DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer – Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

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DAV Class 8 SST Ch 3 Question Answer – Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

DAV Class 8 SST Ch 3 Solutions – Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Something to Know

A. Tick (✓) the correct option.

Question 1.
Which term is used for the plant community which grows without human interference?
(a) plantation
(b) natural vegetation
(c) agriculture
(d) gardening
Answer:
(b) natural vegetation

Question 2.
Which vegetation grows in hot and humid regions of the world?
(a) Tropical Evergreen Forests
(b) Tropical Deciduous Forests
(c) Mediterranean Forests
(d) Temperate Softwood Forests
Answer:
(b) Tropical Deciduous Forests

Question 3.
The most common trees of Tropical Deciduous Forests are-
(a) Ebony and mahogany
(b) sal and teak
(c) cork and olive
(d) oak and chestnut
Answer:
(b) sal and teak

Question 4.
Trees of Mediterranean Forests have –
(a) broad leaves
(b) needle shaped leaves
(c) spiny and waxy leaves
(d) small size leaves
Answer:
(c) spiny and waxy leaves

Question 5.
The area under forests is depleting due to-
(a) natural calamity
(b) human interference
(c) climatic change
(d) water shortage
Answer:
(b) human interference

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

B. Fill in the blanks.

Question 1.
The assemblage of plant species in an environment is known as ________ .
Answer:
natural vegetation

Question 2.
________ and ________ are two important factors for the plant growth.
Answer:
Temperature, rainfall

Question 3.
Humus helps to maintain ________ of the soil.
Answer:
fertility

Question 4.
Hardwood trees have broad leaves to permit ________ of surplus moisture.
Answer:
transpiration

Question 5.
Teak is the commercially important trees of the ________ forests.
Answer:
monsoon

C. Write a technical term or an appropriate word for each of the following statements.

Question 1.
The forests which do not shed all their leaves at the same time.
Answer:
Tropical Deciduous Forests

Question 2.
In this forest, summers are dry and moderate rain falls in winter.
Answer:
Mediterranean Forests

Question 3.
Conical shaped trees are common in these forests.
Answer:
Temperate Software Forests

Question 4.
The act or process of creating hew forests by planting saplings.
Answer:
Afforestation

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 5.
The Temperate Softwood Forests found in the southern slopes of Himalayas.
Answer:
Mountain Forests

D. Answer the following questions in brief.

Question 1.
Why are the Tropical Rain Forests known as evergreen forests?
Answer:
All the trees of these forests do not shed their leaves at the same time. Hence, the forests always appear seen. That is why, such forests are lown as evergreen forests.

Question 2.
Why do the Tropical Deciduous Forests shed their leaves during the summer season? Name two such trees.
Answer:
The Tropical Deciduous Forests shed their leaves during the summer season to conserve moisture.
Trees- Sal, Teak

Question 3.
Write any three characteristic features of the trees found in Mediterranean Forests.
Answer:
The features of these forests are:

  • Trees of these forests are widely scattered and have spiny, waxy, small and leathery textured leaves.
  • They have long roots and thick bark. As a result of this, trees are able to retain moisture in the dry summer season.
  • The important trees of these forests are corcle, olive and citrus fruit trees.
  • The animals commonly found in these forests are golden jackal, mouflon, bezoar goat, aardwolf and Mediterranean gecko.

Question 4.
Distinguish between a national park and a wildlife sanctuary.
Answer:
National Park : A national park is a well-defined area for the protection of wildlife. Visitors can only visit the park. No one has a right to use any forest products. Collection of firewood, timber from any part of the forest is totally prohibited. Wildlife Sanctuary: It is a declared protected area in which limited human activities are permitted. Hunting of animals and cutting of trees are banned.

