking of (c) …………………………… .

10. Read the comic strip and complete the passage that follows. Write the correct answers in your answer sheets against the correct blank numbers. Do not copy the whole sentence. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 3
Sentence Transformation Exercises for Class 10 4
Seeta asked her mother (a) …………………………… . Her mother was surprised and wanted to know why (b) ……………………………. sleep late. She replied that she had decided to go for morning walks regularly. The mother was pleased but asked her not (c) ……………………………. past. Seeta replied that (d) …………………………… .

Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE With Answers

Clauses Exercises for Class 11 CBSE

A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a predicate. It contains a verb and sometimes other components too. So, how do we distinguish what is a clause and how exactly is it different from a phrase?

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 11 English Chapter wise.

Clauses Exercises With Answers for Class 11 CBSE PDF

Complete the following passages using the appropriate forms of the words given in brackets.

Question 1.
The city was torn by riots. The old man did not know the place (a) ………………………. (he – go) along with his daughter. Since the house was surrounded by rioters, he even did not know (b) ………………………. (escape – them). He, therefore, told his daughter (c) ………………………. (she – hide) somewhere … anywhere.
Answer:
(a) where he should go
(b) How they could escape from them
(c) that she should hide

Question 2.
The findings of a Housing Study show (a) ………………………. (poor suffer – most). The lack of resources, rising cost of material and land are the problems (b) ………………………. (make housing difficult – poor). The government’s worry is (c) ………………………. (cut down – cost of housing) so that the poor can buy houses.
Answer:
(a) that the poor suffer the most
(b) which makes housing difficult for the poor
(c) how it can cut down the cost of housing

A clause is a group of words that forms part of a sentence and has a subject and a predicate or a finite verb of its own.
Example:

  • This is the house where I was born.
  • Clauses are of three kinds:

Clauses Exercises With Answers for Class 11

Subordinate Clauses are of 3 types:
Clauses Exercises With Answers for Class 11

Noun Clauses

The Noun Clause does the work of a noun in the sentence. It is introduced by the following connectives:

Pronouns: who, what, which, whom, whose
Example:

  • I know who he is.

Adverbs: when, where, why, how
Examples:

  • I asked him if he knew where the post office was.
  • I don’t know why he does not study.

Conjunctions: that, whether, if
Examples:

  • I think that Raghu is a liar.
  • I asked her whether she wanted a book to read.

A noun clause may be used:

(a) as a subject.
Example:

  • What you are doing – is dishonest.
  • Whether she will come – is uncertain.
  • That the earth revolves around the sun – has been proved.

(b) as a compliment:

  • My opinion is – that – he is innocent.
  • The question is – how – we should tackle the issue.
  • The problem is – where – we should stay.
  • I am sure – that – I have done the right thing.

(c) in apposition:

  • The rumor – that – he has sold his shares is baseless.
  • It is sure – that – we will win the match.

(d) as an object to a proposition:

  • You must pay attention to what is taught in class.

Complete the sentences using the hints given in brackets to form noun clauses as shown.
Example:

  • …………………………. is true. (he/liar)
    That he is a liar is true.

(a) No one can know …………………………. (he/getting on).
(b) I heard …………………………. (he/success).
(c) …………………………. (reason/his sudden change of mind) is not known.
(d) I fear …………………………. (I/fail).
(e) I know …………………………. (he/come).
(f) He told me …………………………. (you/feeling unwell).
(g) I don’t see …………………………. (you/get out of mess).
(h) (you/say this) …………………………. is very strange.
(i) I do not know …………………………. (he/angry).
(j) (we/stay/tonight) …………………………. is the problem.
Answer:
(a) No one can know how he is getting on.
(b) I heard that he was a success.
(c) The reason for his sudden change of mind is not known.
(d) I fear that I will fail.
(e) I know that he will come
(f) He told me that you were feeling unwell
(g) I don’t see you getting out of the mess.
(h) What you say is very strange
(i) I didn’t know that he is angry.
(j) Our staying here tonight is the problem.

