Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 1 Life

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 1 Life

Life Textual Questions

A. Read the following lines from the poem and answer the questions that follows.

Life Poem by Henry Van Dyke Line by Line Explanation Question 1. Let me but live my life from year to year,
With forward face and unreluctant soul;
(a) Whom does the word ‘me’ refer to?
(b) What kind of life does the poet want to lead?
Answer:
(a) ‘Me’ refers to the poet, Henry Van Dyke.
(b) The poet wants to live a joyous life with plenty of positivity towards the future.

2. Not hurrying to, nor turning from the goal;
Not mourning for the things that disappear
(a) Why do you think the poet is not in a hurry?
(b) What should one not mourn for?
Answer:
(a) The poet wants to move towards his goal without hurrying or turning away from it.
(b) One must not mourn for the things lost in the past.

Life Poem Figure of Speech by Henry Van Dyke Question 3. In the dim past, nor holding back in fear
From what the future veils; but with a whole
And happy heart, that pays its toll
To Youth and Age, and travels on with cheer.
(a) What does the poet mean by the phrase ‘in the dim past’?
(b) Is the poet afraid of future?
(c) How can one travel on with cheer?
Answer:
(a) ‘In the dim past’ means the sad days of the past.
(b) No, the poet is not afraid of future.
(c) One can travel on with cheer by retaining the pleasures of childhood.

So Let the Way Wind Up the Hill or Down Figure of Speech Question 4. So let the way wind up the hill or down,
O’er rough or smooth, the journey will be joy:
Still seeking what I sought when but a boy,
New friendship, high adventure, and a crown
(a) How is the way of life?
(b) How should be the journey of life?
(c) What did the poet seek as a boy?
Answer:
(a) The way of life could go up the hill or down, rough or smooth.
(b) The journey of life must be joyful.
(c) The poet seeks new friends and high adventure.

English Poems about Life Question 5. My heart will keep the courage of the quest,
And hope the road’s last turn will be the best.
(a) What kind of quest does the poet seek here?
(b) What is the poet’s hope?
Answer:
(a) The quest is to seek a purposeful life with courage and determination.
(b) The poet hopes for a beautiful life with a clear sense of purpose.

6. In the dim past, nor holding back in fear
From what the future veils; but with a whole
And happy heart, that pays its toll
To Youth and Age, and travels on with cheer.
(a) Identify the rhyming words of the given lines.
Answer:
fear – cheer; whole – toll.

Let Me But Live My Life from Year to Year Poem Question 7. Let me but live my life from year to year,
With forward face and unreluctant soul;
Not hurrying to, nor turning from the goal;
Not mourning for the things that disappear
(a) Identify the rhyme scheme of the given lines.
Answer:
The rhyming scheme: a b b a.

Poetic Comprehension – Additional

Poem on Life In English Question 1. Let me but live my life from year to year,
With forward face and unreluctant soul;
Not hurrying to, nor turning from the goal;
Not mourning for the things that disappear
(a) How does the poet want to live his life?
(b) What does he say about past events?
Answer:
(a) He wants to live his life happily with forwarding momentum and positivity.
(b) He tells us not to worry about the past things that disappeared.

Poetic Devices – Additional

English Poem about Life Question 1. With forward face and unreluctant soul;
Not hurrying to, nor turning from the goal;
(a) What literary device is used here?
(b) Pick out the alliterated words in these lines.
Answer:
(a) Couplet is used in this poem. A couplet is two lines of verse that are joined by a rhyme.
(b) The alliterated words: Forward – face; (1st line), Not-nor; (2nd line)

Poem about Life Journey Question 2. “So let the way wind up the hill or down”
(a) What is the figure of speech used here?
Answer:
Personification. The way is personified as a human. It takes us up the hill or down.

3. “My heart will keep the courage of the quest,
And hope the road’s last turn will be the best”.
(a) What is the literary device used here?
Answer:
Couplet is the literary device used here.

B. Answer the following question in about 80-100 words.

1. Describe the journey of life as depicted in the poem by Henry Van Dyke.
Answer:
In this poem, life is described not as an entity, but as an experience. One should live with courage and dedication. Life should be lived without hurry and with a clear sense of purpose that drives the mind and soul. The poet encourages us to let go of all that has been lost in the past as well as the uncertainty the future holds. He tells us to embrace the present with the happiness which nourishes the young and the old. Happiness gives us nourishment on this journey with a smile on our face. Whatever situation life throws at us, it is the journey that should be joyous, for it teaches us to grow and live. Our imagination should have the innocence and fearlessness of childhood. We should seek out new friendships, new adventures and new experiences which enrich us. He encourages us to have faith and determination in our hearts, as we take on this beautiful journey. We should have eternal hope that our story ends joyfully.

Paragraph Questions & Answers Additional

English Poetry on Life Question 1.
What is the message of the poem “Life”?
Answer:
Henry Van Dyke was a visionary American author. His poem “Life” describes life taking on life in its truest form, an adventure. The poet wants to live his life looking ahead, willing to do something. He neither wants to hurry nor move away from his goal. He does not want to mourn the things he has lost, not hold back for fear of the future. He instead prefers to live his life with a whole and happy heart which cheerfully travels from youth to old age. Therefore, it does not matter to him whether the path goes up or down the hill, rough or smooth, the journey will be joyful. He will continue to seek what he wanted as a boy – new friendship, high adventure and a crown (prize). His heart will remain courageous and pursue his desires. He hopes that every turn in his life’s journey will be the best.

Question 2.
What does the poet narrate to us in this poem?
Answer:
In this poem, the poet narrates to us about how he would want to look forward with a happy and cheerful mind without worrying too much about the future. He thinks that he should live life to the fullest by retaining the child-like innocence and pleasures of life. Finally, he hopes that his life will be meaningful and that better things will happen to him in the future which lies ahead of him.

English Poem on Life Question 3.
What are the main concepts and ideas in the poem ‘Life’?
Answer:
The poet wants to live his life looking ahead, willing to do something. He neither wants to hurry nor move away from his goal. He does not want to mourn the things he has lost, not hold back for fear of the future. He instead prefers to live his life with a whole and happy heart which cheerfully travels from youth to old age. Therefore, it does not matter to him whether the path goes up or down the hill, rough or smooth, the journey will be joyful. He will continue to seek what he wanted as a boy – new friendship, (vii) high adventure and a crown (prize). His heart will remain courageous and pursue his desires. He hopes that every turn in his life’s journey will be the best.

C. Based on your understanding of the poem, complete the following passage by using the phrases given in the box.

youth to old age up or down the hill to hurry nor move away
high adventure joyful mourn looking ahead

The poet wants to live his life (i) ________, willing to do something. He neither wants (ii) ________ from his goal. He does not want to (iii) ________ the things he has lost, not hold back for fear of the future. He instead prefers to live his life with a whole and happy heart which cheerfully travels from (iv) ________. Therefore, it does not matter to him whether the path goes (v)________, rough or smooth, the journey will be (vi)________. He will continue to seek what he wanted as a boy – new friendship, (vii) _______ ________ and a crown (prize). His heart will remain courageous and pursue his desires. He hopes that every turn in his life’s journey will be the best.
Answer:
(i) looking ahead
(ii) to hurry nor move away
(iii) mourn
(iv) youth to old age
(v) up or down the hill
(vi) joyful
(vii) high adventure

Life By Henry Van Dyke

Henry Van Dyke (1852 – 1933) was born in Pennsylvania, USA. A nature lover and avid reader, he earned degrees from Princeton, then served as a Presbyterian minister for more than 20 years. (He was considered one of the best preachers in New York City). He eventually returned to Princeton, where he spent nearly 20 years as a professor of English, with a bit of service as the U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg and the Netherlands in between. A writer whose talent extended to many different genres, Henry’s best-known works are probably the lyrics of the hymn “Joyful, Joyful, We Adore Thee” and the two Christmas stories, “The Other Wise Man” and “The First Christmas Tree”.

Henry Van Dyke is a visionary American author. His poem “Life” describes life taking on life in its truest form, an adventure. This poem is beautiful and inspiring but also idealistic. One cannot help but be charmed by his childlike hope and absolute faith in the abilities of a warm heart and an able mind.

Life Key points

  • Life is an experience.
  • To be lived with courage.
  • One should not worry about the uncertain future.
  • Happiness nourishes life with extra energy.
  • Imaginations to be fearless and pure.
  • New friendships, new adventures, new explorations to enrich us.
  • To always hope for a joyous future with determination and faith.

Life Summary

In this poem, life is described not as an entity, but as an experience. One should live with courage and dedication. Life should be lived without hurry and with a clear sense of purpose that drives the mind and soul. The poet encourages us to let go of all that has been lost in the past as well as the uncertainty the future holds. He tells us to embrace the present with the happiness which nourishes the young and the old. Happiness gives us. nourishment on this journey with a smile on our face.

Whatever situation life throws at us, it is the journey that should be joyous, for it teaches us to grow and live. Our imagination should have the innocence and fearlessness of childhood. We should seek out new friendships, new adventures and new experiences which enrich us. He encourages us to have faith and determination in our hearts, as we take on this beautiful journey. We should have eternal hope that our story ends joyfully.

Life Explanation of Poetic Lines

Line No. 1 – 2
Let me but live my life from year to year,
With forward face and unreluctant soul;
Explanation:
The poet is giving advice to the readers from his own personal experiences. The poet wants to live his life happily as it comes with forward momentum and optimism. He wants to live his life every year with a happy heart.

Line No. 3 – 4
Not hurrying to, nor turning from the goal;
Not mourning for the things that disappear
Explanation:
The poet does not like to hurry in any matters or situations. He doesn’t want to turn away from his aims. What he wanted to achieve, he will do it with confidence and hope. He does not like to feel sad and keep on worrying about the things that have passed away.

Line No. 5 – 6
In the dim past, nor holding back in
fear From what the future veils;
Explanation:
He doesn’t want to think about his dull past and hold back in fear about the uncertainty of his future. He wanted to look forward with a happy and cheerful mind. He doesn’t want to worry too much about his future.

Line No. 6 – 8
but with a whole.
And happy heart, that pays its toll
To Youth and Age, and travels on with
cheer.
Explanation:
He thinks that he should live life to the fullest by retaining the child-like innocence and pleasures of life. He likes to travel his journey of life cheerfully.

Line No. 9 -10
So let the way wind up the hill or down,
O’er rough or smooth, the journey will be joy:
Explanation:
Though his way goes up in the path of a mountain or down the valley, he would enjoy his journey. No matter whatever happens if his path is difficult or easy, he will make it a joyful journey.

Line No. 11 – 12
Still seeking what I sought when but a boy,
New friendship, high adventure, and a crown,
Explanation:
He is searching to find what he was searching for when he was a boy – his new adventures, his hopes, his new friendship and his new experiences which enrich him.

Line No. 13 – 14
My heart will keep the courage of the quest,
And hope the road’s last turn will be the best.
Explanation:
Life is described not as an entity but as an experience. One should live with courage, dedication and a clear sense of purpose that drives the mind and soul. The poet encourages us to have faith and determination in our hearts, as we take on this beautiful journey.

Life Glossary

crown (n) – a prize or position offered for being the best
dim – dark
goal – aim
mourning (v) – feeling or expressing great sadness
quest (n) – a long search for something that is difficult to find
seeking – hunting
sought – desired
toll – payment
unreluctant (adj.) – willing to do something (This form is generally not used but the poet has coined it for emphasis)
veils (v) – to hide or cover something so that you cannot see it clearly or understand it
wind – curve

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity

Tamilnadu State Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity

From Zero to Infinity In-Text Questions

From Zero to Infinity Summary Question. What was the reaction of the classmates to Ramanujan’s question?
Answer:
The classmates laughed at Ramanujan’s question.

From Zero to Infinity Mind Map Question. What did the Indian mathematician Bhaskara prove?
Answer:
The Indian mathematician Bhaskara proved that zero divided by zero is infinity.

Question.
Where did Ramanujan get S.L. Loney’s book on Trigonometry?
Answer:
Ramanujan got Loney’s “Trigonometry” book from a college library.

From Zero to Infinity 9th Standard English Question. Where did Ramanujan do his mathematical problems?
Answer:
Ramanujan did his mathematical problems on loose sheets of paper or on a slate.

Question.
What were the subjects neglected by Ramanujan in college?
Answer:
History, English, Physiology were the subjects neglected by Ramanujan in college.

From Zero to Infinity Biography of Srinivasa Ramanujan Question. Which University granted him a fellowship of H75 a month?
Answer:
University of Madras granted him a fellowship of? 75 a month.

From Zero to Infinity Lesson Plan Question. What did Ramanujan send to G.H. Hardy?
Answer:
Ramanujan sent a letter in which he set out 120 theorems and formulae to G.H Hardy.

Question.
Who discovered a rare mathematical genius in Ramanujan?
Answer:
G.H Hardy and his colleague J.E. Littlewood discovered a rare mathematical genius in Ramanujan.

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

From Zero to Infinity Lesson Summary Question 1.
Why did the students laugh at Ramanujan?
Answer:
The students laughed at Ramanujan because he asked if no banana was distributed among no one, would every one get one banana.

Question 2.
Why did the teacher compliment Ramanujan?
Answer:
The teacher complimented Ramanuj for asking a question that took centuries for mathematicians to answer.

Question 3.
Question What did Ramanujan do after reading the book on Trigonometry?
Answer:
After reading the book on Trigonometry, Ramanujan began his own research. He came forth with many mathematical theorems and formulae not given in the book

Question 4.
What disappointed Ramanujan’s father?
Answer:
Ramanujan failed twice in his first year arts examination in college as he neglected other subjects such as History, English and Physiology. This disappointed his father.

Question 5.
How did Ramanujan manage his paper crisis?
Answer:
Ramanujan needed about 2,000 sheets of paper every month. He started using even scraps of paper he found lying on the streets. Sometimes he used a red pen to write over what was written in blue ink.

Question 6.
Why were Ramanujan’s application for jobs rejected?
Answer:
Ramanujan would show his frayed notebooks to every officers. But no one could understand what was written in the notebooks. So, his applications for jobs were rejected.

Question 7.
Why was Ramanujan sent back to India?
Answer:
While Ramanujan continued his research work, Tuberculosis, then an incurable disease, was devouring him. So, he was sent back to India.

Short Questions and Answers : Additional

Question 1.
What was the teacher doing?
Answer:
The teacher was solving questions on division. He drew three bananas on the blackboard and started to solve the problems.

Question 2.
What was the most significant turn In Ramanujam’s life?
Answer:
The most significant turn came two years later, when one of his senior friends showed him Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure Applied Mathematics by George Shoo bridge Carr. This book triggered the mathematical genius in him.

Question 3.
What did Ramanujam do, before he went abroad? .
Answer:
Before Ramanujan went abroad, he had filled three notebooks, which later became famous as ‘Ramanujan’s Frayed Notebooks’.

Question 4.
Why did Ramanujan’s father think that his son was mad?
Ans :
When Ramanujan’s father found his son always scribbling numbers and not doing much else, he thought Ramanujan had gone mad.

Question 5.
Who was impressed by his notebooks?
Answer:
The Director of Madras Port Trust, Francis Spring was impressed by his
notebooks and gave him a clerical job on a monthly salary of? 25.

Question 6.
How did Ramanujan find himself at Cambridge?
Answer:
Ramanujan found himself a stranger at Cambridge. The cold was hard to bear and being a vegetarian, he had to cook his own food. However, he continued his research in Mathematics with determination.

Question 7.
What did Ramanujan do to forget his agonising pain?
Answer:
Ramanujan continued to play with numbers even on his death-bed to forget his agonising pain.

Question 8.
What was Ramanujan, beside being a mathematician?
Answer:
Beside being a mathematician, Ramanujan was an astrologer of repute and a good speaker.

Question 9.
While at research work, what disease was devouring him?
Answer:
While Ramanujan continued his research work, Tuberculosis, then an incurable disease was devouring him.

Question 10.
On what subjects did Ramanujan used to give lectures?
Answer:
Ramanujan used to give lectures on subjects like ‘God, Zero and Infinity’.

B. Answer the following questions in about 80 -100 words.

Question 1.
Describe the life of Srinivasa Ramanujan in India.
Answer:
Ramanujan was born in Erode in Tamilnadu on December 22,1887. From early childhood, it was evident that he was a prodigy. Senior students used to get his assistance in solving math problems. At the age of 13, he began his own research on Trigonometry. The book “Elementary Results in Pure Applied Mathematics” by George Shoobridge Carr triggered the genius in Ramanujan. He used to do problems on loose sheets and enter the results in notebooks which are now famous as “Ramanujan’s Frayed Notebooks”.

Although Ramanujan secured a first class in Mathematics in the matriculation examination and was awarded the Subramanyan Scholarship, he failed twice in his first year arts examination in college as he neglected other subjects such as History, English and Physiology. He searched for job for food and papers to do calculations. The Director of Madras Port Trust gave a clerical job to Ramanujan on a monthly salary of Rupees 25.

Question 2.
Narrate the association of Ramanujan with G.H. Hardy.
Answer:
Ramanujan sent a letter to the great Mathematician G.H. Hardy of Cambridge University, in which he set out 120 theorems and formulae which included the Reimann Series. Hardy and his colleague Littlewood realized that they had discovered a rare mathematical genius. They invited him to Britain.Despite the cold weather and food, Ramanujan continued his research with determination in the company of Hardy and Littlewood. Hardy found an unsystematic mathematician in Ramanujan due to his lack of formal education. Ramanujan’s achievements include the Hardy-Ramanujan-Littlewood circle method in number theory.

Paragraph Questions and Answers : Additional

Question 1.
Narrate the incident, which took place in the class of Ramanujan.
Answer:
The arithmetic class was in progress. The teacher was solving questions on division. He drew three bananas on the black board and asked the students if they have three bananas and three boys, how many each will get. A smart boy in the front row replied that each one would get one. He then proceeded to ask if 1000 bananas are distributed among 1000 boys would each one get one banana. A boy sitting in one comer raised his hand and stood up. The teacher stopped his explanation and waited for the boy to speak. He asked the teacher if no banana is distributed among no one, will everyone still get one banana.

There was a roar of laughter in the class. The teacher asked the ‘ students to stop laughing and explained to the boys, what he was asking. It was if zero banana is divided among zero, would each one get one? The answer would be ‘no’. Mathematically, each would get an infinite number of bananas. The boy had asked a question that had taken mathematicians several centuries to answer.

Question 2.
Why were Ramanujan’s applications for Jobs turned down?
Answer:
Ramanujan began to look for a job, as he had to find money not only for food, but for papers as well to do his calculations. He needed about 2000 sheets of paper every month. He visited offices and showed everyone his frayed notebooks and told them that he knew mathematics and he could do a clerical job. He behaved in an unpleasant way and was not neatly dressed. No one could understand what was written in the notebooks and so his applications for jobs were turned down.

C. Match the words with correct Synonym and Antonym from the table.
Answer:
From Zero to Infinity Tamil

Listening

D. Listen to the anecdote “Two Geniuses” and narrate it in your own words.
Answer:

Narration of “Two Geniuses”

There’s a story about how Dr. Albert Einstein was travelling to Universities in his car, delivering lectures on his theory of relativity. During one tired journey, his driver Hans remarked “Dr. Einstein, I have heard you deliver that lecture about 30 times. ,t I know it by heart and bet I could give it myself.”

“Well, I’ll give you the chance”, said the Dr. “They don’t know me at the next University, so when we get there, I’ll put on your cap, and you introduce yourself as Dr. Einstein and give the lecture.”

The driver delivered Einstein’s lecture without any mistakes. When he finished, he started to leave, but one of the professor stopped him and asked a complex question filled with mathematical equations and formulae. The driver thought fast. “The answer to that problem is so simple,” he said,” I’m surprised you have to ask me. In fact, to show you just how simple it is, I’m going to ask my driver Hans to come up here and answer your question”.

Speaking

E. Divide the students into groups of five and conduct a group discussion on the topic “Importance of Mathematics in Our Everyday Life” The teacher will act as a moderator.
Answer:

Group Discussion on Importance of Mathematics

Teacher : Good morning students! We have just learnt the life of the great mathematician Ramanujan. Now let’s have a group discussion on “Importance of Mathematics in Our Everyday Life”. Divide yourselves into groups of five.

Harsha (Group A) : The importance of maths in everyday life. Mathematics is a methodical application of matter. It is so said because the subject makes a man methodical or systematic. Mathematics makes our life orderly and prevents chaos.

Varsha (Group B) : In Hebrew, it’s root is “thinking.” They tell us that mathematics gives us the critical ability to learn and think logically in any field of endeavor. The skills of learning today are more important than knowledge, which is so readily available on the Internet.

Yusuf (Group C) : Math is an important part of our lives, because in the future you will get a job that deals with math. Math is pretty much in everything you do, really. Math is important because it is the most widely used subject in the world. Every career uses some sort of math.

Adhira (Group D) : Maths improves problem-solving abilities. Teaches clearer logical reasoning. Sharpens concentration and observance. Develops confidence and self-esteem.

Danny (Group E) : Knowing basic math principles keeps you from having to carry around a calculator because good use of math allows you to do many calculations in your head.

Reading

F. Answer the following questions based on the given passage.

From Zero to Infinity Question 1. What made John Shepherd-Barron to come up with the idea of ATM?
Answer:
It was then John’s habit to withdraw money on a Saturday, but on this particular weekend he had arrived one minute late and found the bank doors locked against him. This made him to come up with idea of ATM.

Question 2.
When and where was the first ATM installed?
Answer:
The first ATM was installed at a branch in the North London suburb of Enfield on June 27, 1967.

Question 3.
Who was the first person to withdraw cash from the ATM?
Answer:
The first person to withdraw cash from the ATM was Reg Varney, a celebrity resident of Enfield known for his part in the number of popular television series.

Question 4.
Why did Shepherd-Barron reduce the PIN number from six digits to four?
Answer:
Shepherd-Barron’s wife said that she could only remember four figures, because of her, four figures became the world standard.

Question 5.
Which theory of Ramanujan helps the ATMs to dispense cash?
Answer:
Ramanujan’s Partition theory helps the ATMs to dispense cash.

Writing

G. Paragraph Writing

Question 1.
Write a paragraph of 100-120 words about a memorable anecdote / incident of your life.
Answer:

A memorable anecdote/incident in my life

I was then a student of class four. One day, I was left at home with my grandmother. It was in the afternoon, my grandmother was taking a nap. I was a very restless one. The toys soon bored me and I looked around for something new. The unique thing which caught my attention was my Grandma’s spectacles.

I put it on my nose just in the style of my Grandma and looked around. Soon my eyes got tired. As I felt pain in my eyes, I removed the specs and threw them away. They struck the wall and landed on the ground broken. Now I got worried and afraid. I started trying to repair it. As I was holding these glass pieces I felt a severe pain in the middle finger of my right hand, I looked at it .

Blood was trickling down from a deep cut in my finger. I started crying loudly. On hearing my loud wailing my Grandma woke up. She hurriedly came out of her room, took a quick glance at my adventure and detecting the source of my trouble, she pressed her hand on my cut finger for sometime and then she took me to the doctor for bandaging. I was very much afraid of punishment but my Grandma forgave me although she had to suffer difficulty in seeing until the glasses were repaired. However I was naturally punished as I could neither eat my meals nor do my home work for three days.

Question 2.
Write a paragraph of 100-120 words about your favourite personality.
Answer:

My favourite personality

There are many people all around the world who are very famous and celebrities. But my favourite personality is my father. My father is my hero. He is kind, polite and really friendly to everyone. He is a teacher by profession and is very good in teaching. He is always ready to help and support the needy and helpless. He is a God fearing person and always teaches us to remember the God’s gifts and God’s love for the world.

I am so proud to have a father like him. He is a simple man with kind rules. He is handsome, my favourite and my ideal man. He is my friend and always ready to encourage, appreciate me for success and always ready to help me wherever I need a friend or a support of my father. I am proud of my father and wish him good health forever.