Question 5.
Suggest any three important measures for the protection of forests.
Answer:
Forests are very important for the survival of life on the earth. Hence, their conservation must be given top priority.
Following measures can be taken in this regard:

  • Afforestation or large scale plantation of trees should be encouraged.
  • ‘Each one plant one’ policy should be adopted.
  • Efficient utilisation of forests products and usage of substitutes of wood.
  • Enforcement of a number of laws/ guidelines to protect and prohibit deforestation.
  • Discouraging shifting cultivation which causes forest loss, (any three)

E. Answer the following questions.

Question 1.
What is meant by natural vegetation? How do temperature and rainfall affect its distribution? Explain with examples.
Answer:
The assemblage of plant species in an environment is known as natural vegetation.
Temperature and rainfall are two important factors for the growth of plants. In the areas where rainfall is heavy, the forests are thick and dense. As the rainfall decreases, the size and concentration of trees also reduce. Shrubs and short trees are common in the areas of low rainfall or in desert areas. In cold regions, the growing season is very short. Therefore, plants occur in scattered patches in the form of mosses and lichens.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 2.
Highlight any five points of distinction between Tropical Deciduous Forests and Coniferous Forests.
Answer:

Tropical Deciduous Forests Coniferous Forests
(1) These forests are commonly found in India, Myanmar, South China, East Brazil and central parts of America. (1) These forests are common in the higher latitude of the northern hemisphere and high mountains in Europe, Asia, North Canada and USA.
(2) These forests are also called monsoon forests. (2) These forests are also called mountain forests.
(3) Trees of these forests shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve moisture. (3) Trees of these forests do not shed their thick needle-shaped leaves.
(4) Trees are medium in height 30-40 metres. (4) Trees of these forests are tall and conical in shape.
(5) Common trees are sal, teak, sandalwood, bamboo and shisham. (5) Common trees are pine, fur, spruce, cedar, deodar and walnut.

Question 3.
‘Forests are essential for maintaining an ecological balance.’ Justify the statement with suitable arguments.
Answer:
Animals, such as birds, fishes and animals, make forests as their natural habitat. It is the most important part of the natural ecosystem. Wildlife varies from place to place due to climatic variations. For example, in India, there is a rich variety of birds and animals. The balckbuck, peacock, lion and Bengal tiger are found in India. Australia is famous for kola bear, emu and kookarbura.

Wildlife is very essential to maintain the ecological balance on the earth’s surface. Wildlife is important for its aesthetic values and ecological balance. The beauty of wild animals boosts tourism and creates jobs for the people. Animals’ behaviour changes at the time of natural disasters like tsunami and earthquake. If this information can be harnessed for imparting early warning system, then life of lots of people can be saved. Dead and decaying plants and animals also produce humus, which is helpful to maintain the fertility of the soil.

Question 4.
Explain the importace of wildlife.
Answer:

  • All forms of wildlife are an integral part of our ecosystem. They help in maintaining the ecological balance on the earth’s surface.
  • Dead and decaying plants and animals produce humus, which is helpful to maintain the fertility of the soil.
  • Birds like vultures are scavenges and they help in cleansing the evnironment.

Question 5.
How are human beings responsible for the depletion of vegetation and wildlife?
Answer:
(i) In various parts of the world, wild animals are hunted for various purposes like meat, skin, horns, etc. This disturbs the ecological balance of the environment.

(ii) Rapid rise in population has placed huge demands on various uses of land to meet human needs like agriculture, habitations, industries, roads, etc. It has led to deforestation on a large-scale. Deforestation has also led to the loss of natural habitats, plants and animals.

(iii) Pollution results in climate change and global warming which in turn cause damage to forest resources on account of localisation and tolerance to heat intensity. It also poses a serious threat to wildlife.

Value Based Question

Chipko Movement
The Chipko Movement was based on the Gandhian philosophy of non¬violence and aimed at the protection and conservation of forests from destruction. This agitation inspired the women. They hugged the trees and said if the trees were to be cut, they would have to first kill the women embracing them. Women were the worst affected by this deforestation as it was causing water shortage, landslide, shortage of firewood and fodder. They believed in traditional relationship of forest and humans. For them it was the fight for survival.

