# DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 7 Question Answer – Human Resources

These DAV Class 8 SST Book Solutions and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 7 Question Answer – Manufacturing Industries are thoughtfully prepared by experienced teachers.

## DAV Class 8 SST Ch 7 Question Answer – Manufacturing Industries

### DAV Class 8 SST Ch 7 Solutions – Manufacturing Industries

Something to Know

A. Tick (✓) the correct option.

Question 1.
Which one of the following is not an j area of sparse population?
(a) The Sahara I
(b) The Equatorial Forests
(c) The Ganga Valley
(d) The Polar Regions
(c) The Ganga Valley

Question 2.
Out of every 100 people in the world-
(a) 60 people live in Asia.
(b) 16 people live in Africa.
(c) 10 people live in Europe.
(d) 20 people live in Americas.
(b) 16 people live in Africa.

Question 3.
Which one of the following is false?
(a) It took just about 111 years for the world population to rise from 1.5 billion to 7 billion.
(b) The growth rate of population increases when the brith rate is more than the death rate.
(c) India is the seventh larges country in the world in terms o area and ranks second in term of population.
(d) The total population of USA is biggest than the combined population of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
(a) It took just about 111 years for the world population to rise from 1.5 billion to 7 billion.

Question 4.
Which one of the following states has the highest density of population in India.
(a) Bihar
(b) West Bengal
(c) Kerala
(a) Bihar

Question 5.
Which one of the following age groups represent the productive population group of the population?
(a) 15 to 59 years
(b) above 59 years
(c) above 15 years
(d) 15 to 66 years
(a) 15 to 59 years

B. Fill in the blanks.

1. India ranks ________ in population next to China, in the world.
second

2. Number of children below 15 years and adults above 59 years is defined as ________ population.
dependent

3. The growth of population is affected by its ________ , ________ and migration.
birth rate, death rate

4. The important attributes of population composition are ________, age structure and ________ .
sex ratio, literacy rate

5. In India, almost half of the population resides in the five states of India, i.e., Uttar Pradesh, ________, ________, ________ and Madhya Pradesh.

C. Write True or False for the following statements.

1. The total population of the world has crossed 10 billion mark in the year 2011.
False

2. The sex ratio of India in 2011 was 943.
False

3. The density of population is the number of persons per square kilometre of an area.
True

4. The natural growth rate of population is the difference between the birth rate and the death rate.
False

5. Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in industries, agriculture and means of transport.
False

D. Answer the following questions in brief.

Question 1.
What is meant by the growth rate of population?
The net change in population between two fixed periods of time expressed in percentage is called the growth rate of population.

Question 2.
What are the three important attributes of population composition?
Three important attributes of population composition are age structure, sex ratio and literacy rate.

Question 3.
What makes the human being the most valuable resource?
Human beings who are healthy, educated, and mentally strong can prove to be useful for a country or community and are treated as the most valuable resource.

Question 4.
Which regions of the world have high concentration of population and why?
Fertile lowlands of Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Hwang- ho in China, Nile in Egypt, Mississipi in USA, Tigris in Iraq and several other plain regions where high concentration of population is found, because there transporation facilities are good and rivers are navigable.

Question 5.
Highlight the characteristics of the sparsely population regions of the world.
The mountain rages of Andes, Himalayas, Plateaus and Rockies of Tibet are sparsely populated. Here, the transporation is very difficult and the living conditions are not very favourable due to high mountains, rugged terrian and rocky plateau.

Question 1.
Explain relief and climate as factors affecting the distribution of population.
(i) Relief: High mountains, rugged terrian and rocky plateau restrict human settlement. Transportation is very difficult and the living conditions are not very favourable. The mountains ranges of Andes, Himalayas, Plateaus Rockies of Tibet are sparsely populated. On the other hand, plain areas of the world are most favourable places for human habitaiton. Plains are good for agricultural and industrial activities in the world.

(ii) Climate: People prefer to live in regions where temperature and rainfall is moderate. Excessive heat, cold, dryness or wetness cause discomfort. Hot and humid areas of equatorial region, cold desert of Siberia, hot desert of Sahara are the areas which are sparsely populated. On the other hand favourable climatic conditions in the monsoon regions of India and Bangladesh attract large concentration of population.

Question 2.
How do minerals and industries affect the distribution of population? Explain.
(i) Minerals: The presence of minerals like coal and iorn ore in different parts of the world has attracted huge population in these areas because these minerals are required for iron and steel industry. Hot and dry areas of Australian deserts, Saudi Arabia and South Africa have attracted large groups of migrants because of the availability of petroleum.

(ii) Industries: Development of industries in any region has very favourable impact on employment opportnities. Industrial hubs attract people from far-off places.