Grammar

Connectors

A. Complete the following sentences using appropriate Connectors from the box.

moreover
although
meanwhile
therefore
because
as long as
thus
above all
for instance
except

1. She felt cold _________ she was wearing a winter coat.
Answer:
although
2. This restaurant has some of the best chefs in the town.__________ their service is excellent.
Answer:
Moreover

3. I’m not going to the party tonight __________ I didn’t get an invitation.
Answer:
because

4. You can set the table. __________, I’ll start making dinner.
Answer:
Meanwhile

5. I can play quite a few instruments __________ , the flute, the guitar and the piano.
Answer:
For instance

6. The store was out of chocolate chips; __________ they would need to make a different type of cookies.
Answer:
therefore

7. The stores are open daily __________ Sundays.
Answer:
except

8. I’ll stay __________ you need me.
Answer:
as long as

9. This detergent is highly concentrated and __________ you will need to dilute it.
Answer:
thus

10. It was the thing he prized __________ .
Answer:
above all

Active Voice and Passive Voice

B. Convert the following active sentences into passive sentences by supplying an appropriate passive verb form.

Question 1.
She will not recognize us. / We__________ by her.
(a) will not recognize
(b) will not being recognized
(c) will not be recognized
Answer:
(c) will not be recognized

Question 2.
They didn’t invite me, but I went anyway. /I __________ but I went anyway.
(a) wasn’t invited
(b) wasn’t being invited
(c) wasn’t inviting
Answer:
(a) wasn’t invited

Question 3.
They broke up the table for firewood. / The table __________ up for firewood.
(a) broke
(b) had broken
(c) was broken
Answer:
(c) was broken

Question 4.
She has won the first prize. / The first prize __________ by her.
(a) has won
(b) has been won
(c) had been won
Answer:
(b) has been won

Question 5.
A friend of mine is repairing the car. / The car __________ by a friend of mine.
(a) is repairing
(b) is repaired
(c) is being repaired
Answer:
(c) is being repaired

Question 6.
Begin the work tomorrow. / Let the work __________ tomorrow.
(a) be begun
(b) begin
(c) is beginning
Answer:
(a) be begun

Question 7.
They speak English in New Zealand. / English __________ in New Zealand.
(a) is speaking
(b) is spoken
(c) is being spoken
Answer:
(b) is spoken

Question 8.
His attitude shocked me. /I __________ by his attitude.
(a) had shocked
(b) had been shocked
(c) was shocked
Answer:
(c) was shocked

Question 9.
She had already sent the parcel. / The parcel __________ by her.
(a) has already been sent
(b) had already been sent
(c) was already sent
Answer:
(b) had already been sent

Question 10.
Her silence worries me. /I __________ her silence.
(a) am worrying by
(b) am worried by
(c) have worried by
Answer:
(b) am worried by

C. Match the following Active voice sentences with Passive voice.
From Zero to Infinity Lesson In Tamil
Answer:

  1. (e)
  2. (c)
  3. (d)
  4. (b)
  5. (a)

D. Change the following into passive voice.

Zero to Infinity Solutions Question 1. Stanley will inform you later.
Answer:
You will be informed by Stanley later.

Question 2.
People speak Portuguese in Brazil.
Answer:
Portuguese is spoken by people in Brazil.

Question 3.
My grandfather built this house in 1943.
Answer:
This house was built by my grandfather in 1943.

Question 4.
Do not hurt the animals.
Answer:
You are warned not to hurt the animals.

Question 5.
You must not drop litter in the streets.
Answer:
You are warned not to drop litter in the streets.

Question 6.
Carry it home.
Answer:
Let it be carried to home.

Question 7.
They are decorating the wall.
Answer:
The wall is being decorated by them.

Question 8.
He has already mended the TV set.
Answer:
The TV set has already been mended by him.

Project

E. Make a scrapbook of ‘famous Biographies’ by collecting at least five biographies of famous scientists, mathematicians, inventors, artists etc., of your choice. You may also collect the pictures related to their achievements, inventions etc.
Ramanujan Zero
(To be done by the student)

From Zero to Infinity Textual Activities

Warm Up

Question.
Solve this
From Zero to Infinity Theme
Answer:
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity - 10

Question.
Did you enjoy solving this?
Answer:
Yes. I enjoyed solving this puzzle

Question.
Was it easy or hard to solve?
Answer:
Yes. It was easy.

Question.
Do you like Mathematics? Give reasons.
Answer:
Yes. I like Mathematics as it is exciting.

Synonyms & Antonyms : Additional Questions

I. Choose the correct Synonym for the underlined words.

Question 1.
The teacher complimented the boy who had asked that absurd question.
(a) clever
(b) silly
(c) wise
Answer:
(b) silly

Question 2.
Senior students used to go to his dingy house.
(a) dark and dirty place
(b) bright place
(c) attractive place
Answer:
(a) dark and dirty place

Question 3.
But Ramanujan was ignorant of the work of the German mathematician George. F. Riemann.
(a) conscious
(b) educated
(c) unaware
Answer:
(c) unaware

Question 4.
His father was a petty clerk in a cloth shop.
(a) significant
(b) insignificant
(c) important
Answer:
(b) insignificant

Question 5.
Unkempt and uncouth, he would visit offices.
(a) neat
(b) clean
(c) not neat
Answer:
(c) not neat

Another Type of Exercise

Choose the appropriate Synonym of the underlined words.

1. Ramanujan’s father was a petty (i) clerk in a cloth shop. From early childhood it was evident that he was a prodigy (ii). Senior students used to go to his dingy (iii) house to get their difficulties in mathematics solved. At the age of 13, Ramanujan was lent a book on advanced (iv) trigonometry written by S.L. Loney. Not only did he master this rather (v) difficult book but also began his own research.

i) (a) insignificant
(b) significant
(c) royal
(d) major
Answer:
(a) insignificant

ii) (a) imbecile
(b) genius
(c) normality
(d) regularity
Answer:
(b) genius

iii) (a) dark
(b) gloomy
(c) bright and clean
(d) dull
Answer:
(c) bright and clean

iv) (a) basic
(b) middle
(c) primitive
(d) progressive
Answer:
(d) progressive

v) (a) quite
(b) extremely
(c) insignificantly
(d) violently
Answer:
(a) quite

2. Although Ramanujan secured (i) a first class in mathematics in the matriculation examination and was awarded (ii) the Subramanyan Scholarship, he failed twice in his first-year arts examination in college, as he neglected (iii) other subjects such as History, English and Physiology. This disappointed (iv) his father. When he found the boy always scribbling numbers and not doing much else, he thought Ramanujan had gone mad (v)

i) (a) missed
(b) gave up
(c) obtained
(d) lost
Answer:
(d) lost

ii) (a) granted
(b) denied
(c) refused
(d) disallowed
Answer:
(a) granted

iii) (a) included
(b) abandoned
(c) cherished
(d) completed
Answer:
(b) abandoned

iv) (a) distressed
(b) charmed
(c) contented
(d) comforted
Answer:
(a) distressed

v) (a) wise
(b) rational
(c) sane
(d) insane
Answer:
(d) insane

3. Unkempt (i) and uncouth (ii), he would visit offices, showing everyone his frayed (iii) notebooks and telling them that he knew mathematics and could do a clerical job. But no one could understand what was written in the notebooks and his applications for jobs were turned down (iv). Luckily for him, he at last found someone who was impressed (v) by his notebooks.

i) (a) neat
(b) messy
(c) tidy
(d) trim
Answer:
(b) messy

ii) (a) rude
(b) decent
(c) civilized
(d) polite
Answer:
(a) rude

iii) (a) neat
(b) perfect
(c) worn out
(d) smart
Answer:
(c) worn out

iv) (a) processed
(b) accepted
(c) considered
(d) rejected
Answer:
(d) rejected

v) (a) apathetic
(b) amazed
(c) callous
(d) heedless
Answer:
(b) amazed

II. Choose the correct Antonym for the underlined words.

Question 1.
The arithmetic class was in progress.
(a) advance
(b) decline
(c) movement
Answer:
(b) decline

Question 2.
He could forget much of the hardship, he had to endure.
(a) suffer
(b) combat
(c) agree
Answer:
(b) combat

Question 3.
He came forth with many mathematical theorems.
(a) backward
(b) forward
(c) onward
Answer:
(a) backward

Question 4.
The teacher was solving questions on division.
(a) addition
(b) subtraction
(c) multiplication
Answer:
(c) multiplication

Question 5.
There was a roar of laughter in the class.
(a) cry
(c) giggle
(c) smile
Answer:
(a) cry

Another Type of Exercise

Choose the appropriate Antonyms of the underlined words.

1. Everyone laughed again. The boys understood the trick (i), arithmetic had played upon them. What they could not understand was why the teacher later complimented (ii) the boy who had asked that absurd (iii) question. The boy who asked the intriguing (iv) question was Srinivasa Ramanujan. Throughout his life, he was always ahead (v) of his mathematics teachers.

i) (a) deceive
(b) cheat
(c) honesty
(d) fool
Answer:
(c) honesty

ii) (a) commended
(b) abused
(c) praised
(d) congratulated
Answer:
(b) abused

iii) (a) logical
(b) ridiculous
(c) senseless
(d) foolish
Answer:
(a) logical

iv) (a) interesting
(b) alluring
(c) boring
(d) appealing
Answer:
(c) boring

v) (a) in advance
(b) backward
(c) forward
(d) onward
Answer:
(b) backward

2. In Ramanujan, Hardy found an unsystematic mathematician, similar to one who knows the Pythagoras theorem but does not know what a congruent (i) triangle means. Several discrepancies in his research could be attributed (ii) to his lack of formal education. Ramanujan played with numbers, as a child would with a toy. It was sheer genius (iii) that led him to mathematical “truths”. The task of proving them, so important (iv) in Science, he left to lesser mortals (v).

i) (a) concurring
(b) harmonious
(c) agreeable
(d) disagreeable
Answer:
(d) disagreeable

ii) (a) connected
(b) unrelated
(c) credited
(d) associated
Answer:
(b) unrelated

iii) (a) ignorance
(b) ability
(c) flair
(d) aptitude
Answer:
(a) ignorance

iv)(a) critical
(b) unimportant
(c) crucial
(d) imperative
Answer:
(b) unimportant

v) (a) humans
(b) characters
(c) individuals
(d) immortals
Answer:
(d) immortals

3. While Ramanujan continued his research work, Tuberculosis, then an incurable disease, was devouring (i) him. Ramanujan was sent back to India and when he disembarked (ii), his friends found him pale, exhausted (iii) and emaciated (iv). To forget the agonizing (v) pain, he continued to play with numbers even on his death bed.

i) (a) consuming
(b) eating
(c) absorbing
(d) avoiding
Answer:
(c) hated

ii) (a) alighted
(b) landed
(c) embarked
(d) decended
Answer:
(b) boredom

iii) (a) tired
(b) energetic
(c) worn out
(d) fatigued
Answer:
(d) inconveniently

iv) (a) lean
(b)chubby
(c) thin
(d) skinny
Answer:
(a) unlikely

v) (a) painful
(b) severe
(c) pleasant
(d) distressing
Answer:
(c) go

MCQs – Additional

Complete the following by choosing the correct answer from the options given.

Question 1.
The teacher was solving questions on _______________.
(a) division
(b) Mathematics
(c) multiplication
(d) addition
Answer:
(a) division

Question 2.
There was a roar of laughter in the _______________.
(a) room
(b) corridor
(c) class
(d) hall
Answer:
(c) class

Question 3.
“Mathematically, each will get an _______________ number of bananas!”
(a) equal
(b) unlimited
(c) infinite
(d) extra
Answer:
(c) infinite

Question 4.
The boys understood the trick, _______________ had played upon them.
(a) mathematics
(b) the teacher
(c) the student
(d) arithmetic
Answer:
(d) arithmetic

Question 5.
The boy who _______________the intriguing question was Srinivasa Ramanujan.
(a) answered
(b) asked
(c) put forward
(d) enquired
Answer:
(b) asked

Question 6.
His father was a petty clerk in a _______________ shop.
(a) grocery
(b) toy
(c) cloth
(d) jewellery
Answer:
(c) cloth

Question 7.
He needed about _______________ sheets of paper every month,
(a) 1000
(b) 2000
(c) 1500
(d)3000
Answer:
(b) 2000

Question 8.
On March 17,1914, he sailed for _______________.
(a) Britain
(b) London
(c) Germany
(d) France
Answer:
(a) Britain

Question 9.
Ramanujan found himself a stranger at _______________.
(a) Cambridge
(c) Yale
(b) Oxford
(d) London
Answer:
(a) Cambridge

Question 10.
He was _______________ the Indian to receive distinguished fellowship,
(a) oldest
(b) first
(c) second
(d) youngest
Answer:
(d) youngest

Question 11.
A smart boy in the front row replied _______________.
(a) all will get two
(b) each will get one
(c) no one will get anything
Answer:
(b) each will get one

Question 12.
_______________ the teacher said loudlv.
(a) Quiet
(b) Be silent
(c) sit down
Answer:
(a) Quiet

Question 13.
‘Uncouth’ is behaving in a _______________.
(a) pleasant way
(b) unpleasant way
(c) careless way
Answer:
(b) unpleasant way

Question 14.
The teacher stopped and _______________.
(a) asked the boy to answer
(b) waited for the boy to speak
(c) enquired the boy
Answer:
(b) waited for the boy to speak

Question 15.
He used to lecture on subjects like _______________.
(a) astrologies and mathematics
(b) health and diseases
(c) ‘God, Zero and infinity’
Answer:
(c) ‘God, Zero and infinity’

From Zero to Infinity About the Author

Srinivasa Ramanujan (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician who lived during the British rule in India. Though he had almost no formal training in pure Mathematics, he made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions, including solutions to mathematical problems considered to be unsolvable. He was born on 22 December 1887 into a Tamil Brahmin Iyengar family in Erode, Madras Presidency (now Tamil Nadu). The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan is a biography of Ramanujan, written in 1991 by Robert Kanigel and published by Washington Square Press.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity - 1

From Zero to Infinity Summary

This lesson ‘From Zero to Infinity’ is a biography of Srinivasa Ramanujan. He was an Indian h Mathematician, who lived during the British rule in India. His knowledge of Mathematics was extraordinary.

One day, when the arithmetic class was in progress, his teacher was solving questions on , division. When the teacher asked the students if there were three students and three bananas, how many each students would get, a smart boy replied that each one would get one banana. Then he proceeded to ask if 1000 bananas are distributed among 1000 boys, would each one get one banana? f Ramanujan stood up and asked his teacher, if no banana is distributed among no one, would everyone still get one banana? All the other students laughed at this silly question.

But the teacher understood his question and explained to the students what he had asked. It was if zero banana is divided among zero, would each one get one? The answer would be ‘no’. Mathematically, each would get an infinite number of bananas. The boy had asked a question that had taken mathematicians several centuries to answer.

Ramanujan was bom in Erode in Tamilnadu on December 22,1%87. From early childhood, it was evident that he was a prodigy. Senior students used to get his assistance in solving math problems. At the age of 13, he began his own research on Trigonometry. The book “Synopsis of Elementary Results in Pure Applied Mathematics” by George Shoobridge Carr triggered the genius in Ramanuj an.

He used to do problems on loose sheets and enter the results in notebooks which are now famous as “Ramanujan’s Frayed Notebooks”. Although Ramanujan secured a first class in Mathematics in the matriculation examination and was awarded the Subramanyan Scholarship, he failed twice in his first year arts examination in college as he neglected other subjects such as History, English and Physiology. He searched for job for food and papers to do calculations. The Director of Madras Port Tmst gave a clerical job to Ramanujan on a monthly salary of Rupees 25.

Ramanujan sent a letter to the great Mathematician G. H. Hardy of Cambridge University, in which he set out 120 theorems and formulae, which included the Reimann Series. Hardy and his colleague Littlewood realized that they had discovered a rare mathematical genius. They invited him to Britain.

Despite the cold weather and food, Ramanujan continued his research with determination ‘ in the company of Hardy and Littlewood. Hardy found an unsystematic mathematician in Ramanuj an due to his lack of formal education. Ramanujan’s achievements include the Hardy-Ramanujan- Littlewood circle method in number theory.

As Ramanujan was suffering from Tuberculosis, he was sent back to India. Even on his death bed, he continued to play with numbers, so that he could forget his agonising pain. Ramanujan was also an astrologer and a good speaker. He gave lectures on subjects like “God, Zero and Infinity”.

From Zero to Infinity Mind Map

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity - 2

From Zero to Infinity Glossary

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity - 3

Synonyms
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity - 4

Antonyms
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 6 From Zero to Infinity - 5

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Grammar Sentence Pattern

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Grammar Sentence Pattern

There are five components in a sentence.

  1. Subject;
  2. Verb;
  3. Object;
  4. Complement;
  5. Adjunct

1. Subject:
Subject – S – consists of nouns or pronouns – occurs before a verb.

2. Verb:
Verb-
V – consists of
(a) auxiliaries
(b) finite verbs.

(a) Auxiliaries:

  1. am, is are, was, were
  2. has, have, had :
  3. does, do, did
  4. Modals: can, could; will, would; shall, should; may, might; must
  5. Semi-Modals / Quasi Modals: dare to; need to; used to; ought to

(b) Finite verbs – denote action:
e.g.,
sing, play, write, make, dance, leave, create, etc.
verbs occur after the subject (or) before the object.

Examples of S + V pattern:
English Grammar Sentence Pattern

3. Object:
Object – O – consists of nouns or noun phrases or noun clauses.
(a) DO – Direct Object
– answers the question ‘what’ after V
Svc Pattern

(b) IO – Indirect Object
– answers the question ‘whom’
Svo Sentence Pattern Examples

Examples of S V O pattern:
Svc Sentence Pattern Examples

Examples of S V O DO pattern:
Asv Sentence Pattern Examples

Examples of S V O IO pattern:
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Grammar Sentence Pattern 12
Sentence Pattern 10 Examples

4. Complement:
Complement – C – from the word ‘complete’
– complete the meaning in the sentence
Sv Sentence Pattern Examples

i) In S V C pattern, the complement C
– complements the subjects
– tells about the subject
– without C, the sentence is incomplete or the sentence changes its meaning.
– “to be” forms, grow, become, seems for a verb.
I Shall Meet You Tomorrow Sentence Pattern
– the same person/thing
– without C, incomplete meaning.

But in
Svoc Sentence Pattern Examples

ii) in S V O C pattern:
– the complement tells about the object
– the complement and object are of the same person or thing.
Sviodo Sentence Pattern Examples

5. Adjunct:
Adjunct – A – answers the questions where? when ? how ? why?
– Absence of ‘A’ does not change the meaning of the sentence.

Examples of Adjuncts:
Svac Sentence Pattern Examples

Examples of Adjuncts in sentences:
1. She / comes I every day. – S V A
2. Sit / here. – V A
3. He / drives / the car / slowly. – S V O A
4. Muthu / has been I an officer / for 10 years. – S V C A
5. We / present I gifts / to our friends / on birthdays. – S V D O IO A
6. This morning / at five / I I heard / a noise. – A A S V O
7. We / rarely I go / to the beach I during weekends. – S A V A A
8. Every year I on New Year’s eve / they / distribute / cake and sweets I to all the guests. – A A S V DO IO
9. Every morning / at five I the Mullah/chants/ prayers / at the mosque I without fail. – A A S V O A A
1o. In the end,) the judge I declared I the accused / innocent, after the trial. – A S V O C A

Exercises
Identify the pattern of the following sentence:

Sentence Pattern Question 1.
He was going to school.
(a) S V O
(b) S V A
(c) S V C A
Answer:
(b) S V A

Question 2.
I met my friend at the market.
(a) S V I O D O
(b) S V O C
(c) S V O A
Answer:
(c) S V O A

Question 3.
Velu grew tired ãfter the match.
(a) S V C A
(b) S V I O D O
(c) S V O C
Answer:
(a) S V C tile n fg[pA

Question 4.
Reading made him a complete man.
(a) S V O C
(b) S V I O D O
(c) S V O A
Sentence Pattern Examples with Answer:
(a) S V O C

Question 5.
They named this child Ria.
(a) S V A C
(b) S V O C
(c) S V C A
Answer:
(b) S V O C

Question 6.
Ram’s father is a lawyer.
(a) S V C
(b) S V A
(c) S V I O D O
Answer:
(a) S V C

Question 7.
He sang me a song melodiously.
(a) S V O C
(b) S V O A
(c) S V IO DO A
Answer:
(c) SV IO DO A

Question 8.
This shoe is large.
(a) S V O
(b) S V C
(c) S V A
Answer:
(b) S V C

Sentence Pattern Exercises for Class 10 Question 9. His father gave him his school bag.
(a) S V C
(b) S V O C
(c) S V IO DO
Answer:
(c) S V IO DO

Question 10.
The player entered the room.
(a) S V O
(b) S V A
(c) S V C
Answer:
(b) S V A

Question 11.
Eve – Teasers must be punished severely.
(a) S V A
(b) S V C
(c) S V O
Answer:
(a) S V A

Question 12.
We wear woolen clothes in winter season.
(a) S V O C
(b) S V IO DO
(c) S V O A
Answer:
(c) S V O A

Question 13.
I shall meet you tomorrow.
(a) S V O
(b) S V IO DO
(c) S V O A
Answer:
(c) S V O A

Question 14.
He answered my question instantly.
(a) S V O A
(b) S V C A
(c) S V IO DO
Answer:
(a) S V O A

Question 15.
They named the child Prem.
(a) S V A C
(b) S V O C
(c) S V C A
Answer:
(c) S V C A

Question 16.
We completed the work on time.
(a) S V O C
(b) S V A C
(c) S V O A
Answer:
(c) S V O A

Question 17.
The meeting ended with a vote of thanks.
(a) S V A
(b) S V C
(c) S V O
Answer:
(a) S V A

Question 18.
I bought a new car yesterday.
(a) S V A O
(b) S V C A
(c) S V O A
Answer:
(c) S V O A

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 5 The Secret of the Machines

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 5 The Secret of the Machines

Chapter 5 The Secret of the Machines Textual Questions

A. Answer the following questions briefly.

1. Who does ‘we’ refer to in first stanza?
(a) Human beings
(b) Machines.
The Secret of the Machines Poem Questions and Answer:
(b) Machines.

2. Who are the speakers and listeners of this poem?
Answer:
The speakers are the Machines and the listeners are the readers.

3. What metals are obtained from ores and mines? Iron ore
Answer:
Steel, Copper, Nickel, Lead, Tin, Aluminum, Gold and Uranium are some of the metals that we obtain from Ores and Mines.

The Secret of the Machines Questions and Answers Class 8 Question 4. Mention a few machines which are hammered to design.
Answer:
The lever, the inclined plane, the wedge, the screw, the wheel, the axle and the pulley.

5. Mention the names of a few machines that run on water, coal or oil.
Answer:
Steam engine, generator, washing machine, and turbine of power plants.

6. Mention a few machines used for pulling, pushing, lifting, driving, printing, ploughing, reading, and writing etc.
Answer:
Crane, printer, car, cycle, computer, telegraph, telephone etc.

7. Are machines humble to accept the evolution of human brain? Why?
Answer:
Yes, Machines are humble to accept the evolution of the human brain. They know that they are nothing more than the creations of the human brain.

8. What feelings are evoked in us by the machines in this poem?
Machine Poem Questions and Answer:
Emotions like love, pity and forgiveness are evoked in us by the machines.

9. ‘And a thousandth of an inch to give us play:’
Which of the following do the machines want to prove from this line?
(a) Once Machines are fed with fuel, they take a very long time to start.
(b) Once Machines are fed with fuel, they start quickly.
Answer:
(b) Once machines are fed with fuel, they start quickly.

10. And now, if you will set us to our task,
We will serve you four and twenty hours a day!
a. Who does the pronoun ‘you’ refer to here?
Answer:
‘You’ refers to the people.

b. Whose task is referred to as ‘our task’ here?
Answer:
‘Our task’ here refers to the work of the machines.

c. Open conditional clause is used in the given line. Why is the future tense ‘will set’ and ‘will serve’ used both in the ‘if clause’ and in the ‘main clause?’
Answer:
The future tense is used both in the ‘If clause’ and in the ‘main clause’ because people don’t make use of the machines in the proper way and maintain them correctly. So the poet stresses that if they are set to their task properly, they will work continuously.

d. Do the machines serve us twenty four hours a day?
Answer:
Yes, they serve us twenty-four hours a day.

e. Rewrite the given lines with the ending ‘365 days a year.’
Answer:
And now if you will set us to our task, We will serve you, three hundred and sixty five days a year!