Question 1.
Why is the Chipko Movement called a fight for survival?
Answer:
Forests are the main source of livelihood especially in mountaneous regions. In 1970s and 1980s, there was a resistance by the people against cutting of trees. This movement started in 1974 in Garhwal. When the treecutters tried to cut trees, people put their arms around the trees and refused to move. This movement gradually spread throughout India and came to be known as the Chipko Movement. ‘Chipko’ means to hug or to embrace. As the villagers hugged the trees, it prevented the trees from falling. The huge success of this movement saved thousands of trees from being fallen.

Question 2.
Mention any three lessons which all of us learn from this movement.
Answer:

  • This movement realised us that forest conservation is essential for the continuation of the economic activities.
  • Fighting spirit as a peaceful manner was an admirable example of struggle.
  • This movement illustrates ‘unity is our strength’which contains valuable inspiration.

Map Skill

On an outline political map of the world, mark and name the following-
(a) Yellowstone National Park in USA
(b) Badhavgarh National Park of India
(c) Kaziranga National Park of India
(d) Ecrins National Park of France
(e) Charles Darwin National Park of Australia
Answer:
DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer -1

Something to Do

Question 1.
Prepare a tabular chart on National Parks of India, giving information under the following columns:
Answer:

Name of the National Park Location (State) Bird/Animal which is protected
1. Ranthambhor Rajasthan Leopards, Nilgai, Cranes
2. Gir Gujarat Indian lions
3. Manas Assam Elephants, golden langur
4. Corbett Uttarakhand Tigers, crocodiles

Question 2.
Paste pictures of trees/plants with medicinal value in your scrapbook. Which of these plants have you grown in your school or plan to grow?
Answer:
Do yourself.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 3.
Collect some specimen of leaves from the neighbourhood and classify them on the basis of their texture, size and broadness. Paste them in your scrapbook.
Answer:
Do yourself.

DAV Class 8 Social Science Chapter 3 Question Answer – Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

A. Tick (✓) the correct option.

Question 1.
Shrubs and short trees are found in the areas of
(a) moderate rainfall
(b) low rainfall
(c) high rainfall
(d) cold climate
Answer:
(b) low rainfall

Question 2.
In cold regions, plants occur in scattered patches in the form of
(a) shrubs
(b) short trees
(c) mosses and lichens
(d) thorns and scrubs
Answer:
(c) mosses and lichens

Question 3.
Tropical evergreen forests grow in the areas whose rainfall is
(a) 200 cm
(b) 100-200 cm
(c) 75-100 cm
(d) 50 cm
Answer:
(a) 200 cm

Question 4.
Hardwood trees like mahogany, ebony, rosewood, rubber, etc. are found in
(a) Monsoon Forests
(b) Mediterranean Forests
(c) Tropical Rainforests
(d) Mountain Forests
Answer:
(c) Tropical Rainforests

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 5.
Eucalyptus is common in
(a) India
(b) USA
(c) Japan
(d) Australia
Answer:
(d) Australia

Question 6.
Citrus fruit trees grow in
(a) Tropical Rainforests
(b) Mountain Forests
(c) Monsoon Forests
(d) Mediterranean Forests
Answer:
(d) Mediterranean Forests

Question 7.
The Project-Tiger was launched in.
(a) 1973
(b) 1971
(c) 1970
(d) 1969
Answer:
(a) 1973

Question 8.
In India, temperate softwood forests are found in the
(a) rainier parts of the peninsular plateau
(b) southern slopes of the Himalayas
(c) areas of the Western Ghats
(d) upper parts of Assam
Answer:
(b) southern slopes of the Himalayas

Question 9.
What are tropical deciduous forests commonly known as? (DAV Board)
(a) Monsoon forests
(b) Evergreen forests
(c) Coniferous forests
(d) Mountain forests
Answer:
(a) Monsoon forests

Question 10.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the leaves of trees found in the Mediterranean forests? (DAV Board)
(a) Waxy and small leaves
(b) Broad leaves
(c) Small leaves
(d) Needle-shaped leaves
Answer:
(a) Waxy and small leaves

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

B. Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mention major vegetation belts of the world.
Answer:
(i) Tropical hardwood forests
(ii) Mediterranean forests
(iii) Temperate softwood forests

Question 2.
Name four types of trees which commonly grow in the tropical deciduous forests.
Answer:
Sal, teak, sandalwood and bamboo.

