These DAV Class 7 Social Science Book Solutions and DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 10 Question Answer – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in South India are thoughtfully prepared by experienced teachers.
DAV Class 7 SST Ch 10 Question Answer – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in South India
DAV Class 7 SST Ch 10 Solutions – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in South India
Something To Know
A. Tick (✓) the correct option.
Who was the founder of the Chola dynasty?
(b) Rajendra I
(c) Rajendra II
The famous temple built by Rajaraja-I at Tanjore was
(a) Kailashnath temple
(b) Mahabalipuram temple
(c) Kanchipuram temple
(d) Rajrajeshwara temple
(d) Rajrajeshwara temple
Which kingdom gave a final blow to the Pandyas?
The term ‘Mandalam’ stands for
(a) a village
(b) a sabha
(c) a district
(d) a province
(d) a province
What was the main source of income of the Chola rulers?
(a) trade tax
(b) land tax
(c) religion tax
(d) cattle tax
(b) land tax
B. Fill in the blanks.
1. During 750 CE, south India saw the rule of ………….., …………. and …………..
2. Indian historians believe that Chalukyas were ……………
3. ………….. defeated Pallavas.
4. ………….. succeeded Rajaraja.
5. ……………. was the main centre of education during 700 CE to 1200 CE in South India.
1. Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras
2. great warriors
3. Chola King Vijayalaya
C. Sort the names of the kings as per their dynasties and arrange them according to their periods.
Maruvarman Avani Sulamani, Prantaka-I, Vijayalaya, Kandungori, Rajaraja, Jalavarman Sundara
D. Answer the following questions in brief.
Name the powerful kingdom that emerged in south India in the eighth century.
The Chola kingdom.
Name three kingdoms that were mentioned in Ashoka’s edicts.
Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas.
Which languages flourished during Cholas and Pandyas period?
Sanskrit continued as the language of scholars. Tamil, Kannada and Telugu also progressed.
Name the main areas that formed the part of the Pandya kingdom.
Madurai, Terunevelli and parts of Travancore.
Where were the rock-cut temples built?
The rock-cut temples were built at Mahabalipuram and Kailashnath.
E. Answer the following questions.
Mention the main achievements of Rajaraja, the Great.
Rajaraja I was the greatest king of the Chola empire. His achievements are given below:
(a) He pursued a policy of conquest for 14 years and conquered the Chalukya kingdom of Vengi and captured Kerala and Madurai.
(b) He built the famous temple Rajarajeshwara at Tanjore.
(c) The Chola empire rose as the supreme power under him.
Describe the socio-economic condition of the people in the southern states.
Social condition. The society of south India was also caste-ridden like that of north India. The Brahmins (priestly class) and Kshatriyas (warrior class) dominated the lower castes. The peasants tilled the land which belonged to the rulers or the temples.
Economical condition. Land revenue was the main source of income. It was fixed at one-third of the produce by the Chola rulers. The economic condition of the people was good. Agriculture, trade and weaving were the chief occupations of the people. The irrigational facilities were well-developed which increased the agricultural yield. The Chola rulers spent a major part of the income on public welfare.
What were the religious beliefs of the people in the southern states during the medieval period?
The religious beliefs of the people in southern states during medieval period were that:
- Hinduism was the most popular religion. Vedic sacrifices were quite common.
- The cult of Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva became important during this time.
- Kanchipuram was an important centre of pilgrimage for Hindu devotees.
- The Bhakti saints preached the teachings of the epics of the Ramayana and Mahabharata. These epics were translated into many south Indian languages.
- They were against caste and class distinctions.
Thus, religion played an important role in the life of the people in south India.
Describe the development of art and architecture under the southern rulers.
The rulers of the southern kingdoms were also great patrons of art and architecture. They built a number of important temples. The Pallavas brought in a new style of temple architecture—rock-cut architecture. The Shore temple of Mahabalipuram (built by Rajasimha in the 8th century CE) and the Kailashnath temple at Kanchipuram are the best examples. The Shiva temple of Tanjore and the bronze statue of Nataraja are fine examples of Chola art.
The Cholas built several hundreds of temples to commemorate their victories in battle. The Brihadeshwara temple at Thanjavur, built by Rajaraja Chola and the temple at Gangaikondacholapuram, built by his son, Rajendra Chola. The inner walls of the Brihadeshwara temple are covered with fine sculptures and inscriptions that provide historians with valuable information.