Poetic Comprehension – Additional

1. We were case and wrought and hammered to designs,
we were cut and filed and tooled and gauged to fit.
(a) Who does ‘we’ refer to in these lines?
(b) What do you mean by ‘wrought’?
Answer:
(a) It refers to the machines.
(b)‘Wrought’ means metals are beaten out of shape by hammering.

2. And now, if you will set us to our task,
We will serve you four and twenty hours a day!
(a) Who will serve us twenty four hours?
(b) What do mean by ‘set us to our task’?
Answer:
(a) The machine will serve us twenty four hours.
(b) It means ‘when we, the human beings, give the machines a task or work’.

Figures of Speech In the Poem Secret of Machines Question 3. We can see and hear and count and read and write.
(a) What is specified here in this line?
(b) Are machines important in our life?
Answer:
(a) The machines can do various tasks like, seeing, hearing, counting, reading and writing.
(b) Yes, machines are important in our life.

The Secret of the Machines Question 4. We can neither love nor pity nor forgive.
If you make a slip in handling us, you die!
(a) Do the machines have emotions?
(b) What happens if you make a slight mistake?
(c) What do you mean by the word ‘slip’ here?
Answer:
(a) No, they do not have emotions or feelings.
(b) If you make a simple mistake in handling the machines, it can lead to big disasters
(c) It means a wrong step in handling the machines.

Poetic Devices – Additional

1. “We were taken from the ore-bed and the mine,
we were melted in the furnace and the pit”.
a. Pick out the alliterated words in these lines.
Answer:
we – were; the – the are the alliterated words.

2. ‘We will serve you four and twenty hours a day?’
a. What is the poetic device used here?
Answer:
Hyperbole is used here. The poet exaggerates the use of machines.

3. ‘We can see, and run and hear and count and read and write.
a. Name the figure of speech used here?
Answer:
Personification.
a. Bring out the rhyme scheme of these lines?
Answer:
The rhyming scheme, of these lines are ‘ababa’

Though Our Smoke May Hide the Heavens from your Eyes Question 4. Though our smoke may hide the Heavens from your eyes,
It will vanish and the stars will shine again,
Because, for all our power and weight and size,
We are nothing more than children of your brain!
(a) Pick out the rhyming words in these lines.
Answer:
The rhyming words are ‘eyes-size’ and ‘again-brain’.
(a) Bring out the rhyming scheme of the lines.
Answer:
The rhyming scheme: a b a b.

Activity

B. Write your favourite stanza from the poem and find the rhyming scheme.
Answer:
But remember, please, the Law by which we live,
We are not built to comprehend a lie,
We can neither love nor pity nor forgive,
If you make a slip in handling us you die!
Rhyming scheme: a b a b.

C. Read the poem and find the lines for the following poetic devices or write your own example.

Alliteration
Answer:
“We can pull and haul and push and lift and drive”
pull, push – are the alliterated words.

Assonance
Answer:
“Some water, coal, and oil is all we ask”
all, ask – Repetition of two vowel sounds.

Personification
The Pulley Poem Questions and Answer:
“We can pull and haul and push and lift and drive”
Here, a machine is given human attributes.

Paragraph Question & Answer – Additional

The Secret Poem Question 1. What is the importance of machines in our life?
Answer:
Min We can rely upon machines in transport and communication, which are getting more complicated all the time. This is unavoidable as we move further into the technological age of computers and increasing automation. We must accept the fact that our life depends on machines more and more. But then, some simple apparatus fails. The ballpoint pen won’t function; the computer will not be ready to execute your orders. It can be irritating. If the machine is faulty, the simple job of mowing the lawn, turns into a battle of you and the mower. It prevents your efforts and refuses to co-operate. The once efficient machine, your friend and servant, has become your enemy. It is very important not to cross the limits and rational about machinery.

10th English Poem the Secret of Machines Question 2. What are the poetic devices used in this poem?
Answer:
There are many poetic devices used in this poem like symbolism, imagery, personification, hyperbole, alliteration, assonance, rhythm and rhyme.
Symbolism: The title symbolises that machines also have secrets.
Imagery: It is a description that creates a picture in the readers mind. It is used by the poet in the lines, “we can see and hear and count and read and write!
Personification: A thing, idea or an animal is given human qualities. We can pull and haul and push and lift and drive’. The machine is given human attributes.
Hyperbole: When a poet exaggerates in the poem, it is a hyperbole. “We will serve you four and twenty hours a day”.
Assonance: It is a repetition of two or more vowel sounds. Example: “all we ask”. Further, there are alliteration and rhyming words in this poem.

The Secret of the Machines By Rudyard Kipling

Rudyard Kipling (1865 – 1936) was born on 30th December, 1865 in Bombay, but educated in England at the United Services College, Westward Ho, England. In 1882, he returned to India, where he worked for a ‘The Pioneer’ in Allahabad. His literary career began with ‘Departmental Ditties’ (1886) but subsequently he became chiefly known as a writer of short stories. His works of fiction include ‘The Jungle Book’( 1894), ‘Kim (1901) and many short stories, including ‘The Man who would be King’ (1888). His poems include ‘The White Man’s Burden (1899), ‘If’ (1910). He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature at the age of 41. Kipling died on 18th January 1936.

The Secret of the Machines Key Points

  • This poem deals with the problems of modern technology and automation.
  • The poet informs how the machines are produced and what kind of treatment they need.
  • Then the machines explain how they can serve humanity.
  • Although machines are useful, they can lead to big disasters, if they aren’t used in the right way.
  • Machines are emotionless. They have no feelings. If you make a simple mistake in handling the machines, you could even die.
  • Machines are not perfect after all and nature always wins over.
  • They are not miraculous creations. They are nothing more than creations of the human brain.

The Secret of the Machines Summary

The poem “The Secret of machines” deals with the problems of modern technology and automation. In the beginning, the poet informs about how the machines are produced and what kind of treatment they need. Afterwards, in the second and third stanzas, the machines explain how they can serve humanity. All the work what was done by the humans earlier is taken up by the machines at present. They pull, haul, push, lift, drive, print, plough, weave, heat, light, run, race, swim, fly, and dive. They can also see, hear, count, read and write like human beings. Even though machines are useful, they can also lead to big disasters, if they aren’t used in the right way. They have no emotions or feeling for anyone. In the last stanza, the dream of the “perfect machinery” suddenly seems to fade away. Machines aren’t miraculous creations. They are nothing more than the creations of the human brain.

The Secret of the Machines Glossary

cast – throw
comprehend (v) – grasp, understand
filed – categorized
furnace (n) – an enclosed structure in which material is heated to very high temperatures
gauge(n) – an instrument that measures perfection in appearance and quality
haul (v) – pull or drag with effort or force
pit – hole
melted – having become liquefied by heating
slip – mis step
thousandth (adv.) – a fraction of thousand
tooled – shaped
vanish – disappear
vanish (v) – disappear suddenly and completely
wrought (adj.) – beaten out of shape by hammering

The Secret of the Machines Explanation Of Poetic Lines

Line No. 1 – 4
We were taken from the ore-bed and the mine,
We were melted in the furnace and the pit
We were cast and wrought and hammered to design,
We were cut and filed and tooled and gauged to fit.
Explanation:
The poet informs about how the machines are produced and what kind of treatment they need. The machines tell us that they were taken from the ore-bed and mined in the furnace. They were cast in the pit. They were beaten out of shape by hammering. They were cut and filed. Then they were tooled and gauged to fit.

Line No. 5 – 8
Some water, coal, and oil is all we ask,
And a thousandth of an inch to give us play:
And now, if you will set us to our task,
We will serve you four and twenty hours a day!
Explanation:
The machines ask only for some water, coal and oil. It takes only a fraction of a thousand to make them work. If we set them on task, they will serve us twenty-four hours a day.

Line No. 9 – 12
We can pull and haul and push and lift and drive,
We can print and plough and weave and heat and light,
We can run and race and swim and fly and dive,
We can see and hear and count and read and write!
Explanation:
In this stanza, the poet says that the machines can do all sorts of work. They can pull, drag, push, lift and drive. They can also print, plough, weave, heat and light. Further they can run, race, swim, fly and dive. They can also see, hear, count, read and write. All these tasks were done earlier by the humans. Now these machines have made their work easier.

Line No. 12 – 16
Bat remember; please, the Law by which we live,
We are not built to comprehend a lie,
We can neither love nor pity nor forgive,
If you make a slip in handling us you die!
Explanation:
But we have to remember the law by which we live. Machines are built to grasp a lie. They have no emotions or feelings. They don’t pity anyone or forgive them. If we make a slight mistake in handling them, you could even die.

Line No. 17 – 20
Though our smoke may hide the Heavens from your eyes,
It will vanish and the stars will shine again,
Because, for all our power and weight and size,
We are nothing more than children of your brain!
Explanation:
Machines aren’t perfect after all and Nature always wins over. Machines aren’t miraculous creations. They are nothing more than the creations of the human brain.

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Tech Bloomers

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Tech Bloomers

Tech Bloomers In Text Questions

Tech Bloomers Question a.
What is the future of technology?
Answer:
The future of technology is beyond our imagination but certainly possible with modern gadgets.

Question b.
How many people in India suffer with disability?
Answer:
2.7 Crore people in India suffer with disability.

Question c.
Who is Kim?
Answer:
Kim is the Assistive Technologist at Alisha’s School.

Tech Bloomers Lesson Plan Question d.
How does Kim help Alisha?
Answer:
Kim introduced Alisha to Dragon Dictate, which had opened up the world to Alisha. It has made her more independent and she is able to study on her own.

Question e.
Why is technology important according to David?
Answer:
Technology is important to David because it enables him to communicate and be independent.

Question f.
Which instrument does David control with his eye movements?
Answer:
David uses a Liberator Communication Device, which he controls with his eye movements for his verbal communication.

Technology Is a Boon to the Disabled Justify Question g.
What devices help David to move from one place to other?
Answer:
AAC device and EC02 with ECO point are the devices that help David to move from one place to the other.

Words Synonyms Antonyms
latest recent old / outdated
mounted fixed dismantled
opening beginning closing
reality true false
receive get give
rely depend independent
replacement substitute
required needed needless
selected chosen rejected
spare extra scanty
swapping moving unmoving

Tech Bloomers Textual Questions

A. Answer the following questions in two or three sentences.

Bloomers Lesson Question 1.
What are the benefits of the internet to the common man?
Answer:
Technology impacts the environment, people and society as a whole. The Internet benefits a common man to travel, to communicate, to learn, to do business and to live in comfort.

Question 2.
Do you think technology has improved communication? How?
Answer:
Yes, technology has improved communication. Through a piece of technology called Dragon Dictate, Alisha who suffers from Cerebral palsy can speak now and the words appear on her screen. Then she can print them out. It made her achieve things which she had dreamt.

Prose Synonym Question 3.
How does David operate computers with the Liberator Communication Device?
Answer:
David operates computers with the Liberator Communication Device by controlling it with his eye movements. It has a Bluetooth adaptor. So it lets him use any PC or Mac by sending commands.

Question 4.
Which devices are controlled using ACTIV controller?
Answer:
TV, Blu-ray and music players are controlled using ACTIV controller.

Question 5.
Who says these words: “I want everyone to know the difference technology has made in my life”?
Answer:
Alisha says these words to make the world know the difference that technology has made in her life.

Bloomers Synonym Question 6.
Which software helps Alisha to overcome her difficulty in typing?
Answer:
Dragon Dictate is a software which helped Alisha to overcome her difficulty in typing.

Question 7.
Name a few Indian innovations which are helpful to the disabled and make their day to day life
easier.
Answer:
Lechal Shoes by Krispian Lawrence, Blee watch by Industrial designers Nupura Kirloskar and Janhavi Joshi of Mumbai and IGEST by Anil Prabhakar.

Question 8.
Is it possible to control the computer screen with eye gaze?
Answer:
Yes, it is possible to control the computer screen with Eye Gaze. That means, when we are reading, we can move from page to page using the pupils of our eyes.

Tech Bloomers Lesson Question 9.
Suggest ways of making our society inclusive.
Answer:
Keeping in touch with our family, talking to them, seeing relatives, who live far away, making , friends, communicating and controlling our environment, finding opportunities, getting qualified and being independent are the ways of making our society inclusive.

Question 10.
How would you help the people with disabilities in your neighborhood?
Answer:
I would introduce them to the Latest and modern Technology, so that it can make them more confident and independent. This technology allows the differently abled learners to learn with their peers as well as contribute fruitfully.

Short Questions & Answers – Additional

Question 1.
What is a reality now?
Answer:
Managing entertainment and home appliances by voice commands or by swapping the finger is a reality now. Work is made easier than before.

Question 2.
How are India’s disabled deprived of?
Answer:
Unlike the developed world, India’s disabled are deprived by attitudinal barriers, as they continue to fight with the challenges of access, acceptance and inclusion.

Question 3.
What was the problem faced by Alisha?
She has cerebral palsy and she cannot physically type as fast as she thinks. But now she is able to do it by a piece of technology called Dragon Dictate.

Question 4.
How can you control a computer screen with an Eye Gaze?
Answer:
If someone has very limited movement, they can control a computer screen with an eye gaze that is by moving the screen from page to page using the pupils of our eyes.

Question 5.
What did David use when he started out with AAC?
Answer:
When David first started out with AAC, he used a head switch to access his AAC device, running a page-based system, which took lots of navigation and effort.

Question 6.
How does David control his play station?
Answer:
David controls his play station with a bespoke switch system, drives his electric wheelchair with head switches and uses the ECO point Eye Gaze system to communicate and access the computer.

Question 7.
With how many students does Kim work? How?
Answer:
Kim works with all 42 students at school. She helps them to use technology in different ways. She is amazing. Without her, the students would lose out so many opportunities.

Question 8.
What did David say about the Liberator Communication Device?
Answer:
He said that it was a great feeling when he learnt to use it. It took him only a couple of weeks to learn. Communicating with people was very difficult before using it.

B. Answer in a paragraph of about 100-150 words.

Question 1.
How do we use technology in our day to day lives?
Answer:
Technology impacts the environment, people and the society as a whole. The way we use technology determines if its impacts are positive to the society or negative. We use mobile phones, tablet, Digital Dictionary, e-Book reader and video games as the latest technology. All these are useful to make our work easier. It makes us to keep in touch with our family members by talking to them, whenever we want to. We can see our relatives, who live far away from us. It also helps us to make friends, communicate with them and control our environment. It can help us to study, get qualifications and find opportunities for work. It can make us confident and independent. Learning has now become a more inclusive way for us by this technology.

Question 2.
“Technology is a boon to the disabled”. Justify.
Answer:
‘Technology is a boon to the disabled because it made to a lot of difference in their life. Now the differently-abled people can do their day to day tasks of life like travelling, communicating, learning, doing business and living a comfortable life. They are able to fight with the challenges of access, acceptance and inclusion. In this lesson, Alisha and David’s life has changed with the use of technology. Alisha couldn’t physically type as just as she thinks. After she was introduced to a piece of technology called Dragon Dictate, she can speak now the words appear on her screen. Then she can print them out. Kim who is an Assistive Technologist helps students to use technology in different ways. The use of technology enabled David and others to communicate and be independent.

Paragraph Questions & Answers – Additional

Question 1.
How did David’s life change with the use of technology?
Answer:
David was born with Athetoid Cerebral Palsy and attended a specialist school and college. I He had been using a high tech communication aid, since he was eight-years old and has been I interested in AAC and technology ever since. With lots of effort and navigation, he learnt I to use the device. He then used an EC02 with ECO point, making his selections with a foot ® switch. David is also a keen sportsman, regularly playing football, boccia, hockey and baseball. He is a sports leader and uses his EC02 linked to an interactive white board to teach PE lessons. He also uses it to speak in complete sentences with correct syntax. He controls his play station and also plays MP3 on his EC02 from morning till night. Thus Technology has changed his life.

Question 2.
Alisha wanted everyone to know the difference that technology has made in her life. Justify.
Answer:
Alisha has cerebral palsy and she cannot physically type as fast as she thinks. But after using a ’ piece of technology called ‘Dragon Dictate’, she can speak and the words appear on her screen.
Then she can print them out. It made a huge difference to her. It made her achieve things she only dreamt of. Her teacher told her to do her Maths GCSE. At first, Alisha thought she could never do that certification. Kim, an Assistive Technologist, introduced Alisha to ‘Dragon Dictate’. It has made her more independent. She is doing now her Maths GCSE. So technology has opened up a new world to Alisha and other young disabled.

Vocabulary

C. Pick out the contractions from the lesson and expand them.
Answer:

Contractions Expansions
can’t recent
i’m I am
you’re you are
It’s It has
Don’t Do not
didn’t did not
I’d I would

D. Expand the following abbreviations or acronyms.
Answer:
SIM – Subscriber Identity Module
ISRO – Indian Space Research Organisation
WHO – World Health Organisation
CCTV – Closed Circuit Television
HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface
LASER – Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
MRI – Magnetic Resonance Imaging
CRY – Child Rights and You
RAM – Random Access Memory
ROM – Read Only Memory
CPU – Central Processing Unit
ALU – Arithmetic Logic Unit

E. Complete the sentences with the correct abbreviations or acronyms from the given list.
etc. BCE e.g HD m IQ GPS p.m. vs

  1. My dad wakes up very early in the morning because he has to be at work at 6.00____________.
  2. Socrates, the famous Classical Greek Athenian philosopher, died in 399 ____________.
  3. Leonardo Da Vinci was a famous Italian polymath, a painter, a sculptor, an architect, a musician, a scientist _________.
  4. I usually return home from work at 10.30 ____________.
  5. John downloaded a clip from YouTube in __________ quality.
  6. There are many irregular verbs in the English language ___________ break, do, make.
  7. I’m watching a great football match, Barcelona _________Real Madrid.
  8. Humans who dive without protection can survive 300 __________ underwater.
  9. A 11-year-old girl just beat Einstein on an __________ test.
  10. We used the __________ facility to track the location.

Answer:

  1. a.m.
  2. BCE
  3. etc.
  4. p.m.
  5. HD
  6. e.g.
  7. vs
  8. m
  9. IQ
  10. GPS

Listening

F. Listen to the passage and state whether the statements information (N)? are true (T), false (F) or no

  1. Santhiya can’t live without her mobile phone.
  2. She got her mobile in January.
  3. Her parents bought her the mobile phone one year ago.
  4. There’s a calculator in her mobile.
  5. She can connect to the Internet on her mobile.
  6. She usually listens to music on her mobile.
  7. She can’t read emails on her mobile.
  8. There are often a lot of problems with mobile phones.
  9. Santhiya always talks on her mobile to her friends.
  10. She doesn’t like mobile phones.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. False
  4. True
  5. True
  6. False
  7. False
  8. True
  9. True
  10. False

G. Listen to the passage again and answer the questions.

Question 1.
Where does Santhiya keep her mobile?
Answer:
in her Bag or in her pocket

Question 2.
What can she use it for?
Answer:
to communicate, to calculate, to browse internet

Question 3.
When was she cycling?
Answer:
She was cycling last year on a holiday

Question 4.
What happened there?
Answer:
Her friend fell off her bike and broke her leg

Question 5.
How did Santhiya solve the problem?.
Answer:
She telephoned a doctor for help

H. Complete the sentences after reading the passage.

1. Santhiya’s parents and friends can always _______ her.
2. Her mobile phone is also a kind of _______.
3. On the cycling holiday after the accident, Santhiya phoned for ______ _.
4. Mobile phones often ________at the wrong moment.
5. Children can feel ________ when they have their mobile phones with them.
Answer:

  1. talk to
  2. information
  3. a doctor
  4. ring
  5. safe

Speaking

I. Prepare on any one of the topics given below and present before your English teacher.

Question 1.
Prepare a welcome address on the occasion of Republic day celebration.

Welcome Address

Good Morning to one and all.

It is our pleasure to introduce our chief guest Mr. Rajasekaran who is very well known to all of us, because of his service to Mankind in the field of Education. He was a District Education Officer at Ponneri for five years. Now he is working as a Secretary in a government aided school in Ambattur. He values the knowledge imparted to the students. During his tenure, he has brought a lot of changes in the field of Education. We are honoured to have him as our chief guest amidst Republic Day Celebration. I take this opportunity to welcome you, sir for this celebration. I would also like to welcome the other dignitaries on the stage on this happy occasion. Thank you.

Question 2.
Prepare a Vote of thanks on the occasion of Independence day celebration.
Answer:

Vote of Thanks

Respected Chief Guest, Principal, Teachers, Parents and Students. It is my privilege to propose the vote of thanks to this gathering. Today my words are not enough to express my gratitude. On behalf of the organizing committee and our school, I would like to thank our Chief Guest Mrs. Ambika Thomas who graced the occasion with her presence and guidance. She has given her valuable thoughts and ideas to our students. We are also grateful to all the parents present here. Your encouragement has helped us to organise such important events. I would like to thank our Principal for giving me this opportunity and making this day a great day. Thank you.

Question 3.
Mock anchoring for annual day celebration
Answer:

Mock Anchoring for Annual Day Celebration:

  • Good evening everyone. It is my honour to welcome you all on this day, where we will be celebrating our school’s achievements. We are truly blessed with your presence.
  • Please give a big round of applause for our Chief Guest Mr. Srujit Sharma. He is the State Education Minister.
  • He has done tremendous work in the field of Education. I also welcome our Principal Madam Mrs. Sharmila Shastri.
  • Now I request you all to stand for the prayer song. Let us invoke the blessings of God Almighty.
  • I request the Chief Guest to light the lamp. -Thank you, Sir.
  • I invite our Principal to welcome the gathering – Thank you, Madam.
  • I request on the chief guest to address the gathering.
  • Thank you for your inspiring speech, Sir.
  • Now, it’s time to begin our cultural – the entertainment show of this evening. Let us witness and enjoy.
  • I thank the chief guest for gracing this occasion with his presence. I thank our Principal for making this occasion a great one. I also thank each and every one of you who is present here for your cooperation to make this event a successful one.

Reading

J. Read the comic strip and answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What do you mean by cyber safety?
Answer:
Cyber safety is about keeping information safe.

Question 2.
How do you behave in a virtual platform?
Answer:
We need to respect the values and sentiments of others as part of global network we have to follow internet ethics.

Question 3.
Can we read and access the information free of cost?
Answer:
Yes, we can read and access the information, free of cost.

Question 4.
Do you think that all the information online can be used without any permission?
Answer:
No, we have to get the permission of the author for some information.

Question 5.
Which website do you often access? Why?
Answer:
I often access Google Website because it is secure.

Writing

K. Fill in the missing words in this email.
Answer:
Dear sir,
In response to your mail, I have prepared a model for the Science Fest. Please find attached the document for your kind perusal. I look forward to hearing from you.
Sincerely
Raghav.

L. Write an email to your teacher about the interesting English model that you have prepared for the literary fest.
Answer:
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Tech Bloomers - 1

M. Practice Exercise

You are the receptionist of your school. Your Head master instructs you to send a message to all the parents of class ten to attend a PTA (Parent Teacher Association) meet which is to be held on 22.12.2019.
Answer:
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Tech Bloomers - 2

Writing

N. Write about Your Favourite Sports person/ Famous personality/Hobby/ Recipe by starting your own blog.
Answer:

My Hobby

My hobby is singing all types of songs. I like to sing classical songs wherever they request me to perform. I have learned classical music right from my young age. I am good in Carnatic music. During my school days, in Std V, I used to go to learn Carnatic music in the evenings. I used to concentrate more on singing and learning music than in my academics. If I hear there is a musical show, I will not miss it. I will force on my parents to take me to the show. My brother gets irritated of my singing because he loves pop music. He hates to listen to Carnatic music. But I am bothered about him. I continue singing whoever gives a chance to sing. It has become my inborn delight.

Grammar

Write the words that can replace Ravi, Rani, woman, luggage and the dog when we use them for the second and subsequent times in the passage he, she, it.

These words are called pronouns.