Question 3.
What is meant by literacy rate? Why is it considered an important indicator in population composition?
Literacy rate is the percentage of people who can read and write in a certain country. Literacy rate varies from country and from rural to urban population in the same country. It is more among male than female population, more in urban areas than in rural areas.

The literacy rate of any country is considered an important indicator of population composition as it affects the socio-economic development of a nation.

Question 4.
Define sex ratio. What are the reasons for the declining sex ratio in India?
Sex ratio: It is a ratio between the number of females and males in a population. It is expressed as number of females per thousand males. It has been observed that in European countries, number of females is more than males. Thus, Europe has high of favourable sex ratio. Rising sex ratio has been recorded since the early 1980s and has since then continued to increase with no signs, of reversing. In India, the sex-ratio was recorded as 943 in 2011 which has declined from 972 as recorded in 1901.

Sex ratio in India is declining due to several reasons-

• Preference for male child due to social, economic and religious reasons.
• Infant mortality is higher among girls than among boys because of lack of proper medical facilities.
• General neglect of female children during childhood is largely responsible for high female mortality rate.
• Pre-natal sex determination tests, inspite of ban, continue to large scale practice of female foeticide.

Question 5.
Which states of India have high density of population and why? Suggest ways and means to check it.
Ann. In India, Bihar (1102), West Bengal (1029), Kerala (859), Uttar Pradesh (828) are some of the states that have high density of population. Favourable climatic conditions, good transportation facilities and a high level of industrialisation has led to rapid urbanisation in these states. Also rich fertile soil, abundance of water and well developed agriculture have brought high density of population in these states.

Value Based Question

The main goal of ‘Skill India Programme’ is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of Indian youth. The emphasis is to equip the youth in such a way so that they get employment and also improve entrepreneurship. The idea is to raise confidence, improve productivity and give direction through development of skills right at the school level. India is one of the few countries all across the world where working age population will be very high due to high growth rate of population in the coming years. It is time to open up avenues up avenues for job creation and social security schemes in the Indian economy.

Question 1.
Give any three arguments to support the idea of introducing programmes for the development of skills, right at the school level.
In the present world scenario, the demand of skilled and multi- skilled workers has increased. In the countries like India, there is a critical need for quality skill, development and training. Here about 90% of employment opportunities need vocational skill, and only 20% of educated get employed.

The rest are unable to get suitable employment due to lack of skill. Youth must be educated and provided skills and opportunities to become able and productive. The Skills India Programme has changed over recent years. The main objective of this kind of programmes is to create opportunities, space and scope for the development of the talents of Indian youth. The emphasis is to equip the youth in such a way so that they get employment and also improve entrepreneurship.

Question 2.
What more new ways can be linked to a better human resource development?
The concepts of sustainability, productivity and empowerment can be linked to a better human resource development.
Sustainability: means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human resource development, each generation must have the same opportunities. All environmental, financial and human resources must be used keeping in mind the future.

Productivity: here means human labour productivity or productivity in terms for human work. Such productivity must be constantly increased by building capabilities in human. It means providing them with conditions which lead to better work efficiency.

Empowerment: means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are needed to empower people.

Map Skill

Question 1.
On an outline political map of the world, show two areas each having-
(a) Sparse population
(b) High population

Question 2.
Based on the map ‘India: Density of Population’, identify the following states and show them on an outline political map of India-
(a) The State having the lowest density of population.
(b) The State having the highest density of population.
(c) The State having the second highest density of population.
(d) The State having the lowest density of population among the North-Eastern States.
(e) The State having the density of population as 550.

Something to Do

Question 1.
Collect information regarding the composition of family of your six classmates. Represent it in a tabular form. Different parameters of population should be arranged as shown below. Draw your conclusion on each parameter.

### DAV Class 8 Social Science Chapter 7 Question Answer – Human Resources

A. Tick (✓) the correct option.

Question 1.
Human Resource Development (HRD), the Indian government department, looks after the.
(a) health of the people of India
(b) education of the people of India
(c) mental development of the people of India
(d) overall betterment of the people of India
(b) education of the people of India

Question 2.
Concentration of population is high in
(a) hot deserts
(b) polar regions
(c) thickly forested areas
(d) river valley basins
(d) river valley basins

Question 3.
The most populous country in the world is
(a) India
(b) China
(c) Brazil
(d) USA
(b) China

Question 4.
According to 2011 census, the average density of population in India is
(a) 50 persons per sq km
(b) 132 persons per sq km
(c) 382 persons per sq km
(d) 400 persons per sq km
(c) 382 persons per sq km

Question 5.
Which of the following states has the lowest density of population?
(b) Sikkim
(c) Mizoram

Question 6.
Which of the following states has the highest density of population?
(a) Kerala
(c) West Bengal
(d) Bihar
(c) West Bengal

