These DAV Class 8 SST Notes and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 12 Notes – Impact of British Rule on India hold significant importance as study material for students.
Impact of British Rule on India Class 8 DAV Notes
→ The British era brought significant changes in every aspect of the Indian Society – education, public institutions, reforms in caste system and the condition of women.
→ Before the East India company began in India, education was limited to reading of religious books in vernacular languages and learning arithmetical tables.
→ The Charter Act of 1813 was the first significant step of Britishers in which they sanctioned a sum of one lakh rupees for Indian’s education.
→ The British established the Hindu and Elphinstone Colleges in Calcutta and Bombay respectively. These institutions produced English educated Indian elite class, who followed western etiquettes, dress and eating habits.
→ A controversy arose between the Orientalists and the Anglicists regarding the medium of education. The Orientalists favoured the traditional system with Sanskrit and Persian as the medium of instruction whereas the Anglicists favoured English as the medium of instruction.
→ Wood’s Despatch of 1854 made major changes in the education policy of the British Universities were set up at the Presidency towns of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
→ Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, passed the Indian Universities Act of 1904 to check the growth of higher education in India.
→ The need for universal education was felt. Hence, Gandhiji initiated Wardha Scheme of Education in 1937. This committee proposed a National Education System that would inculcate the moral values of truth, goodness and justice among the Indians.
→ The British system of education had its positive and negative impacts. The English language united the people of India. It created awareness about the ideals of equality, liberty, fraternity and democracy. But at the same time it created a division between English educated Indians and the rest of Indians.
→ English educated Indians wanted to free the Indian society from evils, superstitions and ratuals. Reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Swami Dayanand came forward. Their combined efforts brought fruitful results. The practice of Sati, female infanticide, child marriage etc. were eradicated. Widow remarriage was legalized.
→ Many socio-religious reform movements started in different parts of India. Shri Narayana Guru campaigned against caste system, untouchability, Brahmin dominance and discrimination against the lower castes.
→ Jyotiba Phule founded the Satya Shadhak Samaj, an organization that worked for the upliftment of the low and oppressed classes.
→ Veeresalingam Kandukari started a magazine named Vivekavardhini, in which he propagated women’s education, widow remarriage and the rights of women.
→ Swami Dayanand Saraswati established Arya Samaj. He also started Shuddhi Movement to reconvert Hindus who had been converted to other religions. He opposed idol worship, child marriage and caste system.
→ Dr. B.R. Ambedkar fought for the cause of untouchables. He wanted to bring socio-economic upliftment of Dalits. Mahatma Gandhi initiated activities like Satyagraha and Sarvodaya. He was opposed to child-marriage, untouchability, discrimination against women.
→ The reform movements strengthened both Hinduism and Islam by eradicating many social evils. They also brought a cultural awakening. India saw a rapid development in the field of literature, science and art.
→ Laws were enforced to curb social evils. There was a remarkable improvement in the status and education of women.
→ The Printing Press acted as a mobilising public opinion. It became the remarkable phenomena for the surgence of national consciousness and cultural unity.
→ Orientalists: Those with a scholarly knowledge of the language and culture of Asia.
→ Vernacular: A local language or dialect as distinct from what in seen as the standard language.
→ Despatch: A message or report.
→ Pathshala: Local school.
→ Sati: An inhuman practice where a widow was forced to burn herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.
→ Female infanticide: Killing of infant girls.