B. Fill in the gaps with personal pronouns.

Kumaravel lives in Thiruvannamalai. (1) ___________ is a doctor. All the people like (2) ___________ because of (3) ___________ helping nature. (4)___________ hospital is located at Car street and most of (5)___________ patients are poor so (6) ___________ does not charge much money. (7) ___________ daughter goes to school. (8) ___________
studies in 5th Standard. (9) ___________ teachers love (10) ___________ very much. (11) ___________ friends are also very good. (12) ___________ always encourage (13) ___________ . (14) ___________ have given (15) ___________ good advice. (16) ___________ mother is also a teacher. (17) ___________ always encourages (18) ___________ to keep studying. I also like her as (19) ___________ often comes to (20) ___________ house. One day (21) ___________ told my mother that (22) ___________ wants to learn cooking. (23) ___________ mother taught (24) ___________ cooking. Now, (25) ___________ cooks well.
Answer:

  1. He
  2. him
  3. his
  4. His
  5. his
  6. he
  7. His
  8. She
  9. Her
  10. her
  11. Her
  12. They
  13. her
  14. They
  15. her
  16. Her
  17. She
  18. her
  19. she
  20. my
  21. she
  22. she
  23. My
  24. her
  25. she

B. Fill in the gaps with personal pronouns.

  1. __________ is an excellent opportunity.
  2. __________ of these two students can solve this question.
  3. __________ books have been written by a great Indian writer.
  4. __________ have come to know the truth.
  5. __________ of the students have passed the exam.
  6. __________ of your friends can guide you.
  7. __________ is your storv based on your real life.
  8. __________ All your friends will guide .
  9. __________ of his family members would come to visit you.
  10. __________ of those books will be helpful to you.
  11. ___________is your bag, you can take it anytime.
  12. ___________He is responsible for the downfall of his life.

Answer:

  1. This
  2. One
  3. These
  4. They
  5. Many
  6. Some
  7. This
  8. you
  9. All
  10. Some
  11. This
  12. himself

D. Join the sentences using ‘Relative Pronouns’.

Question 1.
I have a book. It is written by Rabindranath Tagore.
Answer:
I have a book, which is written by Rabindranath Tagore.

Question 2.
Kavita is my teacher. She teaches us English.
Answer:
Kavita is my teacher, who teaches us English.

Question 3.
This is Varun. His father is an architect.
Answer:
This is Varun, whose father is an architect.

Question 4.
She invited most of her friends. They attended the party.
Answer:
Most of her friends whom she invited attended the party.

Question 5.
Give me a pen to write a letter. It was gifted to you on your birthday.
Answer:
Give me a pen which was gifted to you on your birthday to write a letter.

Question 6.
I have sold the house. It was located at the bank of a river.
Answer:
I have sold the house, that was located at the bank of a river.

Question 7.
Here is your watch. It has been found in the garden.
Answer:
Here is your watch, which has been found in the garden.

E. Read the different verb forms where they remain the same in the direct and indirect speech in the following cases. Fill in the blanks with missing indirect speech.

1. If the reporting verb is in the present tense.

Kirsh: “I am enjoying my holiday.:
Kirsh says that he is enjoying his holiday.
Kavi: “I will never go to work.”
Kavi says that she will never go to work.

2. When we report a universal truth (something that is always true).

Balu: “Asia is the largest continent.”
Balu said that Asia is the largest continent.
Alisha: “People in Africa are starving.”
Alisha said that people in Africa are starving.

3. With modal verbs would, might, could, should, ought to, used to.

Shalini: “I might come.”
Shalini said that she might come.
Vinoth: “I would try it.”
Vinoth said that he would try it.

4. With would rather, had better.

Chitti: “I would rather fly.”
Chitti said that he would rather fly.
Sophia: “They had better go.”
Sophia said that they had better go.

5. In if-causes and time-clauses.

Sriram: “If I tidied my room, my dad would be happy.”
Sriram said that if he tidied his room, his dad would be happy.
Jaheer: “When I was staying in Madurai I met my best friend.”
Jaheer said that when he was staying in Madurai, he met his best friend.

6. ‘ We do not usually change the modal verbs must and needn’t. But must can become had to or
would have to and needn’t can become didn’t have to or wouldn’t have to if we want to express an obligation. Would/wouldn’t have to are used to talk about future obligations.

She: “I must wash up.”
She said that she must wash up / she had to wash up.
He: “We must do it in June.”
He said that they must do it in June / they had to do in June.

F. Read the following dialogue and report it.

Johnson asked Suganthi (1) ___________ And he said (2) ___________ since June. Suganthi explained that
(3) ___________ . back from her holiday in Ooty. Johnson wondered if (4) ___________ it. Suganthi told him that she
(5) ___________ Ooty and that the people (6) ___________ so friendly. Johnson wanted to know (7) ___________ to the
Coakers Walk. Suganthi said that it (8) ___________ first trip and that she (9) ___________ some pictures. And then
she asked him if he (10) ___________ Johnson explained that he (11) ___________ a couple of things. But he added
that he (12) ___________ free at night. Suganthi suggested that he (13) ___________ place and asked him at what
time (14) ___________ . Johnson said he (15) ___________ there at eight. And finally he asked (16) ___________ all right.
Answer:

  1. what she was doing there
  2. that he hadn’t seen her
  3. she had just come
  4. she enjoyed
  5. loved
  6. were
  7. if she had gone
  8. was her
  9. could show him
  10. is doing anything the next day
  11. had to arrange
  12. is
  13. might come to her
  14. they should meet
  15. would be
  16. if it was

G. Tick the right choice (Indirect Speech).
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Tech Bloomers - 3

Warm-Up
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Tech Bloomers - 4

Question 1.
What do you infer the above pictures?
Answer:
The increased use of technology by the younger generation is apparent.
Tech Bloomers Summary

Question 2.
Look at the above electronic gadgets. If you were given a chance to remodel a device, in which device you would bring in changes and what would be those changes?
Answer:
I would like to remodel the gaming device the changed are to insert a hard disc or a memory card in it, so that we install or download more games.

Tech Bloomers

This lesson talks about the use of technology by a normal person and in empowering the disabled to do their day to day chores of life – to travel, to communicate, to learn, to do business and to live in comfort. Technology impacts the environment, people and the society as a whole. The way we use technology determines if its impacts are positive to the society or negative.

Tech Bloomers Key Points

  • This lesson is about the use of technology by a normal person and the disabled to do their day to day routine work in life.
  • Alisha and David’s life has changed with the use of technology.
  • About 2.21 percent of India’s population is disabled.
  • They continue to fight with the challenges of access, acceptance and inclusion.
  • Alisha has cerebral palsy and she can’t physically type as fast as she thinks.
  • After using a piece of technology called Dragon Dictate, she can speak and the words appear on her screen.
  • Her teacher motivated her to do her GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education).
  • Kim, the Assistive Technologist, introduced her to Dragon Dictate.
  • Only then, she had the confidence to do the GCSE.
  • 21 year old David uses a ‘Liberator Communication Device’, which he controls with his eye movements.
  • He has an ‘ACITV’ controller also in the headrest of his chair. With this, he can control his TV, Blu-ray and music players.
  • David was bom with ‘Athetoid Cerebral Palsy’. He has been using a high tech communication aid since he was eight years old.
  • He has been interested in AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication). Then he started using ECO2 with ECO point, making his selection with a foot switch.
  • He uses his ECO2 to speak in complete sentences with a competent communicator.
  • Thus, Technology makes our life easier and allows the differently abled learners to learn with confidence.

Tech Bloomers Summary

This lesson is about the use of technology in empowering the disabled to do their day to day chores of life, like travelling, communicating, learning, doing business and living in comfort. Alisha and Davids life has changed with the use of technology.

Technology has not only made a normal persons life easier but it is also a boon to citizens with special needs. 2.21 percent of India’s population is disabled. They are deprived by attitudinal barriers. They continue to fight with the challenges of access, acceptance and inclusion.

Alisha had cerebral palsy and she could not physically type as fast as she thinks. After using a piece of technology called Dragon Dictate, now she can speak and the words appear on her screen. Then she can print, do her GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education).

But Alisha thought that she could not do it as studying was difficult for her. Kim, the Assistive Technologist at her school, introduced her to Dragon Dictate. This opened up the world to Alisha. She had confidence after using this software. She is now able to do the GCSE. There are many different types of technology that can help a young disabled person become independent. If someone has very limited movement, they can control a computer screen with ‘Eye Gaze’. A 21 year old David uses a ‘Liberator Communication Device’ which he controls with his eye movements. He has an ‘ACTIV’,controller also in the headrest of his chair. With this, he can control his TV, Blu-ray and music players.

David was born with ‘Athetoid Cerebral Palsy’. He has been using a high tech communication aid since he was eight years old. He has been interested in ‘AAC’ (Augmentative and Alternative Communication). Then he started using an ECO2 with ECO point, making his selections with a foot switch. He is also a keen sportsman, regularly playing football, boccia, hockey and baseball. He uses his EC02 to speak in complete sentences with correct syntax. He has become a confident and competent communicator. He had recently been selected to travel to Brazil to work with the Olympic opening ceremony team as part of the Remix Drama Group. Thus Technology makes our life easier. It impacts the environment, people and the society as a whole. Newer Technology allows differently abled learners to learn with their peers as well as contribute fruitfully to the collaborative process of learning.

Tech Bloomers Glossary

assistive technologist (n) – a person who assists with technological gadgets to overcome disability
cerebral palsy (n) – permanent tightening of the muscles caused by damage to the brain
cloister (adj) – enclosed by
collaborative process (adj) – produced by or involving two or more parties working together
Dragon Dictate (n) – a software which recognizes speech and converts it to text
gaze (v) – stare at something for a long time
grapple (v) – to fight, especially in order to win something
icon – image / idol
impairment – the act of spoiling something
inclusion (n) interactive – the act of including someone or something
Liberator Communication – involving communication between people
Device (n) – a special device used to communicate with eye movements
navigation – finding and following something
syntax – grammatical structure of sentences
threshold – (here) approach

Words Synonyms Antonyms
access admission exclusion
barriers hazards relievers
better well worse
capable ability incapable
cartridges containers
combined together separated
command order request
pre-defined pre-set post-defined
deprived denied provided
disabled differently-abled able-bodied
easier simpler harder
entire whole part
era Period
exhausted empty full
faster quicker slower
freedom liberty slavery
frustrating disappointing encouraging
grapple fight accept
impairment defective intact
inclusion addition exclusion
increased augmented decreased
independent self-reliant dependent
interactive mutual individual
interested concerned uninterested
Words Synonyms Antonyms
latest recent old / outdated
mounted fixed dismantled
opening beginning closing
reality true false
receive get give
rely depend independent
replacement substitute
required needed needless
selected chosen rejected
spare extra scanty
swapping moving unmoving

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 3 I am Every Woman

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 3 I am Every Woman

I am Every Woman Textual Questions

A. Read the Lines and answer the questions.

I Am Every Woman Poem Figure of Speech Question 1. The summer of life she’s ready to see in spring.
She says, “Spring will come again, my dear
Let me care for the ones who’re near.”
(a) What does the word summer mean here?
(b) How does she take life?
(c) What does she mean by “spring will come again”?
Answer:
(a) The word ‘Summer means good and prosperous times.
(b) She takes life with an optimistic approach.
(c) She means that good days will come again!

I Am Every Woman Poem Question 2. Strong is she in her faith and belief.
“Persistence is the key to everything,” says she.
(a) What is she strong about?
(b) How does she deal with the adversities in life?
Answer:
(a) She is strong in her faith and belief.
(b) Determination is her key to everything. With this attitude, she deals with the adversities in life.

I Am Every Woman Question 3. Despite the sighs and groans and moans,
She’s strong in her faith, firm in her belief!
(a) Is she complaining about the problems of life?
(b) Pick out the words that show her grit.
Answer:
(a) No, She is not complaining about the problems of life.
(b) The words that show her grit are ‘strong’ and ‘firm’.

4. Don’t ever try to saw her pride, her self-respect. .
She knows how. to thaw you, saw you – so beware!
(a) What do the words thaw and saw mean here?
(b) What is the tone of the author?
Answer:
(a) The words ‘thaw’ and ‘saw’ mean as ‘freeze’ and cut’.
(b) The tone of the poet is threatening.

I Am Every Woman Poem Explanation Question 5. She’s today’s woman. Today’s woman dear.
Love her, respect her, keep her near…
(a) Describe today’s woman according to the poet.
(b) How should a woman be treated?
Answer:
(a) Today’s woman is empowered, brave, strong and determined in all what she decides and does.
(b) A woman should be treated respectfully for the growth of a nation.

Poetic comprehension – Additional

1. A woman is beauty innate”
What is meant by innate?
Answer:
Innate means inborn and natural.

I’m Every Woman Poem Meaning Question 2. “A symbol of power and strength”
Who is a symbol of power?
Answer:
A woman is a symbol of power.

Respect A Woman Poem Question 3. “Shes a lioness; don’t mess with her”
What is meant by ‘mess with’?
Answer:
‘mess with’ means to tease or play a joke.

I am a Woman Poem Question 4. “She’ll not spare you if you’re a prankster.”
Who is a prankster?
Answer:
Prankster is a person who acts mischievously.

B. Read the lines and identify the figure of speech.

1. A woman is beauty innate,
A symbol of power and strength.
She puts her life at stake,
She’s real, she’s not fake!
(a) Pick out the rhyming words from the above lines.
(b) Add another word that rhymes with it.
(c) Give the rhyme scheme for the above lines.
Answer:
(a) ‘Stake – fake’ are the rhyming words from the above lines.
(b) Stake – fake – bake – are the rhyming words. ‘Bake’ is added to it.
(c) The rhyming scheme is ‘abcc’.

Every Woman Poem Question 2. She’s a lioness; don’t mess with her.
She’ll not spare you if you’re a prankster.
(a) Pick out the line that has a metaphor in it.
(b) Give your examples of metaphor to describe the qualities of a woman.
Answer:
(a) “She is a lioness” is a metaphor. A woman is compared to a ferocious lioness.
(b) “She’s power; She’s strength and She’s beauty innate,” are the examples of metaphor to describe the qualities of a woman.

3. She’s strong in her faith, firm in her belief.
(a) Pick out the alliterated words from the above.
(b) Pick out other alliterated words from the poem.
Answer:
(a) ‘Faith – firm,’ and ‘her – her’ are the alliterated words.
(b) ‘Symbol – strength; she’s – she’s; she’s – she; says – spring; says – she; saw – so; her – her are the other alliterated words.

Poetic Devices – Additional

1. “She’s today’s woman. Today’s woman, dear.
Love her, respect her, keep her near…”
Pick out the rhyming words in these lines.
Answer:
‘dear – near’ are the rhyming words.

C. Fill in with a word in each blanks to complete the summary of the poem. Use the help box given below.

dignified healthier today’s persistent care symbol innate
fake adversity hope life disgrace prankster woman
near faith optimistic quitter thaw respect lioness
fear beliefs self-respect saw strength

Every woman is beautiful (1) ________. She is the (2) ________ of power and (3) ________ She is prone to put her (4) ________ at risk. Every woman is true in expressing her love and she is never (5) ________ .She is very (6) ________ in her approach even at times of (7) ________ she finds a ray of (8) ________ and she continues to (9) ________ for her (10) ________ ones. She is the (11) ________ and she has no (12) ________ . She is forceful in her (13) ________ and (14) ________ She is never a (15) ________ and she is (16) ________ She is ferocious like a (17) ________ it’s better for the (18) ________ to stay away from her. Never should one try to bring (19)________ to her pride and (20) ________ . for she knows how to (21) ________ and (22) ________ them. She is (23) ________ woman. It is (24) ________ to love her (25) ________ her and to keep her (26) _________.
Answer:
(1) innate
(2) woman
(3) strength
(4) life
(5) fake
(6) optimistic
(7) adversity
(8) hope
(9) care
(10) near
(11) woman
(12) fear
(13) faith
(14) beliefs
(15) quitter
(16) persistent
(17) lioness
(18) prankster
(19) disgrace
(20) self-respect
(21) thaw
(22) saw
(23) today’s
(24) healthier
(25) respect
(26) dignified

D. Answer the following in a paragraph of about 80 to 100 words.

I Am Every Woman Poem By Rakhi Nariani Shirke Question 1. How are today’s women portrayed by the poet?
Answer:
Today’s women are empowered, brave, strong, and resolute. They are always ready to take up new ventures. They are persistent and work tirelessly to prove what they are capable of. Every woman is naturally beautiful. She is the symbol of power and strength. She is prone to put her life at risk. Every woman is true in expressing her love towards her dear ones. She is never fake. She continues to care for her near ones. She has no fear of anything. She is forceful in her faith and beliefs. Thus women had to be treated respectfully for the growth of a nation.

I Am Every Woman Poem Lines Question 2. What qualities have made women powerful?
Answer:
Every woman in this world is naturally beautiful. She is the symbol of power and strength. She is prone to put her life at risk. She is very optimistic in her approach even at times of adversity. She finds a ray of hope and continues to care for her near ones. She is the woman and has no fear. She is forceful in her faith and beliefs. She never quits any work. She is always persistent. She is ferocious like a lioness. She knows how to freeze and cut the attitude of a mischievous person. She is today’s woman.

Paragraph Question & Answer – Additional

I Am Every Woman Poem Summary Question 1. What is the theme of the poem,‘I am Every Woman’?
Answer:
This poem highlights the inborn qualities of a woman. The poet talks about the multifaceted nature of woman. They are determined, strong, ferocious, caring, brave, strong and loving. They work hard continuously to prove to the world that they are capable of doing anything. ‘Persistence’ is the key to everything. Never should anyone try to bring disgrace to her pride and self-respect. She is todays woman. So it is always healthier to love her, to respect her and to keep her dignified. They have to be treated respectfully in all aspects of their life.

I am Every Women By Rakhi Nariani Shirke

Rakhi Nariani Shirke was a teacher who worked in Ryan International School, Kharghar. She has a passion for writing poems as a medium of self-expression. She is a post-graduate with a Bachelor’s degree in Education. At present, she lives in New Mumbai.

I am Every Women Key points

  • Every woman is naturally beautiful.
  • She is a symbol of power and strength.
  • She is very optimistic in her approach even at times of adversity.
  • She finds a ray of hope.
  • She continues to care for her dear ones.
  • She has no fear.
  • She is strong in her faith and beliefs.
  • She never quits and is always persistent.
  • She is a lioness. So a mischievous person should stay away from her.
  • She is today’s woman. Love her, respect her and keep her dignified.

I am Every Women Summary

The poem is about the wonderful qualities of women. It talks about the multifaceted nature of women. Today’s women are empowered, brave, strong and resolute. They are always ready to take up new ventures. They are persistent and work tirelessly to prove what they are capable of. Women have to be treated respectfully for the growth of a nation.

The poet says that every woman is naturally beautiful. She is the symbol of power and strength. She is optimistic in her approach even at times of adversity. She is never a quitter and she is always persistent. She continues to care for her near and dear ones. She has no fear of anything. She is forceful in her faiths and beliefs. We should never try to bring disgrace to her pride and self-respect. She is today’s woman. So, we have to love her, respect her and keep her dignified.

I am Every Women Explanation of Poetic Lines

Line No. 1 – 4
A woman is beauty innate,
A symbol of power and strength.
She puts her life at stake,
She’s real, she’s not fake!
Explanation:
Every woman is an inborn beauty. She is a symbol of power and strength. She is prone to put her life at risk. She is real. She is true in expressing her love and she is never fake.

Line No. 5 – 8
The summer of life she’s ready to see in spring.
She says, “Spring will come again, my dear.
Let me care for the ones who ‘re near”
She’s The Woman – she has no fear!
Explanation:
She is very optimistic in her approach even at times of adversity. She says, “Spring will come again, my dear”. She finds a ray of hope and continues to care for her near and dear ones. She is the woman and she has no fear of anything.

Line No. 9 – 12
Strong is she in her faith and beliefs.
“Persistence is the key to everything,”
says she. Despite the sighs and groans and moans,
She’s strong in her faith, firm in her belief!
Explanation:
She is strong in her faith and beliefs. She says that “Persistence (determination) is her key for everything. In spite of the complaints, the grumbles and the grievances, she is strong in her faith. She is firm in her beliefs.

Line No. 13 – 16
She’s a lioness’; don’t mess with her.
She’ll not spare you if you’re a prankster.
Don’t ever try to saw her pride, her self-respect.
She knows how to thaw you, saw you – so beware!
Explanation:
She is ferocious like a lioness. Don’t tease or- play a joke with her. It is better for a mischievous person to stay away from her. We should never try to bring disgrace to her pride and self¬respect. She knows how to freeze and cut them. So, be careful of her.

Line No. 17 – 18
She’s today’s woman. Today’s woman, dear.
Love her, respect her, keep her near…
Explanation:
She is today’s woman, dear ones! Therefore, it is safer and healthier to love her, respect her and keep her near to our heart. She should be kept as a dignified person.

I am Every Women Glossary

beware – be careful
fake – not real
firm – determined
groans (v) – complaints and grumbles
innate (adj) – inborn and natural
mess with (p) – to tease or play a joke
moans (v) – grieves
persistence (n) – determination
prankster (n) – a person who acts mischievous
saw (v) – cut
sigh (v) – expressing grief
stake (n) – risk
thaw – freeze

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 4 The Attic

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 4 The Attic

The Attic In Text Questions

a. When did Aditya leave the local school?
Answer:
Aditya left the local school, after he had passed the matriculation examination.

b. Why did Aditya think that the school would not be recognisable?
Answer:
It would not be recognisable, as it had undergone many changes during the passage of time.

c. Who were Aditya’s ancestors?
Answer:
Aditya’s ancestors were once the Zamindars.

d. How was the landscape through which they travelled?
Answer:
On either side of the road were paddy fields. Harvest was over.

e. What did Aditya visit?
Answer:
Aditya visited his school first. Beyond the iron gates were the playing field and the two-storeyed school building.

f. Where was Nagen uncle’s shop?
Answer:
Nagen uncle’s shop was next to a grocery shop and opposite to a temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.

g. Besides tea, what did Nagen uncle have in his shop?
Answer:
Besides tea, he had biscuits and savouries.

h. What did Nagen uncle tell about Sanyal?
Answer:
Nagen told them that Sanyal was short of sight and hearing. He had no money to buy spectacles.

i. In what way was Mr. Sanyal’s behaviour strange?
Answer:
Mr. Sanyal suddenly stood up, stretched himself, raised his lean right arm and with eyes wide open, began to recite a poem by Tagore – “Panraksha”. After reciting, he left the place making a gesture of Namaste to nobody in particular.

j. What did Nagen uncle tell about Sanyal’s past life?
Answer:
Sanyal had lost his wife and only son last year. He sold all his lands to get his only daughter married. Since then, he was somewhat changed and not really normal.

k. How did Sanyal show that he had a sense of self-respect?
Answer:
Sanyal had tea and biscuits in Nagen’s tea shop. But he never failed to pay for it. This shows that he had a sense of self-respect.

l. Why was the attic’a favourite place for the children?
Answer:
The attic had been a favourite place for the children because it was in the attic the children seemed to be in a world of their own.

m. What did Aditya do on reaching the attic?
Answer:
He searched for an article and found it on top of the packing case in the attic.

n. What did the jeweller say about the article?
Answer:
The jeweller said that it was an antique.

o. Was Sanyal happy about his visitors?
Answer:
No, he was not happy about his visitors.

p. Why did Sanyal recite the poem in the tea shop earlier?
Answer:
Sanyal recited the poem in the tea shop in order to make Aditya remember the incidents on the prize-giving day. He recited the same poem that he had recited on the prize-giving day.

q. What was engraved on the medal?
Answer:
Sriman Sasanka Sanyal – Special Prize for Recitation – 1948.

The Attic Textual Questions

A. Answer the following questions in two or three sentences.

1. Write a few lines about the owner of the shop.
The Attic Questions and Answer:
The owner of the tea shop was uncle Nagen. His age was over sixty. He was a little rustic in appearance, with his white neatly-combined hair and clean look. He was wearing a dhoti and a blue striped shirt under a green shawl.

Aditya Decided to Collect Question 2. What was the daily routine of Sanyal?
Answer:
Sanyal comes to the tea shop, has tea and biscuits and always remembers to pay for it as he has an acute sense of self-respect.

3. Why was there a sudden change in Aditya’s expression?
Answer:
While leaving the tea shop, Sanyal recited a poem, written by Tagore. It was the same poem Aditya heard at his school, twenty-nine years ago, on the prize-giving day. So, there was a sudden change in Aditya’s expression.

