These DAV Class 8 SST Notes and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 7 Notes – Human Resources hold significant importance as study material for students.
Human Resources Class 8 DAV Notes
→ Human beings are the biggest and most valuable resources because they are endowed with intelligence, thinking and creative skills.
→ It is important to provide basic education, better healthcare and employment opportunities to every individual so that they can contribute fully in the development of the country.
→ The distribution of population in the world is highly uneven. It is concentrated in fertile river valley basins and industrially developed regions. It is sparse in polar regions, hot deserts and thickly forested areas.
→ At present, the population of the world has crossed a seven billion mark. China is the most populous country. India comes after that.
→ The average density of population in the world is 50 (excluding Antarctica) persons per square kilometer and in India it is 382 persons per square kilometre.
→ India has crossed a population of one billion mark in the year 2011. The variation in distribution of population within the country is highly remarkable. Nearly half of population lives in five states.
→ Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Sikkim are some states where the density of population is less than 100 persons per square kilometre.
→ In states like Nagaland, Manipur, Himachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, and union territories like Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh the density of population varies from 100-200 persons per sq. km.
→ States with high density of population are Bihar, West Bengal, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh. These states enjoy favourable climatic conditions.
→ Physical and economic factors affect the distribution of population. Physical factors include relief, climate, fertile soil, water and vegetation. Economic factors include minerals, industries, developed means of transport and government policies.
→ The growth of population is affected by the birth rate, death rate and by the large scale migration. It increases when birth rate is more than the death rate or when the in-migration is more than the out-migration.
→ The growth of population of India has rapidly increased during the last century. It is estimated that at this rate of growth in population, the country will double its population in next 36 years.
→ The composition of human resources include different attributes of the population includes age structure, sex ratio, literacy rate, ratio of rural-urban population, working and non-working population, etc.
→ Age structure refers to the number of people belonging to different age groups. Population is categorised into three broad age groups- people below 14 years, people between 15 years to 59 years and people above 59 years.
→ A large number of children below 15 years and those above 59 years come under dependent population. The number of people in the age group of 15-59 years is defined as the productive population.
→ The sex ratio is expressed as number of females per thousand males. The sex ratio is balanced in countries where death rate of boys and girls are equal.
→ The sex ratio in India is declining due to preference for male child. Kerala has highosi sex ratio of 1084 and Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877 in the year, 2011.
→ Literary rate varies from country to country and from rural to urban population in the same country. It is more among male than female population, more in urban areas than in rural areas.
→ Population becomes human capital when there is investment made in education, health uno skill development.
→ Human development: The process of enlarging people’s choice.
→ Density of population: The density of population is measured as number of persons livmg in per sq. km of an area.
→ Growth rate of population: The net change in population between two fixed periods of time expressed in percentage.
→ Productive population: The people who come in the age group of 15-59 years and ore biologically most reproductive and economically active.
→ Sex ratio: A ratio between the number of females over males in a population.
→ Literacy rate: The percentage of people who can read and write in a certain language.
→ Birth rate: The number of live births per 1000 people in a particular year.
→ Death rate: The number of deaths per 1000 people in a particular years.
→ Demographic structure: The number of people in an age group, the birth and death rates, literacy rate sex ratio, rural-urban population and all other attributes of the population required to analyse the composition of population.
→ Density of population: The number of people living in per square kilometer of an area.
→ In-migration: When people come from another area.
→ Out-migration: When people move out from an area.