Adverb Clauses

The adverb clause functions as an adverb, i.e. it modifies verbs. Therefore, an adverb clause may appear anywhere in a sentence. It tells us why, where, under what conditions, or to what degree the action occurred or the situation existed. Unlike adjective clauses, they frequently change their position within the sentence. Example: When the timer rings, we know the cake is done.

OR

We know the cake is done when the timer rings.
Adverb Clauses may be classified as Adverb Clauses of Condition, Time, Place, Reason, Manner, Purpose, etc.

Adverb Clauses Of Condition

Adverbial Clauses of Condition are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions: if, unless, provided, provided that, on condition that, so long as, whether…or, had, were, in case.

There are four types of Conditionals.

Type Example Form Use
Conditional Main
cause and effect Ice turns to water if you heat it. If/When + 1 st form of verb Subject + 1st form of verb to describe a general truth, laws, habitual reactions, scientific facts
open present condition If I see him, I will give him a lift. If + noun/pronoun + 1 st form of verb Subject + will/ may/might + 1 st form of verb to describe something that is likely to happen in a given situation
improbable condition If I had the money, I would travel around the world. If + noun/pronoun + 3rd form of verb Noun/pronoun + would/might + 1 st form of verb to describe something in a real situation that is unlikely to happen or is not about reality
impossible condition If I had known you were in hospital, I would have visited you. If + noun/pronoun + had + 3rd form of verb Noun/pronoun + would/might + have + 3rd form of verb to speculate about the past, expressing regret, criticism or relief

Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the verbs given in brackets.

(a) If anyone …………………………. (ring up), tell them I’ll be back by 5.30 p.m.
(b) If you really want to learn French, you …………………………. (need) to spend some time in France.
(c) If you …………………………. (listen) to me, we wouldn’t be lost.
(d) I …………………………. (give) you a lift if I had my car here.
(e) If they had found him in time, they …………………………. (able) to save his life.
(f) If Mohit was honest, he …………………………. (return) the money.
(g) What would you do if you …………………………. (win) the lottery?
(h) If he …………………………. (not break) the window, then who did?
(i) If I had known how difficult it was to get here, I …………………………. (not undertake) the journey.
(j) …………………………. (not be) for my parents, I wouldn’t be where I am.
Answer:
(a) If anyone rings up, tell them I’ll be back by 5:30 p.m.
(b) If you really want to learn French, you need to spend some time in France.
(c) If you had listened to me, we wouldn’t be lost.
(d) I would have given you a lift if I had my car here.
(e) If they had found him in time, they would have been able to save his life.
(f) If Mohit was honest, he would return the money.
(g) What would you do if you win the lottery?
(h) If he did not break the window, then who did?
(i) If I had known how difficult it was to get here, I would have not undertaken the journey.
(j) Had it not been for my parents, I wouldn’t be where I am.

Adverb Clauses Of Time

Adverbial Clauses of Time are often called ‘time clauses’. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
when, before, until, since, than, as, the moment, till, as soon as, after, while, etc.

Examples:

  • He saw Meena when he was in Lucknow.
  • We will finish before he arrives.
  • She began cooking while I was finishing my homework.

Note: When the sentence begins with an adverb clause, use a comma to separate the two clauses.
Example:

  • When she called, he had already eaten lunch.

When the adverb clause finishes the sentence, there is no need for a comma.
Example:

  • He gave me a call when he arrived in town.

Adverb Clauses Of Place

Adverbial Clauses of Place show the place of action. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions: where, wherever, whence, etc.
Examples:

  • Wherever you go, the dog will follow.
  • Where there is a will, there is a way.
  • I will sit where I want.

Adverb Clauses Of Purpose
Adverbial Clauses of Purpose show the purpose or the reason behind an action. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
that, so that, in order that, lest, etc.