List the differences between the kingdoms of North and South on the basis of following aspects.
(f) Art and Architecture
Kingdoms of North
The king was all-powerful in north India. He was assisted by different officials. The empire was divided into provinces. The king was the head of the military as well as the judiciary. He spent huge amounts of money on building up strong armies.
The rigid caste system led to the division of Indian society. The king, the feudal fords and the brahmins in high positions enjoyed a life of luxury. Land was cultivated mainly by shudras who were burdened by taxes and social discrimination. The condition of women was quite miserable. They were deprived of education. The evil practices of sati, child marriage and polygamy contributed to the decline in the status of women.
There was a great economic disparity among different social classes. The royal family, high officials and the traders were prosperous. The villagers were poor. The temples were the centres of riches and hence, attracted a lot of invaders. Also feudal system was prevalent in north India. The kings granted land as rewards to officers. They provided military assistance to the king at times of war.
(d) Religion. The Rajputs worshipped Vishnu, Shiva, Kali, Lakshmi and Durga. Hinduism became more popular than Buddhism. Many Buddhists took shelter in Southeast Asia when the Turks attacked monasteries at Nalanda. During this period, the Bhakti saints preached devotion to God and opposed social discriminations, superstitions and narrow-mindedness.
Elementary education was limited to temples and monasteries. The universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila became important centres of higher education. The study of philosophy and religion was encouraged but mathematics and science were ignored. The regional languages, like Marathi, Gujarati and Bengali developed. But, Sanskrit enjoyed a place of prominence. Pali and Prakrit languages were used for writing books on Buddhism and Jainism.
(f) Art and Architecture:
Examples of the paintings of north India can be found in the form of murals in palaces, caves and temples. The Jain monks and painters of Bengal developed the art of miniature paintings. Lingaraj and Mukteshwara temples at Bhubaneswar and the Sun Temple at Konark are the fine examples of the architecture.
Kingdoms of South –
The central administration was divided into different departments. The king was the head of the state. He ran the administration with the help of the ministers. The kingdom was divided into provinces (mandalas). Each province was under the control of an official who worked according to the instructions of the king.
The society of south India was also caste-ridden like that of north India. The Brahmins (priestly class) and Kshatriyas (warrior class) dominated the lower castes. The peasants tilled the land which belonged to the rulers or the temples.
Land revenue was the main source of income. It was fixed at one-third of the produce by the Chola rulers. The economic condition of the people was good. Agriculture, trade as weaving were the chief occupations of the people. The irrigational facilities were well- developed which increased the agricultural yield. The Chola rulers spent a major part of the income on public welfare.
Religion played an important part in the life of people in south India. Buddhism and Jainism were not popular there. Hinduism was the most popular religion. Vedic sacrifies were quite common. The cult of Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva also became important during this time.
Kanchipuram was an important centre of studies of Sanskrit and regional languages like Tamil. Other regional languages like Kannada and Telugu also progressed to a great extent. The temples of south India were not only the places of worship but also important centres of education.
Each temple had an attached matha, which provided free education, boarding and lodging to the students. The Bhakti saints preached the teachings of the epics of Ramayana and Mahabharata. The epics were translated into many south Indian languages. Many great literary works like Silappaadikaram and Mannimekaalai (Tamil) were written during this period.
(f) Art and Architecture;
The rulers of the southern kingdoms were also great patrons of art and architecture. They built a number of important temples. The large rock- cut temples at Mahabalipuram and the Kailashnath were built in the eighth century. The Shiva temple of Tanjore and the bronze statue of Nataraja are fine examples of Chola art.
One of our Fundamental Duties is “To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture”.
- We should preventing ourselves and others from scribbling on the walls of the monuments.
- Do not removing anything from the premises of the monuments.
- Giving our co-operation in keeping the monuments and national buildings neat and clean. Participating in the regular cleanliness drive.
- Being a part of the ‘Adopt a Heritage’ initiative.
- Spreading awareness around about these monuments and their importance.
Mark the territories of the following kingdoms on an outline map of India.
Something To Do
Collect the pictures of the temples of south India and paste them in a scrapbook.
Find out the differences in the temple architecture of North and South India and illustrate them with the help of pictures.