4. Why did Aditya decide to visit his ancestral home?
Answer:
Aditya decided to visit his ancestral house to take the medal from his attic.

The Attic 10th English Question 5. What was the condition of the attic?
Answer:
A portion of a wall of the attic had crumbled down. Through the created window, we could see the sky, the fields, a part of the rice mill, the tall structure of the old temple. In the whole house, the attic had probably been the worst hit by wind and weather. The floor was strewn with twigs, straw and pigeon droppings.

The Attic Story 10th Standard Question 6. When did Aditya heave a sigh of relief? Why?
Answer:
Aditya heaved a sigh of relief, when he had got what he had been looking for in the attic. It was a silver medal belonged to Sanyal. He took it from him twenty-nine years ago and lied that was lost. Now he wanted to return it to him.

7. Why did Aditya and his friend go to the jeweller?
Answer:
Aditya and his friend went to the jeweller to find out the weight of the article.

8. What did Aditya offer Sanyal?
Answer:
Aditya offered Sanyal one hundred and fifty rupees. It was the price of the medal, which Sanyal received in school for recitation.

9. “Your grievances are absolutely justified.” Who says this to whom? Why?
Answer:
Aditya said this to Sanyal, because Aditya was the cause for Sanyals grievances. .

Short Questions & Answer:wers – Additional

1. From where were Aditya and the narrator returning?
Answer:
They were returning from the site of their new factory at Deodarganj.

2. Where did Aditya continue his studies?
Answer:
Aditya continued his studies in Calcutta.

3. Why did Aditya wish to visit Bramhapur?
Answer:
He wished to visit Bramhapur to revive his old childhood memories.

4. Why did Aditya’s father decide to leave their ancestral home?
Answer:
Aditya’s father decided to leave their ancestral home because he had set up his own business in Kolkata.

5. What was written on the sign board over the tea shop?
Answer:
“Nagen’s Tea Cabin” was written on the signboard over the shop.

6. Was there any other customer, apart from Aditya and the narrator at the tea shop?
Answer:
There was only one customer sitting at a corner table with his head bent down.

7. What did Nagen remind him?
Answer:
Nagen reminded him to go home, as it was already 4 p.m.

8. What does the poem by Tagore ‘Panraksha’ mean?
Answer:
It meAnswer: ‘Keeping of a Promise.

9. Where does Sasanka stay?
Answer:
He stayed with a friend of his father named Jogesh Kabiraj.

10. How long was the medal hidden in the attic?
Answer:
The medal was hidden in the attic for twenty-nine years.

B. Answer in detail the following questions in about 100-150 words.

1. Give a detailed account of all thoughts and questions in the narrator’s mind while accompanying Aditya from the tea shop to Sanyal’s house?
Answer:
There were a lot of thoughts and questions in the narrator’s mind, while accompanying Aditya from the tea shop to Sanyal’s house. First, when they visited Nagen’s tea shop, he was surprised to see the strange behaviour of Sanyal. He noticed a sudden change in Aditya’s expression. When he asked him the reason for it, Aditya did not Answer:wer him. Aditya just collected information about Sanyal from Nagen and left to his ancestral house.

The narrator thought that Aditya wanted to see his house. But when he went there, he found a medal in the attic. He went to a jeweller to find out the weight of the medal. When the narrator questioned him what it was, he simply said that he would get to know about it very soon. Then they went to the house of Jogesh Kabiraj. The narrator was little curious to know. But he didn’t ask him. When they saw Sanyal, the narrator got the clear picture of Aditya’s actions.

2. Man does change with time’-What were the various changes that came about in Aditya?
Answer:
twenty-nine years ago Aditya was a child of a wealthy family. Sanyal and Aditya studied in the same school. Sanyal was always in the first position. Aditya was in the second position. Though he was a fairly good student, he could never beat Sanyal. He was jealous of Sanyal. One day, Sanyal got a medal as a prize for his recitation. Aditya could not bear it. He took the prize from Sanyal to show to his father. But he never returned it to Sanyal.

He told lies that there was a hole in his pocket and it had fallen through it. This attribute of Aditya angered Sanyal and he thought he could never forgive him for his misdeeds. At present, time has changed him. He repented for what he had done to Sanyal. He was the cause for all his grievances. He got a chance to rectify his mistakes. So he gave Sanyal 150 as the price for the medal. But Sanyal refused it, saying that he only wanted his lost glory back, the medal. He got it back.

3. Give a brief character sketch of Sasanka Sanyal.
Answer:
In his childhood, Sasanka Sanyal was a brilliant student. He always stood in the first position. He used to recite Tagore’s poems. Aditya, who studied with him, was jealous of him. Aditya could never beat him. One day, Sanyal received a prize for recitation of Tagore’s poem ‘Panraksha! Aditya could not bear it. He took the medal from him and never returned it. Sanyal was angry but did not show it out. After twenty-nine years, they met again in uncle Nagen’s tea shop. Sanyal led a cursed life. But he did not forget any incident of the past.

He sold his lands to get his only daughter married. He lost his wife and his only son the previous year. Since then, he was somewhat changed. When Aditya offered him 150 as a price for the medal, he refused it. He only wanted his lost glory back – the medal. When he got back the medal, he was happy.

Paragraph Questions & Answer:wers – Additional

1. “Trying to revive old childhood memories may prove disappointing”. Why did Aditya say this?
Answer:
Aditya and the narrator were returning from the site of their new factory at Deodarganj. They were driving along the National Highway 40. They reached a point when the road separated into two paths. If they drove ten kilometres along the road that branched off to the right, they would reach Bramhapur. The narrator asked Aditya whether he was interested in revisiting the place of his birth, which he had left after he had passed the matriculation examination from the local school to continue his studies in Calcutta.

Aditya said that he had left his ancestral house almost twenty-nine years ago. The house was almost two hundred years old. He doubted that even the school building would have undergone many changes. It will not be recognisable any more. So he said that trying to revive old childhood memories may prove disappointing.

2. Why was Sasanka Sanyal angry with Aditya?
Answer:
During their childhood days, Aditya and Sasanka Sanyal studied in the same school. Sasanka Sanyal was a brilliant child. He used to recite the poems of Tagore very well. He always stood first in his class. Aditya was a fairly good student. He could never beat Sasanka in his academics. He came from a rich family. Sasanka thought that Aditya was a spoilt child of rich parents and that he used to tell lies. Really, Aditya was extremely jealous of Sasanka.

One day, Sasanka received a prize for his recitation of the poem by Tagore. He was given a medal for it. Aditya could not bear it. He took the medal from Sasanka to show to his father. But he never returned it. He said that there was a hole in his pocket and it had fallen through it. This made Sasanka angry and he never forgave him after that incident.

The Attic Vocabulary

Compound Words

C. Complete the following table with two more compound words.

Noun + Noun kitchen garden
apple tree, neck tie
Noun + Verb mouthwash
bus stop, sunrise
Verb + Noun watchman
driving licence; swimming pool
Preposition + Noun overcoat
underworld; onlooker
Gerund + Noun bleaching powder
washing machine; drawing room
Noun + Gerund housekeeping
horse riding; bird watching
Adjective + Preposition + Noun good for nothing
best of luck; easy to play
Noun + Preposition + Noun mother-in-law
father-in-law; brother-in-law

D. Combine the words in column A with those in column B to form compound words as many as you can.

rain light
snow thing
star fall
draw ball
play back
lottery ticket
under walk
man note
side world
foot hole

Answer:

rainfall
snowball
star light
drawback
plaything
lottery ticket
underworld
manhole
sidewalk
footnote

E. Form compound words from the boxes given below and fill in the blanks in the sentences that follow with the appropriate compound words.

waiting out income green
sun room tax alarm
dry traffic wall house
clock jam glasses hair
cleaning cut put paper
  1. Siva visited the hair stylist to have a clean hair cut
  2. Tharani had given the sarees for dry cleaning
  3. The green house is a natural process that warms the earth’s surface.
  4. Never wait for an alarm clock to wake you up.
  5. The children were late to school as there was a traffic jam near the toll plaza.
  6. The government expects every individual to promptly pay the income tax
  7. People usually wear sun glasses during summer.
  8. The patients were asked to sit in the waiting room until the doctor arrived.
  9. With teamwork we are able to multiply our output
  10. The room was looking bright with the colourful wallpaper

F. (i) Form new words by adding appropriate prefix/suffix:

  1. accurate inaccurate
  2. understand misunderstand
  3. practice malpractice
  4. technology technological
  5. fashion fashionable
  6. different differently
  7. child children
  8. national nationality
  9. origin originality
  10. enjoy enjoyable

(ii) Frame sentences of your own using any five newly formed words.

  1. Your information is inaccurate.
  2. Don’t misunderstand what I am trying to say.,
  3. The contractor was found guilty of malpractice.
  4. During summer, he used to wear a fashionable hat.
  5. We need to do things differently.

G. Fill in the blanks by adding appropriate prefix/suffix to the words given in brackets.

  1. He was sleeping comfortably in his couch. (comfort)
  2. Kavya rides a bicycle to school. (cycle)
  3. There was only a handful of people in the theater. (hand)
  4. It is illegal to cut sandalwood trees. (legal)
  5. The arrival of the President has been expected for the last half an hour. (arrive)
  6. The man behaved normally in front of the crowd. (normal)
  7. Swathy had no intention of visiting the doctor. (intend)
  8. The bacteria are so small that you need a microscope to see them. (scope)

Grammar

A. Conjunctions And Their Functions Complete the sentences given below choosing the right connectors given in brackets.

  1. Call me in case you need money. (so that, in order that, in case)
  2. I forgot that I had to meet the Principal. (whether, that, if)
  3. Though he is ninety years old, he is in the pink of health. (when, since, though)
  4. It is raining. Take an umbrella or else you will get drenched. (or else, and, but)
  5. They faced many hardships nevertheless they are always cheerful. (although, nevertheless, otherwise)

B. Fill in the blanks with the connector that goes with the underlined words.

  1. Both the minister and the officers visited the affected areas.
  2. Jaya teaches not only English but also Science.
  3. Either Raghu or Bala will have to buy vegetables from the market.
  4. No sooner did I enter the house. than it started drizzling.

C. Combine the pairs of sentences using appropriate connectors.

1. We came late. We did not miss the train.
Answer:
Although we came late, we did not miss the train.

2. They checked the packet twice. Then they sealed it.
Answer:
After they checked the packet twice, they sealed it.

3. Sita saw a snake. At once she ran away
Answer:
As soon as Sita saw a snake, she ran away.

4. Robert completed the project. He submitted it to the teacher.
Answer:
When Robert completed the project, he submitted it to the teacher.

5. Yusuf was running high temperature. He could not take part in the competition.
Answer:
Since Yusuf was running high temperature, he could not take part in the competition.

D. Tick the correct linker.

  1. Though he was honest, he was punished.
  2. Walk carefully otherwise you will fall down.
  3. My mother called me while I was playing football.
  4. My salary is low nevertheless I find the work interesting.
  5. The passengers rushed to board the bus as soon as it arrived.

E. Supply suitable linkers.

1. “(1)………. I was alive and had a human heart,” answered the statue, “I did not know what tears were, (2) ……….. I lived in the palace (3) ……….. sorrow was not allowed to enter. My courtiers called me the Happy Prince, (4) ……….. Happy Indeed I was. So I lived and (5) ………. I died.
Answer:
(1) When
(2) for
(3) where
(4) and
(5) so

2. Many writers make incorrect sentences (1) ………. they try to put sentences together. They may make grammatic alerrors (2) ……… leave out important punctuation marks. Making such mistakes is quite common (3) ……….. preparing the first draft. (4) ………. he must carefully edit his final draft.
Answer:
(1) when.
(2) and
(3) while
(4) So .

3. In most large cities (1) …….. towns of our country, there are special schools for girls. (2) ……….. there are many co-educational schools (3) …….. girls (4) ………. study together. Most parents allow their daughters to attend these schools, (5)……….. there are some parents (6) ………… are against such schools for girls (7) …………….. the age of 14 or 15.
Answer:
(1) and
(2) Likewise
(3) where
(4) and
(5) but
(6) who
(7) after

F. Rearrange the words in the correct order to make meaningful sentences.

1. as /I/ healthy / are / you / am / as
Answer:
I am as healthy as you are.

2. your / today / put on / new / since / is / birthday / dress / the
Answer:
Since today is your birthday, put on the new dress.

3. allergic / dogs / Rani / though / is / to / of / six / she / them / has
Answer:
Though Rani is allergic to dogs, she has six of them.

4. speaks / Ruben / besides / German /languages / two
Answer:
Ruben speaks two languages besides German.

5. loan / apply / you / if / for / you/a/get / will / immediately /it/
Answer:
If you apply for a loan, you will get it immediately.

G. Write the noun forms of the following words.

1. beautiful – beauty
2. breathe – breath
3. enter – entrance
4. know – knowledge
5. deafen – deafening
6. zealous – zeal
7. familiar – familiarity
8. accept – acceptance
9. dangerous – danger

H. Complete the following sentences using the noun form of the words given in brackets

  1. The boy had to give a proper explanation for being late. (explain)
  2. They could make prediction about the future. (predict)
  3. At one point in life, he had no choice but to trust his friend. (choose)
  4. The monuments are to be preserved because of their historical significance. (significant)
  5. It is very difficult to work with so many distractions. (distract)

I. Rewrite the sentences nominalising the underlined words. The first one has been done for you.

Attic Solutions Question 1. We succeeded in our attempt.
Answer:
We achieved success in our attempt.

2. Nalini leads a happy life.
Answer:
Nalini leads a life of happiness.

3. She failed and it disappointed her.
Answer:
Her failure gave disappointment to her.

4. India became an independent country in the year 1947.
Answer:
India got independence in the year 1947.

5. The child resembles her father.
Answer:
The resemblance of the child was like her father.

J. Combine the pairs of sentences given below into a single sentence using the noun form of the highlighted words.

Attic Boards Question 1. He is an honest person. Everyone likes him.
Answer:
Due to his honesty, everyone likes him.

2. Sathya gave an explanation. The police wanted her to prove it.
Answer:
When Sathya gave an explanation, the police wanted a proof for it.

Satyajit Ray The Attic Question 3. He speaks well. It attracts all.
Answer:
His speech gives him attraction from everyone.

4. Suresh is always punctual and regular. It has earned him a good job.
Answer:
The punctuality and regularity of Suresh earned him a good job.

5. The policeman arrived quickly. It made us happy.
Answer:
The arrival of the police quickly made us happy.

K. Complete the sentences in the paragraph using the appropriate form of words given in brackets.

1. My sister wanted to go to Mumbai last week. She made a (1)…….. (decide) to buy a ticket at once. As (2) ………(reserve) could be done online, she gave (3) ……….. (prefer) to book a ticket that way. First, she collected (4) ………. (inform) about the (5) ……. (arrive) and ………. (depart) of trains and airplanes.
Answer:
(1) decision
(2) reservation
(3) preference
(4) information
(5) arrival
(6) departure

2. A few days later, Androcles was captured by his master. He had to suffer all kinds of (1) ……. (punish). At last, he was thrown to a lion which was in great (2) …….. (hungry).It had been kept in an (3) ………. (enclose) and had not been fed for several days. His friends stood there with (4) …………. (tear) eyes as the lion rushed towards him. The lion stopped near him and stood for a while (5) ……….. (look) at him. Then it lay down by his side like a pet dog. (6) ………. (obvious), the lion recognized Androcles and the (7) ……. (help) he had given it.
Answer:
(1) punishment
(2) hunger
(3) enclosure
(4) tear
(5) looking
(6) obviously
(7) help

Phrases and Clauses

L. Identify the phrases in the following sentences and classify them as Adjective, Adverb or
Noun phrases.

The Attic School Question 1. The girl in blue saree is my sister.
Answer:
The girl in blue saree is my sister. (Adjective phrase)

2. Kohli hopes to win the trophy.
Answer:
Kohli hopes to win the trophy. (Noun phrase)

3. The train halts at every junction.
Answer:
The train halts at every junction. (Adverb phrase)

4. I have never seen such a picture.
Answer:
I have never seen such a picture. (Adjective phrase)

5. She worked in an enthusiastic manner.
Answer:
She worked in an enthusiastic manner. (Adverb phrase)

M. Identify the clauses and classify them accordingly.

1. Ram bought a pen that doesn’t write well.
Answer:
Ram bought a pen that doesn’t write well. (Noun Clause)

2. Come back as soon as possible.
Answer:
Come back as soon as possible. (Adverb Clause)

3. Most of her friends whom she had invited attended her wedding.
Answer:
Most of her friends whom she had invited attended her wedding. (Adjective Clause)

4. My brother visits my father whenever he comes to Chennai.
Answer:
My brother visits my father whenever he comes to Chennai. (Adverb Clause)

5. Call me in case there is an emergency.
Answer:
Call me in case there is an emergency. (Adverb Clause)

6. Until the sun sets, the old woman cannot step out of her house.
Answer:
Until the sun sets, the old woman cannot step out of her house. (Adverb Clause)

7. She knows where I go.
Answer:
She knows where I go. (Adverb Clause)

8. You can go wherever you want.
Answer:
You can go wherever you want (Adverb Clause)

The Attic Listening

Listen to the procedure to book on-line tickets carefully and fill in the blanks that follow. Listen to the recording twice.

N. Fill in the blanks :

  1. Login into your irctc account.
  2. Fill in the information asked to you in book your ticket section.
  3. The starting point and destination of your journey must also be selected.
  4. List of available trains will appear.
  5. You must check on the availability and fare for the train of your choice.
  6. Your personal details like name and date of birth are a must.
  7. After filling information and captcha click on continue book.
  8. You can make the payment either by credit/debit cards or e-wallets.

The Attic Reading

P. Answer the following questions :

1. What did the coach teach the child?
Answer:
The coach taught the child the basics of sports as well as special ways to improve and excel.

2. What values did the child learn?
Answer:
He learned the value of finishing what he started and the joy of personal accomplishment.

3. The parents noticed some changes in the child. What were they?
The Special Prize Class 6 Question Answer:
The child had transformed from a timid, doubting child to a strong, happy player willing to give all for a team.

4. Read the letter again and write a few lines on each of the following:

(a) things that the coach taught….
Answer:
Basics of sports as well as special ways to improve and excel.

(b) transformation in the child……..
Answer:
He was transformed from a timid, doubting child to a strong, happy player willing to give all for the team.

(c) things that amazed the writer……..
Answer:
The coach taught him the skills that will last a lifetime. He had kindled in them a desire to excel.

5. Find sentences /words from the text which express the following :

(a) The parent’s earlier view of the child
Answer:
He was a timid and doubting child.

(b) One of the qualities of the teacher
Answer:
Wise approach.

(c) Words related to prize
Answer:
Medals trophies and ribbons.

The Attic Writing

Q. Prepare notice for the following.

(i) You are the school monitor, of Modern Matriculation School, Villupuram. Your school Principal has requested you to inform the students about a trip to Yercaud for 3 days. Prepare a notice giving the details such as date of journey, mode of transportation, amount, dress code etc.
Answer:
Sasanka Sanyal

(ii) You are the Secretary of Park Circus Residents Welfare Association. Write a notice to inform the residents of your colony of a Meditation program under the guidance of Dr. P. Ranjit with a view to understanding the self better. The program is exclusively for the residents. It will be conducted on the second Saturday of the following month from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. at the children’s park nearby.
Answer:
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 4 The Attic 2

(iii) You are Ganesh/Gayathri Head boy/Head girl, of your school. Write a notice for your school notice board informing the students about the ‘Fancy Fete’ that is going to be organised in your school campus on the 10th of next month.
Answer:
Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Prose Chapter 4 The Attic 3

The Attic Article Writing

R. Write an article for the following

(i) You are Jansi/Avinash of Class X studying in GHSS, Chengalpet. You believe that physical activities improve our health and reduce the risk of sickness. It has got immediate and long term benefits. Write an article in not more than 150-200 words for your school magazine stressing the importance of physical activities in a students day to day life.
Answer:
Physical Activities By Jansi / Avinash

Physical activities improve our health and reduce the risk of sickness. It has got immediate and long term benefits. Physical exercise means: the regular movement of our limbs. It is necessary to keep our body fit and strong. The proverb goes ‘Health is Wealth Exercises help us to build good health. It helps in digesting food. There are different kinds of physical exercises. They are walking, swimming, running, cycling, etc. A person can be benefited in many ways by taking physical exercise.

A machine cannot work without regular and proper use. Human body is compared with machine. It becomes inactive and weak without regular and proper exercise. Physical exercises make our body active. We must remember that excessive of anything is bad. Over-exercise is also injurious to health. So we should abide by the laws of physical exercise. Everybody should take regular exercise with a view to enjoy sound health and sound mind. Therefore we should ourselves keep fit and healthy.

(ii) The service provided by the conservancy workers in your city is very poor. You find all the street corners dumped with garbage thrown by the residents of the locality. It causes a menace for the public at large. You are Ramya/Rajan of Class X, studying in TM Model School, Dharmapuri. Write an article in about 150-200 words to the editor of The Indian Express, about this and suggest ways by which the situation could be improved.
Answer:
Garbage Menace By Ramya / Rajan

Through this article, I would like to bring to the notice of the authorities concerned, the unsanitary conditions of the streets. The service provided by the conservancy workers in our city is very poor. You can find all the street corners dumped with garbage thrown by the residents of the locality. It causes a menace for the public at large. The sweepers absent themselves and the streets stink, with heaps of garbage. The garbage collecting vehicle never comes on its regular round. We made a complaint to the authorities followed by a reminder in the last two weeks, but all in vain. With the onset of the rainy season, the situation has worsened due to the garbagechoked streets. We, the students, are finding it difficult to go to our school. This is our humble request to the authorities to please lay attention to the cleanliness of Model Town and ensure regular cleaning. I shall be greatly obliged, if you publish my article in your column, so that it reaches the authorities concerned and steps are taken to solve the problem.

(iii) Recently while returning home from school you were knocked down by a speeding motorcycle. You escaped with minor injuries. You are Kishore / Kavitha of class XI, studying in GHSS, Coimbatore. Write an article to The Hindu, in about 150-200 words expressing your concern about the increasing number of road accidents due to reckless driving. Also stress the importance of following traffic rules.
Answer:
The Importance of following Traffic Rules By Kishore / Kavitha

The traffic rules are designed to protect all of us. By knowing the rules of the road, practising driving skills and generally taking care as a road user, you help play a vital role in preventing a crash. You will be making road safety policies more effective. Recently, while returning home from school, I was knocked down by a speeding motorcycle. I was very careful in crossing the road. Yet I was knocked down by the reckless driving and speeding of a motorcycle. I escaped with minor injuries. I am writing this article to bring to your notice the increasing number of road accidents due to reckless driving. We have to stress on the importance of following traffic rules.

People should follow the road signals. These signs have got a very important role to play in the traffic system and they are made for the safety of the people. People should not use their cell phones while driving or at the pedestrians crossing. We should always keep to the left, allowing the vehicles from the opposite direction to pass. We should also give way to traffic on your right, especially at road junctions and roundabout. While turning either left or right, give way to vehicles going straight. While turning left keep to the left side and turn close to the left side of the road to which you enter. These are some of the traffic safety rules which I know. I humbly request you to publish this article in your column, so that the public will be aware of it. Thus the best drivers are aware that they must beware!

The Attic Warm Up

Question
Pick out the qualities that you possess and qualities that you expect from your siblings / friends.
Answer:
The qualities that I possess are faith, compassion, sharing, love and commitment.
The qualities that I expect from my sibling or friends are the same as above. Further they should have helping and listening qualities.

Question
Working in pairs, find out the mutual qualities that you and your friends share. Justify your top priority with his / hers.
Answer:
The mutual qualities that my friends and I share are sharing, loving, friendship, faith, forgiveness, commitment, determination and victory. My top most priority is sharing. But my friend’s topmost priority is friendship. I would like to share whatever I have with my friends. My friend does anything for the sake of friendship. She shares and gives whatever she has.

Question
Discuss in groups the need for human values.
Answer:
The need for human values Human values are the virtues that guide us to take into account the human element, when we interact with other human beings. Human values are, for example, respect, acceptance, consideration, appreciation, listening, openness, affection, empathy and love towards other human beings. It is with these human elements that one becomes truly able to put into practice his / her ethical values in a critical situation.