Question 7.
Which of the following states has moderate density of population?
(a) Mizoram
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Manipur
(d) Manipur

Question 8.
People of which age group are defined as the productive population? (DAV Board)
(a) People below 40 years
(b) People between 15-50 years
(c) People between 15-59 years
(d) People between 14-70 years
(c) People between 15-59 years

Question 9.
The three main factors that affect the growth of population are
(a) birth rate, death rate and marriages
(b) birth rate, death rate and migration
(c) birth rate, death rate and life expectency
(d) birth rate, death rate and literacy rate
(b) birth rate, death rate and migration

Question 10.
People of which age group are defined as the young population?
(a) People below 14 years
(b) People below 18 years
(c) People between 15 to 59 years
(d) People between 14 to 40 years
(a) People below 14 years

B. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why are people considered as a resource?
People are considered as a resource because they are endowed with intelligence, thinking and creative j skills.

Question 2.
Define sex ratio.
Sex ratio is a ratio between the number of females over males in a population. It is expressed as number of females per thousand males.

Question 3.
Name the various physical factors which affect the distribution of population.
Relief, climate, soil, water and vegetation.

Question 4.
Specify various components included in the composition of population.
Various components included in the composition of population are age structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, ratio of rural-urban population, working and non-working population.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of population growth?
The net change in population between two fixed periods of time expressed in percentage is called population growth.

Question 6.
What is census?
Census is a compiled data book consisting of complete demographic statistics covering the entire population living in a country.

Question 7.
In which year was the first complete census India brought out in India?
The first complete census in India was brought out in the year 1881.

Question 8.
What is meant by distribution of population?
Distribution of population means how human beings are spread over the earth’s surface.

Question 9.
Where is population highly concentrated?
Population is highly concentrated in those areas which are rich in natural resources like fertile river valley basins and industrially developed regions.

Question 10.
What is the world’s population at present?
At present, the world’s population has crossed a seven billion mark.

Question 11.
Which is the most populous country in the world?
China is the most populous country in the world.

Question 12.
How is the density of population measured?
The density of population is measured as number of persons living in per sq km of an area.

Question 13.
What is, according to 2011 census, the average density of population in the world?
According to 2011 census, the average density of population in the world is 50 persons per sq km.

Question 14.
Name the regions in the world where density of population is less than 1 person per sq km.
The Antarctic and the Arctic regions.

Question 15.
What is the population density in Singapore and Bangladesh?
In Singapore the population density is 7301 persons per sq km and in Bangladesh, it is 1034 persons per sq km.

Question 16.
How does climate affect the population distribution of an area?
People prefer to live in regions with a moderate climate and not places of extreme cold or hot climate. So, moderate climate regions are densely populated.

Question 17.
Which of these countries is more densely populated one with a small population in a large area or one with a large population in a large area?
A country with a large population in a small area is more densely populated out of the two.

Question 18.
With the help of figures, describe how population varies across continents?
Around 60% of the world’s population lives in Asia, 11% in Europe, 13.5% in America, 15% in Africa and 0.5% in Oceania.

Question 19.
How is sex ratio expressed?
Sex ratio is expressed as number of females per thousand males.

Question 20.
What is meant by balanced sex ratio?
It means that death rate of boys and girls is equal.

Question 21.
Why is the literacy rate of any country an important indicator?
The literacy rate of any country is an important indicator as it affects the socio-economic development of a nation.

Question 22.
When does population become human capital?
Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in education, health and skill development.

Question 1.
Why does distribution of population in India vary from place to place?
Distribution of population in India varies from place to place because it is the land of varying relief features, climatic conditions, soil types, etc. The population is concentrated in the fertile river valley basins. It is sparse in regions where climatic conditions are not favourable for habitation. High mountainous terrain, rugged, rocky plateau restrict human settlement.

Question 2.
What is age structure? How does it reflect the working and non-working population?
(i) Age structure of population is an important component of demographic structure. It refers to the number of people belonging to different age groups.

(ii) Generally, the population is categorised into three broad age groups:
people below 14 years
people between 15 years to 59 years
people above 59 years

(iii) A large number of children below 15 years and those above 59 years come under dependent population. On the other hand, the number of people in the age group of 15-59 years is defined as the productive population as they are biologically reproductive and economically active.

Question 4.
What is the percentage of population living in different continents?
The population of the world has crossed a seven billion mark. 60% of this population is living in Asia, 15% in Africa, 13.5% in America, 11% in Europe and 0.5% in Oceania.

Question 5.
Sex ratio in India is declining. Give four reasons to support the statement.
Sex ratio in India is declining due to the following reasons:

• Preference for male child due to social, economic and religious reasons.
• Infant mortality is higher among girls than among boys because of lack of proper medical facilities.
• General neglect of female child during childhood is largely responsible for high female mortality rate.
• Pre-natal sex determination tests have led to large scale practice of female foeticide.