Temple Architecture of North India The temples of North India followed Nagara style of architecture. Inside the temple, the garbhagriha was always square. The shikhara had a crowning element-sthe amalaka, a huge stone ribbed disc. Above the amalaka was a smaller dome, the kalasa or the “water jug’.
Most of the best preserved Nagara temples are in Oaisha. These include the Lingaraj temple, the Rajarani temple, the Jagannath temple and the Mukteshwara temple. The Sun temple at Konark is a perfectly proportioned temple, covered with intricately carved figures. It resembles a charior with eight wheels and four prancing horses appearing to pull it.
Temple architecture of South India:
The temples of South India followed the Dravidian style of architecture. One of the characteristic features of this style was the vimana, which was a high pyramidal tower with several storeys built over the garbhagriha. South Indian temples also had gateways or gopurams topped by the kalasa. There were usually two or four entrances to the temple-one at each cardinal direction. Some of the gopurams were tall. They showed figures of gods surrounded by scenes from mythology
The Cholas built many temples to commemorate their victories in battle. Brihadeshwara temple at Thanjavur, built by Rajaraja Chola. It has the tallest known vimana (66 m). The Pallavas brought in a new style of temple architecture i.e., rock-cut architecture. They also erected structural temples, of which the Shore temple of Mahabalipuram and the Kailashnath temple at Kanchipuram are the best examples.
DAV Class 7 Social Science Chapter 11 Question Answer – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in South India
A. Tick (✓) the correct option.
Ashoka’s edicts mention three main kingdoms of
(a) Cheras, Pallavas and Chatukyas
(b) Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas
(c) Cholas, Chalukyas and Pallavas
(d) Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Pandyas
(b) Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas
Prantaka I ruled the Chola empire for
(a) 14 years
(b) 20 years
(c) 40 years
(d) 46 years
(d) 46 years
Rajarajeshwara temple was built by Rajaraja I at
Who among the following Chola rulers took the title of Gangaikondai?
(a) Rajaraja I
(b) Rajendra Chola
(c) Prantaka I
(b) Rajendra Chola
Who started the Pandya rule?
(b) Maruvarman Avani Sulamani
(c) Jalavarman Sundara Pandya
The Pandyas carried on frequent wars with
(d) all of these
Silappaadikaram and Mannimekaalai were great literary works of south India. These books were written in
B. Very Short Answer Type Questions
Name the present-day areas where the kingdoms of Chalukyas and Pallavas emerged.
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
Mention the extent of the Chola kingdom.
The Chola kingdom extended from Nellore to Pudukottu and Mysore to Madras.
Under whose rule did the Chola empire achieve the supreme power?
The Chola empire achieved the supreme power under the rule of Rajaraja I.
What do you know about the extent of Rajendra Chola’s empire?
His empire extended over Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, Malaya and Pegu.
When was the Pandya kingdom absorbed in the kingdom of Vijayanagar?
The Pandya kingdom was absorbed in the kingdom of Vijayanagar in the 16th century.
Under whose rule did the Pandyas assert their independence once again?
The Pandyas asserted their independence once again in under the rule of Jalavarman Sundara Pandya.
What made Kanchipuram so important in south India?
Kanchipuram was an important centre of studies of Sanskrit and regional languages like Tamil. It was also a centre of pilgrimage for Hindu devotees.
Name two examples of Chola art.
The Shiva temple at Tanjore and the bronze statue of Nataraja.
What did Shankaracharya teach?
Shankaracharya taught the rules of Bhakti, Yoga and Karma to brighten the intellect and purify the heart.
Name the four mathas that Shankaracharya established in four extreme corners of India to spread the message of Advaita all over the country.
- North – Jyotirmatha at Badrinath
- West – Shardamath at Dwarka
- East – Govardhanamatha at Puri
- South – Sringerimatha at Sringeri
C. Short Answer Type Questions
Give three achievements of the Chola rulers.
The three achievements of the Chola rulers were that –
- They defeated the Pandya kings and the other local rulers.
- They built a strong navy and even conquered Sri Lanka, parts of South¬East Asia and the islands of Maldives and Lakshadweep.
- They helped in the spread of Indian culture to foreign countries.
Give a brief description of the Pandya rule.
How did the Pandya kings strengthen their empire in the south?