The Attic By Satyajit Ray

Satyajit Ray was born in Kolkata on 2nd May 1921. He is an Indian film maker, screen-writer, writer, graphic artist, music composer and author. He authored several short stories and novels, especially for young children and teenagers. His first movie ‘Pather Panchali’ (1955) won several international awards. Its success set Ray as a world-class director. He received many awards including 32 national film awards by the Government of India. He received ‘Padma Bhushan’ in 1965 and the highest civilian honour ‘Bharath Ratna, just before his death. He died on 23rd April 1992.

Key Points

  • The narrator and Aditya were returning from the site of their new factory at Deodarganj.
  • On the way to Calcutta, they decided to go to Bramhapur, Aditya’s native place after 29 years.
  • Aditya’s father left the ancestral home and moved to Calcutta to set up his own business there.
  • After his father’s death, Aditya was looking after it. The narrator was his friend and business partner.
  • They reached Nagen Uncle’s Tea shop, where they saw a man called Sanyal.
  • Sasanka Sanyal led a cursed life. He sold his lands to get his only daughter married, and he lost his wife and only son last year. He stayed with his father’s friend Jogesh Kabiraj. He was very poor that he could not buy spectacles.
  • Aditya went to his ruined, ancestral house, with the narrator.
  • He went to the attic and searched for a silver medal, which is an antique.
  • After getting it, they went to a jeweller’s shop to find out the weight of it.
  • Then they went to meet Sanyal.
  • Sanyal told Aditya that when they were studying in the school, Sanyal got the medal as a prize. But Aditya could not bear it, and he took it from Sanyal to show his father, but he never returned it to him.
  • Now, after 29 years, Aditya gave Sanyal 150 as the price of the medal.
  • But Sanyal refused to accept the money.
  • Then Aditya gave the medal to Sanyal.
  • On the medal was engraved “Sriman Sasanka Sanyal – Special Prize for Recitation – 1948”.

Summary

The ‘Attic’ is a story that depicts a child’s psychology. While returning from their new factory of Deodarganj, the narrator with his friend and business partner Aditya drove along National Highway 40. At a point, they decided to take the road to the right. The road led to the ancestral house of Aditya at Bramhapur. His father was a landlord there. Later, he shifted to business at Calcutta. Aditya tried to recollect old memories – his two hundred years old big ancestral house, school, schoolmates and the tea stall of Nagen uncle. He feared that they had changed with time and the sweet memories of the past might disillusion him.

They reached the school. The change there was it had another floor now. They had a cup of tea at Nagen’s tea stall. There they met a stranger by name Mr. Sanyal. They were told that Mr. Sanyal was short of sight and hearing. He was a poor man. So he did not have money to buy spectacles. Mr. Sanyal left the tea shop, after reciting Tagore’s ‘Panraksha.

Uncle Nagen told Aditya that Mr.Sanyal was a mysterious person living with his father’s friend Jogesh Kabiraj. He had lost his wife and only son last year. He had sold all his lands to get his daughter married. He almost became a poor man. Aditya wished to meet him. Aditya went to his ancestral house and reached the attic of the house. The attic was damaged by the strong winds and weather. They could see the sky above, the paddy fields and the spire of the old temple.

He searched for something and at last found it. It was an antique. Then they went to meet Mr.Sanyal. Mr.Sanyal told Aditya that in school days, Aditya was jealous of him. He took his medal to show his father. But he never returned it. He lied that it had fallen from the hole in his pocket. Aditya felt sorry for what he did. He wished to give him one hundred and fifty rupees as the prize for the antique. But Sanyal wanted only his lost glory back. He didn’t want any charity from Aditya. So Aditya gave him the medal on which was engraved ‘Sriman Sasanka Sanyal – Special Prize for Recitation – 1948.

Glossary

affluent (adj.)           – wealthy
antique                    – a piece of work of art that has a high value
ascertained (v)         – confirmed
attic (n)                    – the space or room at the top of a building, under the roof
bifurcated (v)           – divided into two
charpoy                   – a small folding bed
crumbled (v)            – broken
dilated (v)                – widened than usual
overwrought (adj.)   – state of being upset
revive (v)                  – to bring something back to life
smacks (v)                – drive or put forcefully into or on to something
soothing (v)              – making someone feel calm
rustic (adj.)                – typical of the countryside
spire (n)                     – a tall, pointed structure on top of a building, especially on top of a church tower
unperturbed (adj.)     – undisturbed

Words Synonyms Antonyms
acute sharp, smart blunt, dull
affluent (adj.) wealthy poor
ancestral inherited
ascertained (v) confirmed unconfirmed
bifurcated (v) divided into two united
created developed, made destroyed
crumbled (v) broken built
cursed damned, doomed blessed
dilated (v) widened contracted
essential important inessential
existed remained discontinued
heaved produced shrank, compressed
intently carefully, closely distractedly
normal usual abnormal
overwrought (adj.) upset calm, cool
.particular specific general
raising lifting dropping
reaction response question, inquire
recognisable visible unrecognisable
reminded prompted ignored
revive (v) bring back, renew destroy, abolish
rustic (adj.) rural urban
smacks (v) put forcefully
soothing (v) calming disturbing
stretched extended contracted
strewn scattered gathered
unperturbed (adj.) undisturbed, calmed angry, uneasy
venting letting out blocking

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer

Tamilnadu State Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer

A. Choose the most suitable option.

The Cat and The Painkiller Mind Map Question 1. Tom was disturbed because __________________.
(a) he didn’t sleep well
(b) his scores were low at school
(c) his friend Becky Thatcher stopped coming to school
(d) he had picked up a fight with Becky Thatcher
Answer:
(c) his friend Becky Thatcher stopped coming to school

Question 2.
Aunt was an experimenter in __________________.
(a) trying new recipes
(b) designing fashionable frocks
(c) modem gardening techniques
(d) trying out new medicines
The Cat and The Painkiller Questions and Answer:
(d) trying out new medicines

The Cat and The Painkiller 9th Standard Question 3.
Tom used the pain-killer to __________________.
(a)take care of his health
(b) mend the crack on the sitting room floor
(c) cure Becky Thatcher
(d) help his aunt
Answer:
(b) mend the crack on the sitting room floor

The Cat and The Painkiller Characters Question 4. Peter sprang a couple of yards in the air as __________________.
(a) he had a teaspoon of the pain-killer
(b) his tail was caught in the mousetrap
(c) Tom threw him out of the window
(d) Aunt gave him a push
Answer:
(a) he had a teaspoon of the pain-killer

Question 5.
Finally Aunt Polly said to Tom that he__________________  .
(a) need not take any more medicine
(b) has to go to school regularly
(c) should not meet any of his friends
(d) must take medicines every day
Answer:
(a) need not take any more medicine

MCQs – Additional

Question 1.
Becky Thatcher, his friend had stopped coming to __________.
(a) his house
(b) school
(c) playground
(d) the shop
The Cat and The Painkiller Answer:
(b) school

Question 2.
She began to try all manners of __________ on Tom.
(a) medicines
(b) wonders
(c) remedies
(d) tricks
Answer:
(c) remedies

Question 3.
The __________ of life was gone.
(a) joy
(b) view
(c) relief
(d) charm
Answer:
(d) charm

Question 4.
She was any __________ experiment in these
(a) incurable
(b) achievable
(c) improvable
(d) encourging
Answer:
(a) incurable

Question 5.
The boy grew more and more sad and pale and ___________.
(a) worried
(b) exhausted
(c) dejected
(d) convinced
Answer:
(c) dejected

Question 6.
But Peter __________ that he did want it.
(a) told
(b) nodded
(c) accepted
(d) signified
Answer:
(d) signified

Question 7.
Peter sprang a couple of __________ in the air.
(a) days
(b) hours
(c) yards
(d) minutes
Answer:
(c) yards

Question 8.
Tom lay on the floor expiring with __________ .
(a) joy
(b) laughter
(c) anxiety
(d) Worry
Answer:
(b) laughter

Question 9.
The old lady bent down and took the __________ and held it out.
(a) cup
(b) saucer
(c) teaspoon
(d) glass
Answer:
(c) teaspoon

Question 10.
Aunt Polly felt a sudden painful __________ .
(a) guilt
(b) regret
(c) attitude
(d) urge
Answer:
(b) regret

B. Identify the character or speaker of the following lines.

  1. He banged against furniture
  2. She stood petrified with astonishment peering over her glasses.
  3. ‘That is, I believe they do.’
  4. ‘What has that got to do that with it?’
  5. ‘I done it out of pity for him.’

Answers:

  1. Peter, the cat
  2. Aunt Polly Arts
  3. Tom Sawyer
  4. Aunt Polly
  5. Tom Sawyer

Identify The Character / Speaker – Additional

  1. She added hot baths, sitz baths, shower baths and plunges.
  2. He became fed up and so he thought over various plans of relief. Arts:
  3. ‘Tom, what on earth ails that cat?’
  4. ‘Deed I don’t know, Aunt Polly’.
  5. Now, Sir, what did you want to treat that poor dumb beast so, for?’.
  6. ‘Hadn’t any aunt! – You numbskull’.
  7. ‘Heaps. Because if he’d had one she’d burnt him out herself’.
  8. ‘I was meaning for the best, Tom’.
  9. What on earth ails cat?
  10. Her eyes watered a little.
  11. Next, he rose on his hind feet and danced around in a frenzy of enjoyment.

Answers:

  1. Aunt Polly
  2. Tom
  3. Aunt Polly
  4. Tom
  5. Aunt Polly
  6. Aunt Polly
  7. Tom
  8. Aunt Polly
  9. Aunt Polly
  10. Aunt Polly
  11. Peter, the cat

C. Based on your reading, rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence.

1. Since all her methods failed, finally she gave him a pain-killer.
2. He told his aunt that Peter had no aunt, so he gave him the medicine.
3. The pain-killer triggered adverse reactions on Peter.
4. It jumped out of the open window.
5. Tom was dull and depressed.
6. This incident upset Aunt Polly and she questioned him.
7. But, Tom gave that pain-killer to the cat Peter.
8. So, Aunt Polly tried different types of remedies on him.
Answers:
3, 8, 5, 6,1, 7, 4, 2

3. The pain-killer triggered adverse reactions on Peter.
8. So, Aunt Polly tried different types of remedies on him.
5. Tom was dull and depressed.
6. This incident upset Aunt Polly and she questioned him.
1. Since all her methods failed, finally she gave him a pain-killer.
7. But, Tom gave that pain-killer to the cat Peter.
4. It jumped out of the open window.
2. He told his aunt that Peter had no aunt, so he gave him the medicine.

D. Based on your understanding of the story, write the answers for the following questions in a sentence or two.

Cat and the Painkiller Question 1.
Why did Tom lose the charm of his life?
Answer:
Tom’s friend Becky Thatcher stopped coming to school. So he lost the charm of his life.

Question 2.
Why did Aunt Polly try different remedies on Tom?
Answer:
Tom’s aunt wanted to try new medicines of producing health. She was infatuated with patent medicines and an incurable experimenter. So, she tried different remedies on Tom.

Question 3.
How did the medicine diminish
Answer:
Tom professed to be fond of pain-killer. So he asked for it often. He used to pour it into a crack in the sitting room floor. Thus the medicine diminished

Question 4.
Did Tom compel Peter to have the pain-killer?
Answer:
No. Tom did not compel Peter to have the pain-killer.

Question 5.
Why did Peter wish to taste the pain-killer?
Answer:
Peter wished to taste the pain-killer because he wanted it.

Question 6.
How did Aunt Polly discover the reason for Peter’s absurd behaviour?
Answer:
Aunt found the teaspoon and held it out. Thus she discovered the reason for Peter’s absurd behaviour.

Question 7.
What was the reason given by Tom for giving the pain-killer to the cat?
Answer:
Tom said that the cat had no aunt. So he gave it the medicine.

Question 8.
Why did Aunt Polly’s eyes water?
Answer:
Aunt realized that the cruelty to the cat is cruelty to the little boy too. So her eyes watered.

Short Questions And Answers: Additional

Question 1.
Does Aunt Polly show her love on Tom outwardly? Why?
Answer:
No, she does not show her love outwardly, as she wanted to make Tom a good boy.

Question 2.
On whom does Tom play pranks?
Answer:
Tom plays pranks on Aunt Polly.

Question 3.
How did Tom behave, when Becky Thatcher stopped coming to School?
Answer:
He became unhappy. There was nothing but boredom left. He put his hoop and bat away. He had no joy in playing them anymore.

Question 4.
How did Aunt Polly begin to assist the water?
Answer:
She began to assist the water with a slim oatmeal diet and blister – plasters.

Question 5.
What was Tom doing with the pain killer?
Answer:
Tom was mending the health of a crack in the sitting room floor with it.

Question 6.
Who was Peter and what did it beg for?
Answer:
peter was Aunty Polly’s cat and it did beg for a teaspoon of the pain-killer.

Question 7.
What did Peter do, after it took the pain killer?
Answer:
It sprang a couple of yards in the air, delivered a war-whoop and set off round and round the room, banging against furniture, upsetting flower-pots and making a general confusion.

Question 8.
What did Aunt Polly see?
Answer:
Aunt Polly saw Peter, the cat throw a few double summersets, deliver a final mighty hurrah and sail through the open window, carrying the rest of the flower-pots with him.

Question 9.
When enquired about the cat’s action, what did Tom say to Aunt Polly?
Answer:
He said that cats always act like that when they are having a good time.

Question 10.
What did Aunt Polly do to Tom, when she discovered the teaspoon with traces of medicine?
Answer:
She pulled Tom up by his ears and cracked his head soundly with her thimble

E. Answer the following questions in about 80-100 words.

Question 1.
Describe the different types of remedies tried by Aunt Polly on Tom.
Answer:
Tom’s aunt was the type of person who was infatuated with patent medicines and
new ways of producing health or mending it. The first remedy aunt Polly tried on Tom was the water treatment. She stood him up in the woodshed and drowned him with a deluge of cold water; then she scrubbed him down with a towel like a file; then she rolled him up in a wet sheet and put him under blankets till he sweated his soul clean.

The boy remained as dismal as a hearse. Aunt Polly began to assist the water with a slim oatmeal diet and blister plasters. When she heard of Pain-killer, she ordered a lot at once. She tasted it and it was simply fire in a liquid form. She gave Tom a teaspoonful pain-killer and watched with anxiety for the result.

Question 2.
Narrate the funny sequence between Tom Sawyer and Peter, the cat.
Answer:
The “Pain-killer” became a regular treatment, and to Tom Sawyer, it tasted like
liquid fire. Tired of the daily doses, one day Tom feeds a spoonful to the cat Peter, which upon receiving the medicine begins to do somersaults in the air while “spreading chaos and destruction in his path.” When Aunt Polly leams that Tom has fed the cat the pain-killer, Tom explains for his actions by saying that he “done it out of pity for the cat because he (the cat) hadn’t any aunt” to “bum him out” and “roast his bowels.”

Paragraph ; Additional Question

Question 1.
Why did Aunt Polly felt a sudden painful regret?
Answer:
When Aunt Polly scolded Tom for treating the poor cat in such a way, Tom replied that he had done that out of pity for him, because the cat hadn’t any aunt to show any attention on it as Tom, who had received all attention from his aunt. Hearing this, Aunt Polly felt a sudden painful regret. She thought that what was cruelty to a cat, might be a cruelty to a boy too. She began to soften and felt sorry for Tom. Her eyes watered a little. She patted Tom on the head and told him that she did whatever she thought was best for him.

F. Complete the summary of the extract using the appropriate words from the box below.

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer - 1

Tom Sawyer felt dejected as Becky Thatcher had stopped coming to school. His Aunt Polly was very concerned about his health condition. So, she began to try various remedies on him. Tom became fed up with his Aunt’s brand of remedies and pretended to like the pain-killer. He started to ask for it very often. But, Tom used the medicine to mend the crack on the floor. One day, Tom gave the pain-killer to his Aunt’s cat, Peter. The pain killer had an adverse effect on the cat and it started to jump around the room. Aunt Polly entered the room in time to see the cat throw a few summersets and sail through the open window. She found the teaspoon with a little pain-killer sticking to it and knew that Tom had treated the cat with it. She realised that, what was cruelty to the cat should be the same to the boy too and stopped giving medicines to him

G. In the story we find a lot of American slang usage of English. Complete the tabular column with standard English .one has been done for you

The Cat and The Painkiller Short Summary

H. Complete the mind map based on the inputs from extract

The Cat and The Painkiller Summary

Role Play

1. Students can volunteer and take roles of Tom and Peter and enact the story in class. The other students who witness the role play can discuss the following.

Question a.
How well did your classmates enact the story?
Answer:
My classmates enacted the story to perfection. They did an excellent execution of the dialogues and made the audience enjoy in amusement.

Question b.
Which part did they do well?
Answer:
They did the climax well.

Question c.
Which part of their role play, according to you, could have been enacted better?
Answer:
The cat’s role could have been made well.

Question d.
If asked to give suggestion to Improve their acting skill, what would you suggest?
Answer:
I would suggest them to act before a mirror and see their reflection and perform for better performance on the stage.

Additional Questions

I. Rearrange The Following Jumbled Sentences In The Correct Order.

Question A.
1. The charm of life was gone.
2. Becker Thatcher, his friend has stopped coming to school.
3. He put his hoop and bat away. There was no joy in them anymore.
4. This disturbed Tom and he became unhappy.
5. There was nothing, but boredom left.
Answer:
2, 4,1, 5, 3

2. Becker Thatcher, his friend has stopped coming to school.
4. This disturbed Tom and he became unhappy.
1. The charm of life was gone.
5. There was nothing, but boredom left.
3. He put his hoop and bat away. There was no joy in them anymore.

Question B.
1. Tom said, ‘Don’t ask for it unless you want it’.
2. Peter was sure.
3. One day, Tom was in the act of closing the crack, when Peter came along purring and begging for a taste.
4. But Peter signified that he did want it.
5. You better make sure.
Answer:
3,1, 4, 5, 2

3. One day, Tom was in the act of closing the crack, when Peter came along purring and begging for a taste.
1. Tom said, ‘Don’t ask for it unless you want it’.
4. But Peter signified that he did want it.
5. You better make sure.
2. Peter was sure.

Question C.
1. I know you were meaning for the best and so was I with Peter.
2. She put her hand on Tom’s head.
3. ‘Oh, go long with you. Tom, before you annoy me again’.
4. ‘I was meaning for the best Tom. And, Tom, it did do you good’.
5. It done him good, too. I never see him around so since.
Answer:
2, 4,1, 5, 3

2. She put her hand on Tom’s head.
4. ‘I was meaning for the best Tom. And, Tom, it did do you good’.
1. I know you were meaning for the best and so was I with Peter.
5. It done him good, too. I never see him around so since.
3. ‘Oh, go long with you. Tom, before you annoy me again’.

Question D.
1. Then he went tearing around the house again, spreading chaos and destruction in his path.
2. Peter was agreeable.
3. Next he rose on his hind feet and danced around in a frenzy of enjoyment.
4. So Tom opened his mouth and poured down the pain killer.
5. Peter sprang a couple of yards in the air, banging against furniture, upsetting flower pots and making general confusion.
Answer:
2,4, 5, 3,1

2. Peter was agreeable.
4. So Tom opened his mouth and poured down the pain killer.
5. Peter sprang a couple of yards in the air, banging against furniture, upsetting flower pots and making general confusion.
3. Next he rose on his hind feet and danced around in a frenzy of enjoyment.
1. Then he went tearing around the house again, spreading chaos and destruction in his path.

II. Read The Passage And Answer The Questions.

1. Becky Thatcher, his friend, had stopped coming to school. This disturbed Tom. He became unhappy. The charm of life was gone; there was nothing but boredom left. He put his hoop away, and his bat; there was no joy in them anymore and so his aunt Polly was concerned. She was infatuated with patent medicines and all new methods of producing health mending it. She was an incurable experimenter in these things.

Question (a).
Who was Becky Thatcher?
Answer:
She was Tom’s friend.

Question (b).
Why did she stop coming to school?
Answer:
She stopped coming to school, as she was ill.

Question (c).
Who was concerned about Tom’s health?
Answer:
Aunt Polly was concerned about Tom’s health.

Question (d).
Why did Tom put away his hoops and bat?
Answer:
As he did not find joy in his hoops and bat anymore, after Becky stopped coming to School, he put them away.

Question (e).
Who was an incurable experimenter in mending health?
Answer:
Aunt Polly was an incurable experimenter in mending health.

2. The boy remained bored. She began to assist the water with a slim oatmeal diet and blister- plasters. She calculated his capacity and filled him up every day with quack cure-alls. He became fed up and so he thought over various plans of relief, and finally hit upon that of professing to be fond of pain-killer. He asked for it so often that he became a nuisance, and his aunt ended by telling him to help himself and quit bothering her.

Question (a).
How did Aunt Polly assist the water?
Answer:
She began to assist the water with a slim oatmeal diet and blister-plasters.

Question (b).
With what did Aunt fill Tom up?
Answer:
Aunt Polly filled him up every day with quack cure-alls.

Question (c).
Who became fed up with Aunt Polly’s activities?
Answer:
Tom became fed up with Aunt Polly’s activities.

Question (d).
What did Tom ask for so often?
Answer:
He asked for the pain killer very often.

Question (e).
What did Aunt Polly tell Tom to do?
Answer:
She asked him to help himself for the pain killer and quit bothering her.

3. The old lady bent down and took the teaspoon and held it out! Tom winced and dropped his eyes. Aunt Polly raised him by the usual handle – his ear – and cracked his head soundly with her thimble.
‘Now, sir, what did you want to treat that poor dumb beast so, for?’
‘I done it out of pity for him – because he hadn’t any aunt.’

Question (a).
What did the old lady do?
Answer:
She bent down, took the teaspoon and held it out.

Question (b).
What was Tom’s reaction at this?
Answer:
He winced and dropped his eyes.

Question (c).
What did Aunt Polly do to him?
Answer:
She pulled his ears and cracked his head soundly with her thimble.

Question (d).
Why did Tom treat the cat in such a way?
Answer:
He did it out of pity for him.

Question (e).
Why did he pity him?
Answer:
He pitied him because he hadn’t any aunt.

The Cat and the Pain Killer Textual Activities

Warm up

There has always been a close bonding between children and animals. Studies have revealed that living with pet animals increases empathy, compassion and self-esteem among children.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer - 4

Question 1.
Do you have a pet at home?
Answer:
Yes, I have a pet at home.

Question 2.
If yes, what animal is it and what is its name?
Answer:
It is a dog and its name is ‘Sally’.

Question 3.
Did you have any humourous moments with it? If yes, what was it?
Answer:
It plays frisbee with me. It is humourous to see it catching the frisbee in its mouth and running towards me after a long time.

Question 4.
How do you care for your pets?
Answer:
I feed my pet well, give him a bath daily and take him out for a walk.

The Cat and the pain killer by Mark Twain

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, (30 Nov. 1835 – 21 Apr. 1910), better known by his pen name’Mark Twain was a American writer. Among his novels are “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer” (1875) and “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” (1885), the latter often called “The Great American Novel”.

He was also a riverboat pilot, journalist, lecturer, entrepreneur and inventor. Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for his novels. A gifted raconteur, distinctive humorist, and irascible moralist, he transcended the apparent limitations of his origins to become a popular public figure and one of Americas best and most beloved writers.

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer - 5

The Cat and the pain killer Summary

Tom is temporarily distracted from his troubles when Becky stops coming to school. He tries to find out the reason for her absence by hanging around her house. He finally learns that she is ill and be¬gins to worry that she may die. He is so concerned about Becky that he stops playing and loses interest in everything. His quiet behaviour causes Aunt Polly to be concerned about him. An experimenter at heart, Polly tries all sorts of remedies on Tom in an effort to cure him, but nothing seems to work.

She reads her Health magazines to look for additional things to try and discovers the water treatment cure that makes a person sweat so much it purifies his soul. When she tries this on Tom, he just becomes more sad and melancholic.
Tom is so forlorn that he does not even protest against the torture that he is being put through; his silence bothers his aunt even more. She decides that Tom’s indifference must definitely be broken. She orders a new painkiller, which she immediately administers to her nephew. Tom has decided that he has indulged himself enough and will endure no more. He pretends to like the horrible painkiller as it is simply fire in a liquid form.