Question 3.
Where are the Mediterranean forests found in the world?
Answer:
The Mediterranean forests are found in regions around the Mediterranean Sea. The main areas are shores of Europe, Asia, North Africa and South Western parts of South Africa.

Question 4.
Name some animals of Indian softwood forests.
Answer:
Kashmir stag, spotted deer and Tibetan antelope.

Question 5.
Where are tropical evergreen forests found in India?
Answer:
In India, tropical evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Kerala and the North-Eastern parts of the country.

Question 6.
Mention the climatic conditions required for the growth of tropical evergreen forests.
Answer:
The climatic conditions required for the growth of these forests are heavy and well-distributed rainfall (200 cm).

Question 7.
Name some of the typical trees found in tropical evergreen forests.
Answer:
Mahogany, ebony, rosewood, rubber and palm.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 8.
Why are tropical deciduous forests known as monsoon forests?
Answer:
Tropical deciduous forests are known as monsoon forests because they are common in the monsoon areas of the world.

Question 9.
Name the countries where monsoon forests are found.
Answer:
India, Myanmar, South China, East Brazil and central parts of America.

Question 10.
Mention the climatic conditions required for the growth of tropical deciduous forests.
Answer:
These forests thrive in regions where the climate in hot, with distinct wet and dry seasons; Rainfall ranges between 100-200 cm.

Question 11.
Name some typical trees that grow in tropical deciduous forests.
Answer:
Sal, teak, sandalwood, bamboo and Shisham.

Question 12.
Which animals are commonly found in Mediterranean forests?
Answer:
The animals commonly found in Mediterranean forests are golden jackal, mouflon, bezoar goat, aardwolf and Mediterranean gecko.

Question 13.
Why are softwood forests commonly known as coniferous forests?
Answer:
Softwood forests are commonly known as coniferous forests because the shape of the trees is conical.

Question 14.
Describe the importance of softwood trees.
Answer:
Softwood trees are commercially valuable trees and are used for various purposes, such as making of pulp, plywood, etc.

Question 15.
Name some of the birds and animals found in India.
Answer:
Black buck, peacock, lion and Bengal tiger.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 16.
Name the three animals for which Australia in famous.
Answer:
Kola bear, emu and kookaburra.

Question 17.
Give two reasons due to which our wildlife suffers severely.
Answer:
(i) Deforestation
(ii) Urbanisation

Question 18.
What is Project Tiger?
Answer:
Project Tiger is a wildlife conservation project. It was launched in 1973 in Corbett National Park. It aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted tiger reserves throughout India.

C. Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write three characteristics of the tropical rain forests.
Answer:

  • The tropical rain forests are confind to tropical regions where heavy rainfall occurs throughout the year.
  • All trees of these forests donot shed their leaves at the same time. Hence, the forests always appear to be green and are therefore, known as evergreen forests.
  • These forests are characterised by dense growth of vegetation. Trees have broad leaves.

Question 2.
Explain the importance of forests.
Answer:

  • Forests are renewable resources and play a major role in enhancing the quality of environment.
  • They modify local climate, control soil erosion, regulate stream flow, provide livelihood for many communities and offer scenic view for recreation.
  • Forests control wind force and temperature and causes rainfall.
  • They provide humus to the soil and shelter to the wildlife. Forests are, thus, very important for the survival of life on the earth.

Question 3.
Explain how temperature and rainfall affect distribution of natural vegetation.
Answer:

  • Temperature and rainfall are two important factors for the growth of vegetation. In the areas where rainfall is heavy, the forests are thick and dense.
  • With moisture and rainfall the density of fruits declines. In moderate rainfall areas, grasslands are found.
  • Shrubs and short trees are common in the areas of low rainfall or in desert areas.
  • In cold regions, the growing season is very short, therefore, plants occur in scattered patches in the form of mosses and lichens.

