DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 11 Notes – The First War of Independence 1857

These DAV Class 8 SST Notes and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 11 Notes – The First War of Independence 1857 hold significant importance as study material for students.

The First War of Independence 1857 Class 8 DAV Notes

→ The first war of Independence started on May 10, 1857 with the mutiny of soldiers in Meerut Cantonment.

→ The revolutionary soldiers marched towards Delhi and appealed to the aged Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah to take over the leadership of the revolt.

→ The revolt soon spread to different parts of the country. Different sections of Indian society united and fought as one nation to uproot the British regime in India.

→ Several causes gave birth to the Revolt of 1857. These included political causes, economic causes, social and religious causes, military causes and immediate causes.

→ The Indian sepoys were highly dissatisfied with the treatment meted out to them. Lord Dalhousie’s policy of the Doctrine of Lapse created fear and resentment among Indian rulers. They were not allowed to adopt heir to the throne.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 11 Notes - The First War of Independence 1857

→ The policy of economic exploitation and the destruction of the traditional Indian economic structure by the British cause widespread in the Indian customs and traditions. They introduced western education and encouraged Indians to embrace conversion to Christianity. All these methods of the British created discontentment among the natives. They wanted to get rid of the foreign rule.

→ The cartidges of the new Enfield rifle, which were suspected of being coated with fat of cows and pigs became the immediate cause of the revolt. Both the Hindus and the Muslims refused to use them. Mangal Pandey was the first to do so. The British arrested, tried and executed him. When this news spread, many sepoys started the revolt.

→ When the sepoys broke out into an open revolt in April 1857, it also spread in other parts of the country. It was led by Nana Saheb in Kanpur, Tantiya Tope in Bithul, Rani Laxmi Bai in Jhansi, Kunwar Singh in Bihar, etc.

→ The revolt also spread to Agra, Bareily, Benaras and other places. People from different sections of society participated in the revolt. It reflected the Hindu-Muslim unity. But it was effectively suppressed by the Britishers.

→ Hundreds of people were killed. Bahadur Shah Zafar was tried for treason and exiled in Rangoon. Rani Laxmi Bai was killed in the battle and Tantiya Tope was hanged to death.

→ There were several reasons for the failure of the revolt. Some of them are – lack of unity among the rebels, lack of modern weapons and disciplined army among the rebels, weak leadership, etc.

→ The British had regained control of the country by the end of 1859, but they could not carry on ruling the land with the same policies any more.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 11 Notes - The First War of Independence 1857

→ The British Crown took over the administration of India. The Governor General was given the title of viceroy who served as the representative of the British Crown.

→ The Revolt of 1857 proved to be the first great struggle for freedom.

→ Mutiny: A rebellion against authority especially by members of the armed forces.

→ Sepoy: Soldier. The Indian soldiers were called sepoys by the British.

→ Cartridge: A case containing explosive for firearms.