These DAV Class 8 SST Notes and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 13 Notes – Colonialism and Urban Change hold significant importance as study material for students.
Colonialism and Urban Change Class 8 DAV Notes
→ The excavation of Indus valley civilisation proved that ancient India had well-planned towns and cities.
→ The main focus of urban development came to be centred on the three port towns-Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. These places later became the Presidency towns.
→ De-urbanisation during the nineteenth century destroyed the imported cities of Surat, Masulipatnam and Srirangapattnam.
→ The Indian part in Calcutta was known as Black Town, inhabited by the poor and the British part was known as white Town. Black Town has congested streets and shanties, whereas the British part had sparawling bunglows and with side open space.
→ The British relocated their capital from Calcutta to New Delhi in 1911 as it was more centrally located for administrative convenience.
→ Delhi was known as ‘Indraprastha’ during the times of epic Mahabharata. Delhi saw the rise and fall of many empires like the Guptas, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals and many others.
→ In 1805, the British took over lands, revenue and city administration of Delhi. The New Delhi Municipal Committee was set-up to look after all the civic amenities like water supply, electricity, buildings, roads, sewers medical and public health of the capital.
→ Delhi Development Authority was set-up in 1955 to prepare a masterplan and zonal plans for housing commercial centres, parks, playground, etc.
→ In 1857, Britishers laid down the foundation of a police system under Indian Police Act. A Superintendent of Police looked after each district with the assistance of a Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP). Each district was divided into thanas under darogas. Villages and towns were looked after by chowkidars and kotwals.
→ Railway were introduced in India for the benefit of the British administration political control. The first train run over stretch of 21 miles from Bombay to Thane. It consisted of 14 railway carriages and 400 guests.
→ The art, architecture, painting, literature, poetry, drama novels and even religion and philosophy were greatly influenced by the western contact.
→ Many architectural wonders were built the port of Madras. Many churches were constructed in English style with artistic carvings.
→ The great literary figures like Rabindranath Tagore, Aurobindo Ghosh, Sarojini Naidu, Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayanan, etc. were influenced by the English pattern of writings.
→ De-urbanization: Destruction of old towns and cities.
→ White Town: The British part in Calcutta in early nineteenth century.
→ Black Town: The Indian part in Calcutta in early nineteenth century
→ Splendour: Grand and impressive beauty.
→ Cantonment: a military camp, especially a permanent-British military camp in India.
→ Civic amenities: Basic facilities required in a town or city like water supply, electricity, buildings, roads, sewers, medical and public health.
→ Imperialist countries: The countries that control other countries.
→ Princely patronage: The support or encouragement by princes and royalty. This was extended in the form of grants or revenue exemption on land, high positions and pension.