Examples:

  • Walk fast lest you miss the bus.
  • Work hard so that you may pass the exam.
  • Take care that you may do well.

Adverb Clauses Of Reason
Adverbial Clauses of Reason give the reason of an action. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
since, because, for, as, that, etc.

Examples:

  • Because he was unwell, he did poorly in the examination.
  • Since 15 August is a national holiday, we don’t have to go to work that day.
  • Altaf went back to Srinagar in order to take care of some business of his company.
  • He isn’t able to lift any weights since he broke his right arm.

Adverb Clauses Of Manner

Adverbial Clauses of Manner give the manner in which an action takes place. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
as, as…So, as if, as though, etc.

Examples:

  • She danced as if her life depended upon it.
  • As you sow, so shall you reap.
  • Try to knit as I have shown you.

Adverb Clauses Of Result
Adverbial Clauses of Result show the consequence or result of an action. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
SO…. that, such … that

Note: Adverbial Clause of Result may be preceded by so/such in the Principal Clause.
Examples:

  • She was so weak that she could not walk.
  • She spoke in such a way that I could follow her.
  • I am so tired that I just want to sleep.

Adverb Clauses Of Comparison
Adverbial Clauses of Comparison compare two actions or objects. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
than, as
Examples:

  • She is not so weak as you think.
  • He is even more foolish than I thought he was.

Adverb Clauses Of Contrast
Adverbial Clauses of Contrast show the difference between two actions or objects. These clauses are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions:
though, although, even if, however, all the same, etc.

Examples:

  • Although it was raining, he went for a walk.
  • However hard he may work now, he will fail.
  • I will not believe you, whatever you may say.

Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the words given in brackets as shown.

(a) I have not been well …………………………. (return/Chennai)
I have not been well since I returned from Chennai.

(b) We ran fast …………………………. (arrive in time)
(c) …………………………., we missed the train. (run fast)
(d) No one can succeed …………………………. (work hard)
(e) …………………………. yet he is contented. (poor)
(f) ………………………….. the birds go back to their nests. (sun set)
(g) He spoke so softly …………………………. (cannot hear)
(h) You may sit …………………………. (like)
(i) Come home early …………………………. (not safe/after dark)
(j) …………………………. he remained at home. (feel unwell)
Answer:
(a) I have not been well since I returned from Chennai
(b) We ran fast as the train had arrived.
(c) Despite running fast. We missed the train
(d) No one can succeed without working hard.
(e) He is poor yet he is contented.
(f) After sun set the birds go back to their nests.
(g) He spoke so softly that I couldn’t hear.
(h) You may sit if you feel like
(i) Come here early as it is not safe after dark.
(j) He was feeling unwell so je remained at home.

Relative Clauses

A Relative Clause (also called Adjective Clause) modifies a noun or pronoun by providing extra information. Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun (who, whom, which, that, whose). Relative clauses can either be restrictive or non – restrictive.

Restrictive Relative Clauses :
A restrictive relative clause is essential in order to complete the meaning of the main clause.
Example:

  • Where is the girl who is going with us?

Non – restrictive Relative Clauses
A non – restrictive relative clause adds definition to the main clause, but is not necessary to complete the meaning. Non – restrictive relative clauses are set off by commas.
Example:

  • That girl, who is wearing a green dress, is my best friend.

Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the words given in brackets as shown.

(a) Do you know the woman …………………………. (blue sari)?
Do you know the woman who is wearing the blue sari?

(b) The boy …………………………. (sit near me) is my cousin.
(c) That was the reason …………………………. (come late).
(d) Students …………………………. (fail/final examination) will not be promoted.
(e) The house …………………………. (I live in) belongs to my father.
Answer:
(a) Do you know the woman who is wearing the blue sari?
(b) The boy who is sitting near me is my cousin.
(c) That was the reason why I came late.
(d) Students who failed in the final examination will not promote.
(e) The house that I live in belongs to my father.