The Pandyas established their kingdom in the 7th century CE. They ruled over Madurai, Tirunvelli and parts of Travancore. Kandungori started the Pandya rule. His son Maruvarman Avani Sulamani came into conflict with the Pallavas and defeated them with the help of the Cholas. The Pandyas carried on frequent wars with Ceylon.
In the 11th century, they were compelled to submit to the supremacy of the mighty Cholas. But, in the 13th century they asserted their independence once again under Jalavarman Sundara Pandya. He ruled from 1251 CE to 1272 CE. Gradually, the Pandyas became the leading power in the south. But their glory could not last for a long time. A civil war broke out among a number of contenders to the throne. It proved fatal to the kingdom.
Find out about the teachings of Ramanuja.
Ramanuja was born in Tamil Nadu in the eleventh century. He was deeply influenced by the Alvaro who were saints devoted to Vishnu. According to him the best means of attaining salvation was through intense devotion to Vishnu. He pronounced the doctrine of Vishishtadvaita or qualified oneness in that the soul even when united with the Supreme God remained distinct.
What was the position of the king in the southern states?
- The king was the head of the state.
- His office was hereditary.
- The rights of the king were unlimited.
- The king took help of the ministers for the smooth running of the administration.
- The kingdom was divided into provinces. Each province was under the control of an official who worked according to the instructions of the king. Thus, the king enjoyed the supreme position in the southern states.
Describe the economic condition of the people in the southern states.
The economic condition of the people was good in the southern states.
- The main source of income was land revenue. It was fixed at l/3rd of the produce by the Chola rulers.
- Agriculture, trade and weaving were the chief occupations of the people.
- Agricultural yield was good because there were proper arrangements for irrigation.
- The people enjoyed a good life because the Chola rulers spent a major part of the income on their welfare.
D. Long Answer Type Questions
What do you know about Shankaracharya and his teachings?
Give a brief account of the life and teachings of Adi Shankaracharya.
Adi Shankaracharya was a great philosopher of the eighth-century India. He propagated the ancient Vedic Dharma in the form of Adavita or the philosophy of non-duality. He learnt the Vedas at an early age and tried to enlighten the people of India through his teachings.
The teachings of Adi Shankara- charya:
- He taught the rules of Bhakti, Yoga and Karma to brighten the intellect and purify the heart.
- Advaita is the awareness of the divine in everything and everywhere.
- He suggested Satsanga as the very first step in Sadhana. Satsanga means company of wise and good people.
- He established four mathas in four extreme corners of India to spread the message of Adavita all over the country.
- Although Shankaracharya lived a short life, he purified and consolidated the various schools of worship and brought them under the umbrella of one philosophical principle, i.e., Adavita.
Give an account of the Chola empire by highlighting the military achievements of its various rulers. How did this great empire lose its glory?
- It was Vijayalaya who founded the Chola empire. He also defeated the Pallavas.
- His grandson Prantaka I defeated the Pandaya kings of Madurai and ruled for 46 years.
- But the Chola empire rose as a supreme power under Rajaraja I. He pursued a policy of conquest for 14 years and conquered the Chalukya kingdom of Vengi and captured Kerala and Madurai.
- Rajaraja I was succeeded by his son Rajendra Chola, who ruled for 28 years. He expanded his territories over Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, Malaya and Pegu.
- He defeated the Pala king Mahipala of Bihar and Bengal. He took the title of Gangaikondai which means Victor of Ganga.
The glory of the Chola empire disappeared because of the following reasons:
- The Chola rulers were always engaged in wars.
- There occurred internal conflicts time to time. The Cholas could not avert these conflicts.
- These reasons led to the disintegration of Chola empire in about 1279 CE. However, the rise of Hindu kingdom at Vijayanagar proved to be the final blow to this empire.
Describe the main features of Chola administration.
The main features of Chola administration are given below:
- The Chola rulers were powerful. They supervised the administration, looked after jpstice and led troops in battle.
- Their prime duty was to protect the people from internal disturbances and external attacks.
- The central administration was divided into different departments. The king ran the administration with the help of his ministers.
- The kingdom was divided into provinces called mandalams which were looked after by the officials. These officials were expected to work according to the instructions of the king.
- Land and trade were the two main sources of revenue for the Cholas. The Chola rulers spent a major part of the income on public welfare.