Question 4.
Mention three characteristic features of monsoon forests.
Answer:

  • The vegetation in these forests is not as dense as that in the tropical evergreen forests.
  • These forests have predominantly broad-leafed trees and they shed their leaves during the dry season to conserve moisture.
  • Trees are medium in height upto 30-40 metres.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 3 Question Answer - Natural Resources: Vegetation and Wildlife

Question 5.
State any three characteristics of temperate softwood forests. (DAV Board 2013)
Answer:

  • Most of the trees are tall and conical in shape. Due to their shape, the snow cannot accumulate on them.
  • These trees do not shed their thick needle-shaped leaves and hence, look evergreen.
  • Trees of these forests (pine, fir, spruce, cedar, devadar, silver fir, etc.) have commercial importance and are used for various purposes, such as making pulp, plywood, etc.

Question 6.
Why are tropical evergreen forests known as tropical rain forests? Name two areas where they are found. Also mention any two typical trees found in these forests. (DAV Board 2013)
Answer:

  1. Tropical evergreen forests are known as tropical rain forests because they are confined to tropical regions where heavy rainfall occurs throughout the year.
  2. These forests are spread in the areas of the Zaire basin in Africa, the Amazon basin in South America and many parts of South-East Asia.
  3. Two typical trees found in these forests are mahogany and rosewood.

Question 7.
Name the National Park where the “Project Tiger’ was launched in India for the first time. Highlight any two reasons for starting this project. (DAVBoard 2013)
Answer:
The “Project Tiger’ was launched in 1973 in Corbett National Park.
Two reasons for starting this project:
(i) The tiger population had dwindled to 1,827 from an estimated 55,000 at the turn of the century.
(ii) The trade in tiger skin and the use of their bones in traditional medicines, the tiger population on the verge of especially in the Asian countries left extinction.

D. Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Distinguish between Mediterranean forests and Coniferous forests.
Answer:

Mediterranean forests Coniferous forests
(i) These forests are found in the areas which have dry summer and moderate rainfall during winter. (i) These forests are confined to tropical regions where heavy rainfall occurs throught the year.
(ii) Trees of these forests have spiny, waxy, small and leathery textured leaves. (ii) Trees of these forests have broad leaves to permit transpiration of surplus moisture.
(iii) Imported trees in this forests are cork, olive citrus etc. (iii) Imported trees in these forests are mahogony, ebony, rosewood, rubber etc.
(iv) Wildlife includes Barbary macaque, Greek tortoise, Iberian lynx, Great bustard, etc. (iv) Wildlife includes elephant, lemur, monkey, deer, etc.

Question 2.
What is the threat to vegetation and wildlife? What is the need to conserve them? What are the steps taken by the Government to preserve them?
Answer:
(i) Forest and wildlife are important resources. Climate change and human interferences in the animal and plant kingdoms can cause huge loss of their natural habitats. Certain species have become endangered and many have become extinct now.

(ii) Needless to say that both plants and animals are integral parts of the ecosystem. Plants provide food, oxygen, and shelter to humans and animals. Animals provide important products such as milk, meat, honey, etc. They also maintain the ecological balance on the earth’s surface.
Hence, we should not disturb the natural number of species being on the earth. A single extinction can affect the ecosystem badly. So, animals and plants obviously need to be conserved.

(iii) The Government has taken several measures to preserve forest and wildlife. Some of these are:
Hunting of wild animals and birds has been banned.
Poachers and hunters are penalised. National parks, wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been established in different parts of the country.
Social awareness being created about importance of trees and social forestry.

Test Your Skills

1. Give a brief description of the major types of forests.
2. What are national parks and wildlife sanctuaries?
3. Under which climatic conditions to tropical deciduous forests grow?
4. Make a list of the wildlife found in different types of forests.
5. Make a list of the trees found in different types of forests.

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