These DAV Class 8 SST Notes and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 14 Notes – The Nationalist Movement 1870 to 1947 hold significant importance as study material for students.
The Nationalist Movement 1870 to 1947 Class 8 DAV Notes
→ After Queen Victoria’s Proclamation, the power of governance in India came into the hands of the British government in 1858.
→ The people of India showed resentment against British policies in the form of different rebellions, and later give rise to the birth of Indian National Movement.
→ A retired British official, A.O. Hume, formed the Indian National Congress in December 1885. It became the backbone of the National Movement.
→ In early phase, the leaders of the National Movements are called moderates. They adopted moderate ways to pursue their goals as they had faith in the British.
→ On the other side, new leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar, Chandra Pal emerged and called Radicals. They believed in actions like protests, hartlas and slogans.
→ In 1905, in order to weaken the National Movement, the British ordered to partition Bengal.
→ But the protests against the partition started. The day was observed as the Day of Mourning. Indian boycotted foreign goods and appealed for Swaraj. It was called as Swadeshi Movement.
→ The Britishers encouraged the Muslims to form a separate organisation and they formed Muslim League under the leadership of Aga Khan.
→ The British Government announced Morley-Minto Reforms to pacify the Moderates but they also opposed it.
→ In 1916, the Moderates and Radicals reunited to strengthen the National Movement and signed a joint pact at Lucknow with Muslim League.
→ After the World War I, Gandhiji look over the leadership of Congress. He started Satyagraha- demand for truth. It was a non-violent struggle to get Swaraj.
→ British introduced the system of Dual government-Dyarchy under Montague Chemsford Reforms or Government of India Act of 1919.
→ To control the growing unrest among Indians, British government passed the Rowlatt Act in which the British can arrest anyone without a warrant and imprison people without trial.
→ On April 13, 1919, many Indian in Punjab gathered at Jallianwala Bagh for protesting against the arrest to two Congress leaders. General Dyer ordered the British armed forces to open fire at hundreds of people and the massacre was called as Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
→ Mahatma Gandhi called-off the Non-cooperation Movement as soon as he came to know about the violence that occurred at Chauri Chaura.
→ In 1930, he launched the Civil Disobedience Movement which soon spread all over the country. Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law by making salt from the sea water. A nationwide protest began.
→ In order to repress the movement, the British government started arresting protesters along with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
→ In 1939, the Second World War started. The British dragged India into the war to satisfy its
own selfish ambitions. Anti-British movement began in full swing. Now, the Indians wanted complete independence and self-government.
→ Gandhiji gave the final flow to the Britishers on August 8, 1942 by launching the Quit India Movement. He inspired thousands of people through his mantra of Do or Die. The Britishers were infuriated. The police and army waged brutal terror on people.
→ A Cabinet Mission was sent to India in March, 1946. It proposed the formation of an interim Government and a Constituent Assembly.
→ The Muslim League did not participate in the interim government. They demanded a separate state for Pakistan. Finally, India was divided into India and Pakistan. Widespread riots took place in which thousand of people were killed.
→ Moderate: A person who is against taking extreme action.
→ Radical: A person who welcomes new ideas or opinions.
→ Picket: A person or a group of people protesting outside a building or shop to prevent others from entering.
→ Satyagraha: Demand for truth.