He asks his aunt for a dose so frequently that she tells Tom to take it for himself. While Aunt Polly is not looking, he pours the medicine in a crack in the sitting room floor. His aunt’s cat comes into the room one day when he is in the act of filling the crack with the medicine. Tom takes a spoonful of the painkiller and gives it to the cat. When the cat swallows it, it jumps in the air and bangs itself against the furniture, ft topples the flowerpots and jumps out of the window, leaving behind a mess. Aunt Polly is struck dumb at the cat’s antics.

When she comes to question Tom about the cat, she finds him rolling in laughter. She discovers the spoon with traces of medicine still sticking to it. She pulls Tom up by his ear and asks him why he gave the painkiller to the cat. Tom replies that he gave it to the cat out of pity, for he himself had been receiving all of Aunt Polly’s attention, while the cat was being ignored. She pats Tom on the head and tells him that

she did whatever she thought was best for him. This chapter is filled with typical Twain humour. Tom’s sadness over Becky’s not being at school and his worries about her death are intentionally exaggerated to the point of being humorous. Aunt Polly’s experimentation on Tom is also out of proportion and causes the reader to laugh. Tom’s incident with the cat is also filled with humour, even though he uses it to teach Aunt Polly a lesson.

The Cat and the pain Main Characters :

  1. Tom sawyer
  2. Aunt Polly
  3. Peter, the cat,
  4. Becky Thacher, Tom’s friend

The Cat and the pain Mind map

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer - 6

The Cat and the pain Glossary

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Supplementary Chapter 4 The Cat and the Pain-killer - 7

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water – The Elixir of Life

Tamilnadu State Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water – The Elixir of Life

The Elixir of Life In – Textual Questions

Water the Elixir of Life Mind Map Question. What is the imaginary elixir of life?
Answer:
The divine Amrita is the imaginary elixir of life.

Question.
What according to the writer is the real elixir of life?
The Elixir of Life Question and AnswerAnswer:
According to the writer, water is the real elixir of life.

Question.
What is the ‘wonderful difference’ the writer talks about in the passage?
Answer:
On one side, was the visible sea of billowing sand without a speck of green or a single living thing anywhere on it. On the other side lay one of the greatest, most fertile and densely populated areas to be found anywhere on the earth, teeming with life and vegetation. This is the ‘wonderful difference’ that the writer talks about in the passage.

Water the Elixir of Life Question. What is the ‘cheering sight’ mentioned in the paragraph?
Answer:
The rain-fed tanks that are so common in South India are a cheering sight when they are full.

Question.
What does the writer compare water in a landscape to?
Answer:
The writer compares the water in a landscape to the eyes in a human face.

Question.
How does the water in rainfed tanks get its colour?
Answer:
The water in the rain fed tank carry slit or finely divided soil in suspension. This is the origin of the characteristic colour of the water in the rain fed tanks.

Question.
What is the main cause of soil erosion?
Answer:
The sudden burst of excessively heavy rain resulting in a large run of surplus water is the main cause of soil erosion.

Question.
What other factors add to the erosion of precious soil?
Water the Elixir of Life Questions and Answer:
The slope of land, removal of natural protective coat of vegetation, the existence of ruts along which the water can flow with rapidly gathering momentum and the absence of any checks of such flow are the other factors that add to the erosion of precious soil.

Question.
How can soil erosion be prevented?
Answer:
The terracing of land, construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of appropriate types of vegetation are the measures that can prevent soil erosion.

Question.
How does prevention of soil erosion serve a double purpose?
Answer:
The prevention of soil erosion would help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted, in other words, on and in the soil. Thus it serves a double purpose.

Question.
What are the two sources of water?
Water the Elixir of Life By Cv Raman Question and Answer:
The two sources of water are rain and snowfall.

Water the Elixir of Life 9th Std Question. What happens to the rain water?
Answer:
The rain water flows down into the streams and rivers and ultimately finds its way to the sea.

Question.
What is the idea of civilized forest?
Answer:
The civilized forests would, directly and indirectly, prove a source of untold wealth to the country. They would check soil erosion and conserve the rainfall of the country from flowing away to waste and would provide the necessary supplies of cheap fuel, and thus render unnecessary the wasteful conversion of farmyard manure into a form of fuel.

Question.
How can you check soil erosion?
Answer:
The terracing of the land, the construction of bunds, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of some types of vegetation are the measures that can be used to check soil erosion.

Question.
What is the cheapest means of transport?
The Elixir of Life Question and Answer:
The cheapest means of transport is by boats and barges through canals and rivers.

Question.
How can you make a difference in the countryside?
Answer:
The availability of electric power would make a tremendous difference to the life of the countryside and enable rural economy to be improved in various directions.

A. Answer the following questions briefly in one or two sentences.

Question 1.
What makes water one of the most powerful and wonderful things on earth?
Answer:
Water played a role of vast significance in shaping the course of the earth’s history and continues to play the leading role in the drama of life on the surface of our planet.

Question 2.
How does water help in the formation of fertile lands?
Answer:
The water has its power to carry slit or finely divided soil in suspension. The great tracts of land formed by slit thus deposited is evident on an examination of the soil in alluvial areas. Thus, water helps in the formation of fertile lands.

Question 3.
How does soil erosion happen and what are its main causes?
Answer:
The flow of water under certain conditions causes soil erosion. Sudden bursts of excessively heavy rain resulting in large run of surplus water are the principal factors in causing soil erosion.

Question 4.
What are some measures that are used to prevent soil erosion?
Answer:
The terracing of land and construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of appropriate types of vegetation are few measures to check erosion.

Question 5.
How, according to Sir C. V. Raman, can rainwater as well as the water of rivers be, prevented from going to waste?
Answer:
The systematic planting of suitable trees can prevent rainwater going to waste.

Short Questions and Answers : Additional

Question 1.
What has man sought in vain?
Answer:
Man has sought in vain for an imaginary elixir of life, the divine Amrita.

Question 2.
What do the Geologists tell us about the Nile?
Answer:
Geologists tell us that the entire soil of the Nile valley is the creation of the river itself, brought down as the finest silt in its flood waters, from the highlands of Abyssinia and from remote Central Africa and laid down in the trough through which the Nile flows into the sea.

Question 3.
Who brought about the wonderful difference on earth?
Answer:
The wonderful difference on earth is brought about by the water.

Question 4.
How was Egypt’s ancient civilization created?
Answer:
Egypt’s ancient civilization was created and sustained by the life-giving waters which come down year after year with unfailing regularity.

Question 5.
What plays a vital role in the South Indian agriculture?
Answer:
Rain fed tanks play a vital role in South Indian agriculture.

Question 6.
Why does the writer compare water in the landscape to the eyes in the human face?
Answer:
He makes this comparison because the water reflects the mood of the hour by being bright and gay, when the sun shines and turns dark and gloomy when the sky is overcast.

Question 7.
What Is one of the most remarkable facts about water?
Answer:
One of the most remarkable facts about water is its power to carry silt or finely divided soil in suspension.

Question 8.
What Is fundamental for human welfare?
Answer:
The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare.

Question 9.
What can be considered as a source of untold wealth to the country?
Answer:
The systematic planting of suitable trees in every possible and even in impossible areas and the development of civilized forests would directly or indirectly prove a source of untold wealth to the country.

Question 10.
Mention any advantages of civilized forests.
Answer:
Civilized forests help in preventing soil erosion and conserve rainfall that otherwise would have gone waste.

B. Answer the following in about 80-100 words.

Question 1.
How does C.V. Raman show that water Is the real elixir of life?
Answer:
Raman tries to bring about the importance of water, which has a unique power of maintaining animal and plant life. Water, the elixir of life, is the commonest of all liquids. Without water the land will be barren like the deserts in Egypt. On one side it is a sea of sand. On the other side laid one of the greatest, most fertile, densely populated areas the valley of Nile.

It is separated by the river Nile flowing down thousands of miles away. The entire soil is the creation of river Nile. Egypt, in fact was made by its river. Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and plant contains water in its body. Water is essential for the body, moisture in the soil is equally important for the life and growth of plants and trees. The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare.

Question 2.
Water exists in all plant and animal forms – Explain.
Answer:
If there is plenty of water and abundant rainfall, there will be good growth of plants. The population of animals depending on these plants will increase. On the other hand, if there is a drought, there will be a smaller supply of plants. The animals depending on these plants will decrease in population as a result of the decrease in the plant population. Water is the fundamental necessity for both animal and plant forms.

Question 3.
Life cannot exist on earth without water – Explain.
Answer:
Water is the basis of all life. Every animal and plant contains water in its body. Water is essential for the body, moisture in the soil is equally important for the life and growth of plants and trees. The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare. Much of Indian agriculture depends on monsoon. It is clear that the adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted. Without water, nothing is possible on earth. The collection of rain water and utilizing them is very important. Vast areas of land which at present are scrub jungle could be turned into fertile and prosperous country by courageous and well-planned action.

Paragraph Questions and Answers : Additional

Question 1.
How does C.V. Raman show that water is the real elixir of life?
Answer:
(a) Water exists in all plants and animal forms.
(b) Life cannot exist on earth without water.
(c) Water has the unique quality of carrying silt which helps in formation of fertile river valleys.
(d) Waterways can be used as means of cheap effective transport.
(e) Water can be harnessed for generation of hydroelectric power.

Man has since ages sought in vain for an elixir which can provide him with immortality. But he has failed to realize that water which is the commonest of all liquids comes closest to being an elixir. Human, animal and plant life cannot exist on earth without water. Water is present in all life forms on earth. Water in rivers carry silt which it deposits in troughs giving rise to fertile land. These fertile river valleys have been the cradle of civilization and innovations. Water in its different forms can be used as a cost effective means of transport and for generation of hydroelectric power.

Question 2.
What are the various causes of soil erosion? How can we prevent it?
(a) Excess rainfall
(b) Slope of the land
(c) Deforestation
(d) Terracing of land
(e) Contour farming

Answer:
Soil erosion is loss of top soil to different manmade and natural causes. Excess rainfall leads to more volume of water to flow on land taking away with it topsoil and leading to soil erosion. The slope of land, lack of natural protective coat of vegetation and existence of ruts promote faster flow of water and greater soil erosion. Soil erosion can be prevented by land terracing, contour cultivation and afforestation.

Question 3.
What does C. V. Raman say about rain-fed tanks?
Answer:

  1. Rain fed tanks are common in South India.
  2. They play a vital role in South Indian agriculture.
  3. They are a cheering sight when full.

Shallow Rain-fed tanks are a common sight in South India and play an important role in agriculture. These tanks are shallow and some of them are pretty big. It’s a beautiful sight to see the sun set or rise over them. When full they are the cheering sight. At present they are neglected and in the decline.

C. Given below are some idioms related to water. Match the idioms with its meaning.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 6
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 7

D. Water is a scarce resource. Discuss the causes, problems and solutions to water scarcity and write them below.

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 8

Listening

E. On the basis of the listening passage, choose the correct answer from the given options.

Question 1.
Severn Suzuki represents an organization called ECO which stands for _________.
(a) Ecological Cooperation.
(b) Environmental Coordinating Organization.
(c) Environmental Children’s Organization.
(d) Ecological Children’s Organization.
Answer:
(c) Environmental Children’s Organization

Question 2.
“I am fighting for my future.” The ‘fight’ refers to her ________.
(a) fight to win an election.
(b) fight to gain a few points in share market.
(c) fight against corruption.
(d) fight against environmental pollution.
Answer:
(d) fight against environmental pollution

Question 3.
Animals and fish are becoming extinct because ___________.
(a) they have no place to go.
(b) they die of diseases.
(c) their food and habitat are polluted.
(d) all the above.
Answer:
(d) all the above.

Question 4.
It is evident that Severn Suzuki is concerned about all other species too as,____________.
(a) she considers them all belonging to one world.
(b) they have nobody except her to speak for.
(c) they belong to her.
(d) they are all children.
Answer:
(a) she considers them all belonging to one world

Question 5.
Severn Suzuki condemns the people of her country for ____________.
(a) contributing large amounts of waste and not sharing the excess with the needy.
(b) being afraid of the poor.
(c) being angry with the poor belonging to other countries.
(d) being wealthy.
Answer:
(a) contributing large amounts of waste and not sharing the excess with the needy

Question 6.
Which of the following statements is not true? __________________.
(a) Canada is a rich country and people have in plenty.
(b) Canadian children are privileged.
(c) A Brazilian child was willing to share because she was rich.
(d) Northern countries will not share with the needy
Answer:
(c) Canada is a rich country and people have in plenty

F. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question 1.
What is the humble request of the twelve- year -old to the elders?
Answer:
She requests adults to change their ways and save nature for the future.

Question 2.
The dream of Severn Suzuki is
Answer:
She has dreamt of seeing the great herds of wild animals, jungles and rain forests, full of birds and butterflies.

Question 3.
The fear and agony of Severn Suzuki is
Answer:
We make so much waste.

Question 4.
How does she proclaim that she represents the future generation?
Answer:
She calls herself as one of the children starving in Somalia or a victim of war in the Middle East or a beggar in India.

Question 5.
The duties and responsibilities of the parents are
(a) to comfort their children saying that everything will be all right.
(b) _____________.
(c) _____________.
Answer:
(b) To teach children to respect others.
(c) To clean up their mess and not to hurt other creatures.

Speaking

G. You are the President of CO GREEN, the Environment Club of your school. On the occasion of World Environment Day, you have been asked to address the school on the topic, ‘The Nature of Our Future Depends on the Future of Our Nature’
Answer:

The Nature of the future depends on the future of the nature

Good morning, esteemed Chief Guest, the Headmaster, teachers, dear friends and all the invitees. I am Ankitha, the President of ‘GO GREEN’, the Environmental club of our school. Today, I would like to share my views on the topic :

‘The Nature of Future depends on the future of Nature”.

Nature is neutral. Man has taken from Nature, the power to make the world a desert or to make the deserts bloom. ‘There is no evil; only in man’s soul’. When you ’ drive down the National Highway, it is exciting with 4 to 6 high speed lanes. If you look around, you could see a large number of trees being uprooted now. When it is summer, it is hotter than ever before. Where is water to drink, when there are no tears in the eyes? It is rainy season now, but it is dry everywhere.

Increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization and excessive automation has generated pressure on our natural resources and led to the degradation of the environment such as heavy erosion of soil, failure, erratic rainfall and recurring floods.

We must learn to control and adjust the balance in nature. Environment has a rhythm and notion of its own. We must tune our lives to its rhythm. Every human being must volunteer and pledge to protect the environment and the earth. All the school children must get associated with the organizations which aim for a clean Environment in order to ensure a viable environment for our future.

So the human activities, which produce carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ‘ should be reduced and this can be done by ‘Going Green’ in everyday of our lives, mostly by planting a tree.

So plant a tree, save the environment and the earth.

Thank you!

Project

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 9

Grammar
Simple present tense

A. Choose the correct form of the present tense verb from the options given.

  1. All children something new every day. (learn / learns / learned)
  2. A good student always hard, (work / works / worked)
  3. Engineers bridges, (build / builds / built)
  4. My sister is an architect. She skyscrapers. (design / designs / designed)
  5. The Himalayas India from the cold winds. (protect / protects / protected)
  6. It always here in the afternoon, (drizzle / drizzles / drizzled)
  7. My mother in a factory, (work / works / worked)
  8. Chella English very well, but she doesn’t understand Hindi. (speak / speaks / spoke)
  9. Cows us milk, (give / gives/ gave)
  10. The trains to Chennai always on time, (run / runs / ran)

Answer:

  1. learn
  2. works
  3. build
  4. designs
  5. protect
  6. drizzles
  7. works
  8. speaks
  9. give
  10. run

Present Continuous Tense

B. Make sentences in the present continuous tense using the verb given in brackets.

  1. Who is that boy _________ on the table? (stand)
  2. What are you _______? (do) I ________ (listen) to music.
  3. My brother _________ (work) in London now.
  4. I ________ (wait) for my mother.
  5. It is better not to disturb her, she ___________ (work).

Answer:

  1. standing
  2. doing, am listening
  3. is working
  4. am waiting
  5. is working

C. What are they doing? Use the verbs below and write sentences.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 10
Answer:

  1. Anu is singing.
  2. Peter is watching.
  3. Sudhan is playing.
  4. Velu is reading.
  5. Kalai is crying.

D. Look at the picture again and answer the questions.

  1. Is Tom reading? __________.
  2. Is Velu eating? _____________.
  3. Is Kalai dancing? _____________.
  4. Is Peter watching TV? _____________.
  5. Is Anu crying? _____________.

Answer:

  1. No, Tom is eating
  2. No, Velu is reading
  3. No, Kalai is crying
  4. No, Peter is watching through a telescope
  5. No, Anu is singing

E. Write the -ing form of the verbs.

  1. Come _____________.
  2. Take _____________.
  3. Fly _____________.
  4. Swim _____________.
  5. Study _____________.
  6. Read _____________.

Answer:

  1. Coming
  2. Taking
  3. Flying
  4. Swimming
  5. Studying
  6. Reading

F. Write negative sentences.

  1. He is learning to read.
  2. I am having a bath.
  3. I’m reading a fantastic book.
  4. Raja is driving a new car.
  5. I’m looking for my bag.

Answer:

  1. No, he isn’t learning to read.
  2. No, I am not having a bath.
  3. No, I am not reading a fantastic book.
  4. No, Raju isn’t driving a new car.
  5. No, I am not looking for my bag.

G. Write questions for the answers.
1. _________________?
No, they aren’t singing.
Answer:
Are they singing?

2. _________________?
Yes, She is writing a new book.
Answer:
Is she writing a new book?

3. _________________?
Yes, It is working.
Answer:
Is it working?

4. _________________?
No, he isn’t doing the project.
Answer:
Is he doing the project?

5. _________________?
Yes, We are planning to go.
Answer:
Are we planning to go?

H. Fill in the blanks with verbs in the present continuous.

  1. You (listen) to the music.
  2. He (cry).
  3. I (swim) in the pool.
  4. Latha (wait) for her daughter.
  5. she (watch) TV?
  6. Who he (help)?
  7. Her father (not / cook) dinner.
  8. Akila Y, (not /sing) a song.
  9. My brother (not / do) his homework.
  10. your mother (work) today?
  11. Amutha and Praba (play) tennis.
  12. Amith and Ravi (not / swim) in the lake.

Answer:

  1. are listening
  2. is crying
  3. am swimming
  4. is waiting
  5. is, watching
  6. is, helping
  7. is not cooking the
  8. is not singing
  9. is not doing
  10. is, working
  11. are playing
  12. are not swimming

Present Perfect Tense

I. Make sentences in the present perfect tense using the verbs in brackets.

1. She to _______________ anybody, (never apologized, has never apologized, have never apologized)
Answer:
has never apologized

2. My mother to _______________ London, (has been, being in, have been)
Answer:
has been

3. I _______________ all the plays of Shakespeare, (read, had read, have read)
Answer:
have read

4. Have you _______________ your lunch? (finish, finished, had finished)
Answer:
finished

5. _______________ he brought his bike? (Had, Has, Have)
Answer:
has

J. Present perfect with “ever and never” Have you ever…?
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 11

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 12

Present perfect continuous tense

K. Make sentences in the present perfect continuous tense using the verbs in brackets.

1. How long _______________ ? (are you waiting, have you been waiting, have you waited)
Answer:
have you been waiting

2. She _______________ in the garden since morning, (is working, has been working, work)
Answer:
has been working

3. I _______________ this mobile for three years, (am using, has used, have been using)
Answer:
have been using

4. The children _______________ in the park, (has been playing, have been playing, had been playing)
Answer:
have been playing

5. The workers _______________ higher wages for a long time, (has been demanding, have been demanding, demand)
Answer:
have been demanding

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

L. Complete the story using the past tense of the verbs.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 13
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 14
Answer:

  1. Knew
  2. could
  3. was
  4. said
  5. had
  6. found
  7. told
  8. hid
  9. began
  10. ran
  11. was
  12. thought
  13. decided
  14. fell
  15. woke up
  16. saw
  17. was
  18. was
  19. ran
  20. couldn’t
  21. sat
  22. got up
  23. turned
  24. won

M. Finish each clue by changing the verb within brackets to an irregular past-tense verb.
Then complete the crossword puzzle.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 15

ACROSS

1. The lake (freeze) overnight.
3. Hema (buy) a new bicycle.
4. Aravind (give) me a slice of pizza.
5. We (drink) milk.
6. The dog (sleep) on the sofa.
7. He (write) a letter to his cousin in America.

DOWN
1. I (find) a coin on the ground.
2. Tony (teach) his cat to use the litter box.
3. Selvi (blow) out the candle.

Past Continuous Tense

N. Make sentences in the past continuous tense using the verb in brackets.

1. The children _________ (wait) for the bus.
Answer:
were waiting

2. The girls __________ (leam) their lessons.
Answer:
were learning

3. I ____________ (play) in the rain all evening.
Answer:
was playing

S. What is Amala going to do? Given below is Amala’s schedule for next week. Read it and answer the questions using the future continuous tense.

Amala’s Schedule
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 16

Question 1.
What will Amala do on Sunday morning?
Answer:
She will be visiting her grand mother.

Question 2.
What is Amala planning to do on Saturday afternoon?
Answer:
She will be preparing sweets.

Question 3.
Where is Amala going on Wednesday morning?
Answer:
Amala will be going to the library to return the books.

Question 4.
Who is Amala meeting on Tuesday morning?
Answer:
Amala will be meeting her friends.

Question 5.
What will she buy on Monday afternoon?
Answer:
Amala will be buying groceries for the week.

Future Perfect Tense

T. Match words from the different columns to make reasonable predictions. Then write them down in the space below. One has been done as an example.

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 17

Write the sentences.

1. In 50 years the ice cap will have melted.
2. In 10 years, the world’s population will have reached 10 billion
3. In 50 years, India will have become the world’s richest country.
4. In 10 years, women will have obtained equal rights with men.
5. In 10 years, Scientists will have discovered a complete cure for cancer.
6. In 50 years, India will have launched a space centre in moon.
7. In 50 years, U.K. will have become one country.

The Elixir of Life Textual Activities

Warm up

Question.
Do you think the living organisms in this planet can survive without water? Why?
Answer:
No. Living organisms can’t survive without water because water is essential to survive.

Water the Elixir of Life Question.
Where do you get your drinking water from?
Answer:
We get drinking water from lakes.

Question.
Is the drinking water you use in your home treated?
Answer:
Yes , it is reverse osmosis treated.

What According to the Writer is the Real Elixir of Life Question.
If not, how do you purify it?
Answer:
We boil our water, cool it and drink. By boiling, the microbes in it are destroyed.
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 18

Synonyms & Antonyms : Additional Questions

I. Choose the appropriate Synonym of the underlined words.

Question 1.
Man has through the ages sought in vain for an imaginary elixir of life.
(a) luxurious
(b) potion that cure all ills
(c) extremely comfortable
(d) expensive-looking
Answer:
(b) potion that cure all ills

Question 2.
On one side was visible a sea of billowing sand without a speck of green.
(a) swelling
(b) shrinking
(c) deflating
(d) flattening
Answer:
(a) swelling

Question 3.
… most fertile and densely populated areas to be found teeming with life and vegetation.
(a) barren
(b) deserted
(c) filled
(d) scarce
Answer:
(c) filled

Question 4.
… a little stream trickling over the rocks or a little pond by the wayside.
(a) pouring
(b) spraying
(c) deluging
(d) flowing slowly
Answer:
(d) flowing slowly

Question 5.
It has played a role of vast significance in shaping the course of the earth’s history.
(a) small
(b) great
(c) tiny
(d) little
Answer:
(b) great

Question 6.
The menace which soil erosion presents to the continuance of successful agriculture is an alarming one.
(a) safety
(b) comfort
(c) danger
(d) delight
Answer:
(c) danger

Question 7.
It is obvious that the aim should be to check the flow of water at the earliest possible stage.
(a) dubious
(b) doubtful
(c) obscure
(d) apparent
Answer:
(d) apparent

Question 8.
… an immense quantity of rain-water must necessarily run off the ground.
(a) little
(b) limited
(c) enormous
(d) diminutive
Answer:
(c) enormous

Another type of exercise

Choose the appropriate Synonym of the underlined words.