Question 6.
Who is a literate person? Why is the literacy rate very important?
A literate person is one who can read and write in a certain language. Education is an important input for the growth of an individual. It opens new horizon for him, provides new aspiration and develops values of life. Education contributes towards the growth of society also. It enhances the national income, cultural richness and increases the efficiency of governance. An illiterate person is a burden on the society and the country. Hence, literacy rate must be improved in order to obtain optimum result.

Question 7.
Why has the world population grown very rapidly?
The world population has grown very rapidly because of the development in medical science which has caused decrease in death rate. Since lesser people die now of disease than before, whereas there was no way to decrease the birth rate, the population has increased at a fast rate.

Question 8.
Mention the characteristics of states with a low density of population.
(i) States like Arunchal Pradesh, Mizoram and Sikkim have a low density of population.
(ii) In these states, the density of population is less than 100 persons per sq km.
(iii) There are several factors behind low population density physical, constraints, unfavorable climate, slow economic development, poor infrastructure, etc.

Question 9.
Name the states with a high density of population. What are the factors responsible for this?
Bihar, West Bengal, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh are states with a high density of population. In these states, we find:

• Favourable climatic conditions
• Rich fertile soil
• Well developed agriculture
• A high level of industrialisation

Question 10.
Describe the growth of population in India from 1911 to 2011.
(i) The growth in population of India has rapidly increased during the last century. In particular, it has gone of from about 400 million in 1961 to over a billion people in the year, 2011.
(ii) In these 50 years, the country has added more than 700 million people which makes the growth rate alarming.
(iii) It is estimated that at this rate of growth in population the country will double its populations in next 36 years.

Question 11.
Mention three important attributes of human resources.
Three important attributes of human resources are – age structure, sex ratio and literacy rate.
(i) Age structure: It refers to the number of people belonging to different age groups. Generally, population is categorised into three broad age groups:

• People below 14 years comprising of young population.
• People between 15 years to 59 years make up adult population.
• People above 59 years and over as old population.

(ii) Sex ratio: It is a ratio between the number of females over males in a population. The sex ratio is balanced in countries where death rate of u boys and girls is equal. European countries have high sex ratio.

(iii) Literacy rate: It varies from country to country and from rural to urban population in the same countiy. It is more among male than female population, more in urban areas than in rural areas. The literacy rate of any country is an important indicator as it appeals the socio¬economic development of a nation.

Question 1.
Why should we give more importance to develop the well-being of human resources?
We should give more importance j to develop the well-being of human resource for the following reasons:
(i) Population is an asset for a country rather than a liability.
(ii) It is an important indicator of the socio-economic strength of a country.
(iii) Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in education, health and skill development.
(iv) Investment in human capital yields highest return. This can be seen directly in the form of higher incomes earned because of higher productivity of the more educated or the better trained persons, as well as the higher productivity of heathier people.

Question 2.
Name the regions that have low density of population. Why is it so?
1. High mountains, rugged terrain and rocky plateau restrict human settlements. In these regions transportation is very difficult and the living conditions are not very favourable. The mountain ranges of Andes, Himalayas, plateaus and Rockies of Tibet are sparsely populated.

2. Hot and humid areas of equatorial regions, cold desert of Siberia, hot desert of Sahara are the areas where we find low density of population.

3. Water resources are very limited in deserts, so the density of population is low there.

4. Equatorial forests are dense and inaccessible. The density of population, therefore, is very low there.

Question 3.
Describe the growth of population in India from 1911 to 2011.

• The growth in population of India has rapidly increased during the last century. In particular, it has gone of from about 400 million in 1961 to over a billion people in the year, 2011.
• In these 50 years, the country has added more than 700 million people which makes the growth rate alarming.
• It is estimated that at this rate of growth in population the country will double its populations in next 36 years.

Question 4.
Mention three important attributes of human resources.
Three important attributes of human resources are age structure, sex ratio and literacy rate.
(i) Age structure: It refers to the number of people belonging to different age groups. Generally, population is categorised into three broad age groups:
People below 14 years comprising of young population.
People between 15 years to 59 years make up adult population.
People above 59 years and over as old population.

(ii) Sex ratio: It is a ratio between the number of females over males in a population. The sex ratio is balanced in countries where death rate of boys and girls is equal. European countries have high sex ratio.

(iii) Literacy rate: It varies from country to country and from rural to urban population in the same country. It is more among male than female population, more in urban areas than in rural areas. The literacy rate of any country is an important indicator as it appeals the socio-economic development of a nation.

Question 5.
Explain physical factors like soil and water, and vegetation which affect distribution of population.