Rearrange Jumbled Sentences for Class 10 CBSE With Answers

Rearrange Jumbled Sentences for Class 10 CBSE

This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 10 English Chapter wise.

Jumbled Sentences Exercise With Answers for Class 10 Pdf

Rearrange Jumbled Sentences Practice Examples for Class 10 CBSE

1. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) avery/aninstitution/a/plays/as/our/in/school/role/important/society
A school as an institution plays a very important role in our society.

(b) the/developed/school/is/of/most/one/to think/valuable/abilities/at/ability/the
(c) also/one/to work/leams/different/out/pieces/information/in the/o f/m in d/understand/and/them
(d) at/another/that/leams/communicate/one/thing/is/school/to/and/interact/ideas

2. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) most/the/library/or/in/school/one/is/important/a/places/of/college/the
The library is one of the most important places in a school or college.

(b) well-stocked/good/must/institution/a/every/library/possess
(c) to/should/this/be/accessible/teachers/alike/students/and/easily
(d) storehouse/acts/library/as/a/the/knowledge/of

3. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) powCr/the/therapy/the/music/healing/of/music/of/application/is
Music therapy is the application of the healing power of music.

(b) attention/doctors/scientists/many/paid/have/this/in/recent/to/years/and/treatment
(c) to/listen/made/the speaker/towards/grew/music/to classical/a plant
(d) but/were/they/made/to rock/they/opposite/when/to listen/music/grew/the/in/direction

4. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) a/fact/is/it/we/that/dream/all
It is a fact that we all dream.

(b) only/dreams/some/hours/for/some/for/last/to last/while/seconds/seem
(c) dreams/fantastic/have/us/of7some/others/while/dreams/amusing/have
(d) stages/made up/cycles/dreams/within/90-minute/each/is/and/of/occur/six

5. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) is played/and bat/two/nine players/baseball/with/between/a hard ball/of/each/teams
Baseball is played with a hard ball and bat between two teams of nine players each.

(b) United States/the/called/is/national/it/pastime/often/of/the
(c) its/because/is/tradition/strong/and/of/popularity/great/this
(d) is/played/ages/it/world/by/people/of/all/the/throughout

6. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as tan example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) body/expressions/our/through/our/lie/through/easily/postures/we/more/than/and/speech
We lie more easily through our speech than through our expressions and body postures.

(b) can/we/exercise/evidently/greater/over/control/what we/say/our/body/than/movements
(c) can/put/we/a/on/face/when/good/and/lying/also/can/we/a/manage/false/smile
(d) a/but/is/to/gesticulate/apt/less/when/person/lying

7. Look at the words and phrases that follow. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. The first one has been done as an example. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) traditional/is/Rangoli/a/that is/art/painted/to decorate/by/people/courtyards and walls
Rangoli is a traditional art that is pairited by people to decorate courtyards and walls.

(b) of white stone/lime/rice flour/cheap paste/draw/the designs/the powder/and other/is used to
(c) the art/transferred/ffom generation/and from/typically/is/to generation/friend to friend
(d) Rangoli contests/magazines/publish/of Rangoli/every week/on special occasions/there are/popular/new designs/and

8. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x3=3 marks)

(a) about the/concemed/climatic changes/scientists/are/extremely/which/are taking place
(b) before/on our planet/admittedly/climate changes/have occurred
(c) or glacial periods/there/several/ice ages/for example/have been

9. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) Pharaohs/as gods/looked upon/ancient Egyptians/the/their
(b) their/so/were/carefully/by embalming/dead bodies/preserved
(c) tombs/mummified/the/in/were kept/corpses/elaborate

10. Look at the words and phrases below. Rearrange them to form meaningful sentences. Write only the correct sentences in your answer sheets. (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

(a) is/marketing/these days/packaging/of/an/important/part
(b) threat/environment/much/but/of/it/is/a/to/the
(c) a great/energy/the/of/production/such/packaging/uses/up/deal of