1. Man has through the ages sought in vain (i) for an imaginary elixir of life, the divine Amrita, a draught of which was thought to confer immortality (ii). But the true elixir of life lies (iii) near our hands; for it is the commonest (iv) of all liquids, plain water! I remember one day standing on the dine which separates (v) the Libyan Desert from the Valley of the Nile in Egypt.

i) (a) important
(b) useless
(c) significant
(d) useful
Answer:
(b) useless

ii) (a) eternity
(b) disaster
(c) doom
(d) fatality
Answer:
(a) eternity

iii) (a) frankness
(b) honesty
(c) untruth
(d) openness
Answer:
(c) untruth

iv) (a) universal
(b) specific
(c) uncommon
(d) abnormal
Answer:
(a) universal

v) (a) disconnects
(b) keeps
(c) combines
(d) unites
Answer:
(a) disconnects

2. On one side was visible (i) a sea of billowing (ii) sand without a speck (iii) of green or a single living thing anywhere on it. On the other side lay one of the greatest, most fertile (iv) and densely populated areas to be found anywhere on the earth, teeming (v) with life and vegetation.

i) (a) obscure
(b) concealed
(c) vague
(d) noticeable
Answer:
(d) noticeable

ii) (a) shrinking
(b) surging
(c) stabilizing
(d) deflating
Answer:
(b) surging

iii) (a) lot
(b) pile
(c) tiny bit
(d) bundle
Answer:
(c) tiny bit

iv) (a) barren
(b) productive
(c) sparse
(d) unfruitful
Answer:
(b) productive

v) (a) empty
(b) lacking
(c) filled
(d) needing
Answer:
(c) filled

3. Soil erosion occurs in successive (i) steps, the earliest of which may easily pass unnoticed. In the later stages, the cutting up and washing away of the earth is only too painfully apparent (ii) in the formation of deep gullies and ravines (iii) which make all agriculture impossible. Sudden bursts of excessively heavy rain resulting in a large run of surplus (iv) water are the principal (v) factors in causing soil erosion.

i) (a) disordered
(b) alternate
(c) consecutive
(d) non-linear
Answer:
(c) consecutive

ii) (a) unclear
(b) evident
(c) dubious
(d) mysterious
Answer:
(b) evident

iii) (a) gorges
(b) plains
(c) mountains
(d) deserts
Answer:
(a) gorges

iv) (a) scarcity
(b) shortage
(c) excess
(d) deficiency
Answer:
(c) excess

v) (a) minor
(b) ancillary
(c) unimportant
(d) main
Answer:
(d) main

II. Choose the appropriate Antonyms of the underlined words.

Question 1.
Every animal or plant contains a substantial proportion of free or combined water in its body,
(a) large
(b) massive
(c) insignificant
(d) significant
Answer:
(c) insignificant

Question 2.
… moisture in the soil is equally imperative for the life and growth of plants and trees.
(a) necessary
(b) inessential
(c) crucial
(d) important
Answer:
(b) inessential

Question 3.
The harnessing of our rivers, the waters of which now mostly run to waste, is a great national problem.
(a) controlling
(b) using
(c) exploiting
(d) unharnessing
Answer:
(d) unharnessing

Question 4.
The conservation and utilization of water is thus fundamental for human welfare.
(a) destruction
(b) preservation
(c) salvation
(d) safekeeping
Answer:
(a) destruction

Question 5.
Vast areas of land which at present are mere scrub jungle could be turned into fertile.
(a) prolific
(b) productive
(c) barren
(d) fruitful
Answer:
(c) barren

Question 6.
By far the cheapest form of internal transport in a country is by boats and barges through canals.
(a) economical
(b) reasonable
(c) costly
(d) nominal
Answer:
(c) costly

Question 7.
The availability of electric power would make a tremendous difference to the life of the countryside.
(a) enormous
(b) gigantic
(c) colossal
(d) tiny
Answer:
(d) tiny

Question 8.
Closely connected with the conservation of water supplies is the problem of afforestation
(a) tree planting
(b) lumbering
(c) deforestation
(d) arboriculture
Answer:
(c) deforestation

Another Type of Exercise

Choose the appropriate Antonyms of the underlined words.

1. Swiftly (i) flowing water can carry fairly large and heavy (ii) particles. The finest particles, however, remain floating within the liquid in spite of their greater (iii) density and are carried to great distances. Such particles are, of course, extremely (iv) small, but their number is also great and incredibly (v) large amounts of solid matter can be transported in this way.

i) (a) fleetly
(b) very fast
(c) slowly
(d) quickly
Answer:
(c) slowly

ii) (a) hefty
(b) light
(c) huge
(d) massive
Answer:
(b) light

iii)
(a) high
(b) major
(c) lesser
(d) larger
Answer:
(c) lesser

iv) (a) awfully
(b) moderately
(c) highly
(d) intensely
Answer:
(b) moderately

v) (a) amazingly
(b) especially
(c) uncommonly
(d) commonly
Answer:
(d) commonly

2. Contributory causes are the slope (i) of the land, removal (ii) of the natural (iii) protective coat of vegetation, the existence of ruts along which the water can flow with rapidly (iv) gathering momentum, and the absence (v) of any checks of such flow.

i) (a) slant
(b) ramp
(c) tilt
(d) upgrade
Answer:
(d) upgrade

ii) (a) expulsion
(b) withdrawal
(c) addition
(d) relocation
Answer:
(c) addition

iii) (a) normal
(b) abnormal
(c) logical
(d) native
Answer:
(b) abnormal

iv) (a) speedily
(b) hastily
(c) slowly
(d) briskly
Answer:
(c) slowly

v) (a) dearth
(b) deficiency
(c) lack
(d) presence
Answer:
(d) presence

3. On one side such was visible (i) sea of billowing sand without a speak of green or a Single (ii) living thing anywhere on it. On the other side lay one of the greatest (iii) most fertile (iv) and densely (v) populated areas to be found anywhere on the earth.

i) (a) able to see
(b) can not see
(c) can not hear
(d) understand
Answer:
(b) can not see

ii) (a) group
(b) lonely
(c) aloof
(d) family
Answer:
(a) group

iii) (a) biggest
(b) smallest
(c) largest
(d) shortest
Answer:
(b) smallest

iv) (a) barren
(b) wet land
(c) valley
(d) catchment
Answer:
(a) barren

v) (a) congested
(b) thickly
(c) scarcely
(d) surplusly
Answer:
(c) scarcely

4. Water is the basis of all life. Every animal or plant contains a substantial (i) proportion of free or combined water in its body, and no kind of physiological activity is possible in which the fluid does not play an essential (ii) part. Water is, of course, necessary for animal life, while moisture (iii) in the soil is equally (iv) imperative (v) for the life and growth of plants and trees.

i) (a) significant
(b) minor
(c) persistent
(d) considerable
Answer:
(b) minor

ii) (a) needless
(b) vital
(c) important
(d) necessary
Answer:
(a) needless

iii) (a) damp
(b) dryness
(c) wet
(d) humidity
Answer:
(b) dryness

iv) (a) evenly
(b) fairly
(c) unfairly
(d) justly
Answer:
(c) unfairly

v) (a) necessary
(b) important
(c) essential
(d) inessential
Answer:
(d) inessential

MCQs – Additional

Complete the following by choosing the correct answer from the options given.

Question 1.
There is nothing which adds so much to the beauty of the countryside as ____________.
(a) stream
(b) life
(c) water
(d) rain
Answer:
(c) water

Question 2.
The rain fed tanks Dlav a vital role in South Indian____________.
(a) industry
(b) fields
(c) harvesting
(d) agriculture
Answer:
(d) agriculture

Question 3.
Water may be compared to the eves in a ____________..
(a) person
(b) human face
(c) animal
(d) bird
Answer:
(b) human face

Question 4.
____________ flowing water can carry fairly large and heavy particles.
(a) slowly
(b) gradually
(c) swiftly
(d) heavily
Answer:
(c) swiftly

Question 5.
Soil erosion occurs in successive____________.
(a) steps
(b) ways
(c) methods
(d) means
Answer:
(a) steps

Question 6.
____________ is the basis of all life, ft
(a) Food
(b) Money
(c) Love
(d) Water
Answer:
(d) Water

Question 7.
The conservation and utilization of water is thus fundamental for____________.
(a) cultivation
(b) agriculture
(c) human welfare
(d) survival
Answer:
(c) human welfare

Question 8.
The systematic planting of suitable trees is one of the most ____________ needs of India.
(a) essential
(b) urgent
(c) possible
(d) added
Answer:
(b) urgent

Question 9.
Mere scrub jungles could be turned into fertile and prosperous country by courages and ____________.action.
(a) systematic
(b) immediate
(c) well planned
(d) severe
Answer:
(c) well planned

Question 10.
‘Amrita’ was thought to ____________ confer
(a) blessings
(b) life
(c) death
(d) immortality
Answer:
(d) immortality

The Elixir of Life In About the Author

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist born in Tiruchirappalli. In 1904, he passed his B.A. exam, winning gold medals in Physics and English at Madras Presidency College. After completing his M.A. degree,’he worked as a Civil servant in the Indian Finance Department in Calcutta. In 1917, he became professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta.

He carried out ground breaking work in the field of light scattering, which earned him the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physics. He discovered that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the deflected light changes wavelength. This phenomenon, subsequently known as Raman scattering, results from the Raman effect. In 1954, India honoured him with its highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna.

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 19

The Elixir of Life In Summary

In this essay “Water-The Elixir Of Life”, Sir. C.V.Raman brings out how water is indispensable to plant and human life and how it also causes evils like soil-erosion. He also tells that excess of water can be preserved for good purposes.

In the first part of the essay, Raman talks poetically about the beauty of water. Water trickling down the rocks or water collected in small ponds that quench the thirst of passing cattle which is a beautiful sight. Big tanks play a vital role in South Indian agriculture. Rice is the major crop cultivated in the south region. It is a beautiful sight to watch the sun rise or set over them.

One of the most remarkable facts about water is that it carries silt to far-off places where it is finally deposited. The land where silt is deposited is usually very fertile. The silt that mixes with the salt water of the sea precipitates rapidly. The colour of the water changes successively from the muddy red or brown to yellow and green and finally to the blue of the deep sea. These varying shades are also fascinating.

The flow of water has undoubtedly played a great part in geological processes. Rapidly flowing water carries away the rich top layer of the soil. This phenomenon is called soil erosion. The problem of soil erosion is of major significance in various countries especially in India. Soil erosion in the initial stage is unnoticed. Later, it results in the formation of deep gullies, ravines and ruts. These things affect agriculture. The terracing of the land, the construction of bunds to check the flow of water, the practice of contour cultivation and the planting of some types of vegetation are the measures that can be used to check soil erosion.

’Water is the basic of all life. Every animal and plant contains water in its body. Water is essential for its body. Moisture in the soil is equally important for the life and growth of plant trees.

The conservation and utilization of water is fundamental for human welfare. At present streams and rivers wastefully empty themselves into the sea. It is clear that the adoption of techniques preventing soil erosion would help to conserve and keep the water where it is wanted.

The Elixir of Life In Mind Map
Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 1

The Elixir of Life In Glossary

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 2

The Elixir of Life In Synonyms

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 4

The Elixir of Life In Antonyms

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions Prose Chapter 5 Water - The Elixir of Life - 5

Tamilnadu Board Class 9 English Solutions

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 2 The Grumble Family

Tamilnadu State Board Class 10 English Solutions Poem Chapter 2 The Grumble Family

The Grumble Family Textual Questions

A. Read the following lines from the poem and answer the questions given below.

The Grumble Family Poem Figure of Speech Question 1. There’s a family nobody likes to meet;
They live, it is said, on Complaining Street
(a) Where does the family live?
(b) Why do you think the street is named as ‘Complaining Street’?
Answer:
(a) The family lives in Complaining Street.
(b) The street is named as Complaining Street because a family which is never satisfied lives there.

2. They growl at that and they growl at this;
whatever comes, there is something amiss;
(a) What does the word ‘growl’ mean here?
(b) Why do they find everything amiss?
Answer:
(a) The word ‘growl’ means shouting or snarling at everything.
(b) They find everything amiss or quite wrong because they are never satisfied with anything. They shout and complain about everything.

3. Nothing goes right with the folks you meet
Down on that gloomy and Complaining Street.
(a) What is the opinion about the folks you meet down the street?
(b) What does the word ‘gloomy’ mean here?
Answer:
(a) Everything goes wrong with the folks you meet down the street.
(b) The word ‘gloomy’ means to appear depressing or frightening.

Grumble Family Question 4. The worst thing is that if anyone stays
Among them too long, he will learn their ways;
(a) What is the worst thing that can happen if anyone stays with them?
(b) What are the ways of the Grumble family?
The Grumble Family Poem Questions and Answer:
(a) If anyone stays with them for a long time, he or she will learn their ways. This is the worst that can happen to anyone.
(b) The ways of the grumble family are that they are never satisfied with anything and they are always complaining and finding fault in everything.

Complaining Street Figure of Speech Question 5. And so it were wisest to keep our feet
From wandering into Complaining Street;
(a) What is the wisest thing that the poet suggests?
(b) What does the phrase ‘to keep our feet from wandering’ refer to?
Answer:
(a) The poet suggests that the wisest thing is to keep our feet away from going into the complaining street.
(b) The phrase ‘to keep our feet from wondering’ refers to avoid stepping into the complaining street.

6. Let us learn to walk with a smile and a song,
No matter if things do sometimes go wrong;
(a) What does the poet expect everyone to learn?
(b) What should we do when things go wrong sometimes?
Answer:
(a) The poet expects everyone to live a happy life by smiling and singing all the time.
(b) We should not bother ourselves, if things go wrong sometimes.

Poetic Comprehension – Additional

The Grumble Family Poem Question 1. “In the city of Never-Are-Satisfied,
The River of Discontent beside.”
(a) Where did the Grumble family live?
(b) Where was the city?
Answer:
(a) The Grumble family lived in the Complaining Street in the city of ‘Never-Are-Satisfied’.
(b) The City was beside the ‘river of Discontent’

2. “And whether their station be high or humble,
They are all known by the name of Grumble.”
(a) What was the family known by?
(b) What does the word ‘station’ mean here?
Answer:
(a) The family was known by the name of ‘Grumble’.
(b) Here, ‘station means ‘establishment’.

3. “But the queerest thing is that not one of the same Can be brought to acknowledge his family name;”
(a) What is the queerest thing about the family?
(b) What does ‘his family’ refer to?
Answer:
(a) The queerest thing is that not one of the same can be brought to accept his family name.
(b) ‘His family’ refers to the Grumbler’s family.

Down on The Gloomy Complaining Street Figure of Speech Question 4. “And then, be our station high or humble,
Well never belong to the family of Grumble!”
(a) To which family, we should never belong?
(b) What is meant by‘humble’?
Answer:
(a) We should never belong to the ‘Grumble family’.
(b) ‘Humble’ means ‘modest’.

B. Answer the following question in about 80-120 words.

Question 1.
Write a paragraph on ‘The Grumble Family’ and their attitude towards other folks.
Answer:
A family lived in the Street of Complaining. Nobody liked them, as they were always complaining. They found fault in everything. They were never satisfied with anything. They growl at everything whether they are in a good position or a low position, they find fault in it and complain about it. When the weather is too hot or cold, they complain about it. They scold alike if it is winter or summer. Everything goes wrong with the people living down on that sad complaining street. It is a fact that their growling never gets completed or stopped. And if everything pleased them, there is no doubt, that they would grumble that there is nothing to grumble about.

The Grumble Family Question 2.
If you were to live in the Complaining Street, how would you deal with the people who grumble?
Answer:
If I were to live in the Complaining Street, I would never allow the pessimism of others to * keep us from reaching the heights of victory. Many times, we come into contact with people who have nothing good or positive to say. All of their comments are negative and critical. Their focus is only on the bad. So with these people, I would always try my best to be an optimist, who sees the good and not the bad. I would communicate words that bring honour and. glory to God. I would deal with all the matters in a diplomatic way and advise the people who grumble, to be happy with what they are blessed with. They should be smiling and make their life a happy journey.

Down on The Gloomy Complaining Street Question 3.
From the poem ‘The Grumble Family’ what kind of behaviour does the poet want the readers to possess?
Answer:
The poet wants the readers to be optimistic. He suggests that it is the wisest to keep away from going into the complaining street. We should never growl for whatever we do. Otherwise, we would be mistaken as grumblers. We should, therefore learn to walk our way of life with a smile and a song. We should not bother ourselves, no matter, if things go wrong or if we are in a good or a low position. We should never belong to the family of Grumble. We should never be a complainer. But rather be one who praises God in all things he has blessed us with. We should trust that all things will work together for us, if we have faith in God.

Paragraph Question & Answer – Additional

Question 1.
Why should we not belong to the grumble family?
Answer:
The grumble family always complain about silly things. They always find wrong in everything and everywhere. They are known by the name of Grumble. All of their comments are negative and critical and their focus is only on the bad. If they see the sun shining, they will complain that it is too hot. If they see the snow falling, they will complain that it is too cold. Their first instinct is to find something to complain and murmur about. But if everything pleased them, there is no doubt, that they would grumble and get worried that there is nothing to worry about.

The worst thing about the grumble family is that if anyone stays among them for a long time, he will learn their ways of grumbling. Before the person realizes the fact about them, he is adopted into the family of Grumble. So the poet insists that it is wise to keep our feet away from wandering into the complaining street. We should learn to walk with a smile and a song. We should never belong to the Grumble family, as they see all things in a negative way.

C. Answer the following.

1. And whether their station be high or humble,…
Pick out the alliteration from the above line.
Answer:
high – humble’ are the words in alliteration.

2. Pick out the other examples for alliteration from the poem.
Answer:
They – that; they – this; they – the; growl – grumble; thing – that; that – they’d; be – brought; long – learn; walk – with; smile – song; are the other examples of alliteration.

3. The weather is always too hot or cold;
Summer and winter alike they scold.
Nothing goes right with the folks you meet
Down on that gloomy Complaining Street.

Pick out the rhyming words and identify the rhyme scheme of the above lines.
Answer:
The rhyming words are ‘cold – scold; meet – street’;
The rhyming scheme of the above lines are ‘aabb’.

Poetic Devices – Additional

1. “And before he dreams of the terrible jumble
He’s adopted into the family of Grumble. ”
(a) Pick out the rhyming words in these lines.
Answer:
“jumble – Grumble” are the rhyming words.

The Grumble Family Poem Summary Question 2. “And if everything pleased them, there isn’t a doubt They ’d growl that they’d nothing to grumble about! ”
(a) Pick out the rhyming words in these lines.
(b) Pick out the words of alliteration in the second line.
Answer:
(a) “doubt – about” are the rhyming words.
(b) “They’d – that – they’d”; “growl – grumble”.

3. “They growl at the rain and they growl at the sun; ”
(a) Identify the figure of speech used in this line.
Answer:
Anaphora. “They growl” is repeated.

The Grumble Family By Lucy Maud Montgomery

Lucy Maud Montgomery (1874 – 1942) is a Canadian author who remembered for her famous novel ‘Anne of Green Gables’. She has published 20 novels as well as 530 short stories, 500 poems and 30 essays.
All these works are highly appreciated by the book lovers and critics.

She is the first woman in Canada, to be named as a fellow of the Royal Society of Arts in England. She was made an officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1935. In 1943, the Government of Canada designated her as the Person of National Historic Significance, Posthumously.

The Grumble Family Key Points

  • This is a humorous poem about a grumble family.
  • This Grumble Family always complains about silly matters.
  • They lived in the street of complaining, in the city of ‘Never-Are-Satisfied, beside the river of Discontent’.
  • They always find wrong in everything and everywhere.
  • All of their comments are negative and critical.
  • Their focus is only on the bad.
  • Their first instinct is to find something to complain and murmur about people.
  • Thus we should learn to walk with a smile and a song.
  • We should never be a complainer, but always try our best to be an optimist who sees the good in everything.

The Grumble Family Summary

This is a humorous poem about a grumble family. This grumble family always complain about silly matters. They lived in the street of complaining, in the city of ‘ Never-Are-Satisfied, beside the river of Discontent’. They always find wrong in everything and everywhere. They are always known by the name of Grumble. All of their comments are negative and critical and their focus is only on the bad. If they see the sun shining, they will complain that it is too hot. If they see the snow falling, they will complain that it is too cold. Their first instinct s to find something to complain and murmur about People, who stay in their house for a long time, will learn heir ways of grumbling and before they realise the truth of their terrible jumble, they are adopted into their family. Thus we should learn to walk with a smile and a song. We should never be a complainer, but always try best to be an optimist who sees the good in everything.

The Grumble Family Explanation of Poetic Lines

Line No. 1 – 4
There’s a family nobody likes to meet;
They live, it is said, on Complaining Street
In the city of Never-Are-Satisfied,
The River of Discontent‘beside.
Explanation:
A family lives in the street of complaining and nobody likes them. They don’t talk to them and mingle with them. They live in the city of ‘Never-Are-Satisfied’ which is beside the river of Discontent.

Line No. 5 – 8
They growl at that and they growl at this;
Whatever comes, there is something amiss;
And whether their station be high or humble,
They are all known by the name Grumble.
Explanation:
They go on complaining or grumbling about each and everything. Their first instinct is to find something to complain and murmur about everything. They growl at everything. They find wrong in whatever they see or act. Whether they are in a good position or not, they find fault in it and complain about it. They are known by the name of Grumble.

Line No. 9 – 12
The weather is always too hot or cold;
Summer and winter alike they scold.
Nothing goes right with the folks you meet,
Down on that gloomy Complaining Street.
Explanation:
Whether the weather is too hot or too cold, they complain about it. They scold alike if it is winter or summer everything goes wrong with the people living down on the sad complaining street.

Line No. 13 – 16
They growl at the rain and they growl at the sun;
In fact, their growling is never done.
And if everything pleased them, there isn’t a doubt,
They’d growl that they’d nothing to grumble about!
Explanation:
They grumble about the rain, if it rains heavily and growl about the sun, if it is hot. It is a fact that their growling never gets completed or stopped and if everything pleased them there is no doubt, that they will grumble, that there is nothing to grumble about.

Line No. 17 – 20
But the queerest thing is that not one of the same,
Can be brought to acknowledge his family name;
For never a Grumble will own that he
Is connected with it at all, you see.
Explanation:
But the strange thing is that not one of the same can be brought to acknowledge his family name, as a grumbler never owns that he is connected with it at all.

Line No. 21 – 24
The worst thing is that if anyone stays,
Among them too long, he will learn their ways;
And before he dreams of the terrible jumble,
He’s adopted into the family of Grumble.
Explanation:
The worst thing to be known about the Grumbler’s family is that if anyone stays too long with them, he will learn their ways before the person knows the truth of the terrible jumble, he’s adopted into the family of Grumble.

Line No. 25 – 28
And so it were wisest to keep our feet
From wandering into Complaining Street;
And never to growl, whatever we do,
Lest we be mistaken for Grumblers, too.
Explanation:
So the poet insists that it is wisest to keep our feet away from wandering into the complaining street. We should be mistaken as grumblers.

Line No. 29 – 32
Let us learn to walk with a smile and a song,
No matter if things do sometimes go wrong;
And then, be our station high or humble,
We’ll never belong to the family of Grumble!
Explanation:
Therefore, we should learn to walk with a smile and a song. We should not bother ourselves, no matter if things go wrong or if we are in a good or a low position. We should never belong to the family of grumble.

The Grumble Family Glossary

acknowledge – accept or admit the existence or truth of t
amiss (adj.) – not quite right
crown (n) – a prize or position offered for being the best
discontent (adj.) – dissatisfaction with one’s circumstances
folks – people in general
growl (v) – make a low guttural sound in the throat
grumble (n) – a complaint about something in a bad-tempered way
gloomy (adj.) – to appear depressing or frightening
humble (adj.) – modest
jumble (n) – an untidy collection of things
lest – otherwise
queerest (adj.) – the strangest or the most unusual
station – establishment
terrible (adj.) – extremely bad or serious
wandering (v) – walking or moving in a leisurely or aimless way

Tamilnadu Board Class 10 English Solutions