DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 15 Notes – The Mughal Empire

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The Mughal Empire Class 7 DAV Notes

→ Mughal rule was established in India in the sixteenth century. It lasted for over three centuries.

→ Babur was the first king of the Mughal empire who ruled from 1526 to 1530 CE. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 CE, after this victory, he decided to stay back in India. Soon he took control over Delhi and Agra.

→ In order to have a complete control over north India he defeated Rana Sanga at a fierce battle of Khanwa. The defeat of Rana Sanga suppressed the Rajputs.

→ Babur was succeeded by Humayun, who had numerous problems to face. He lacked military ability too. His father had failed to crush the power of Afghans for good. Thus, Humayun was defeated by an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri at Chausa and Kannauj and was forced to leave India.

→ After a gap of 15 years, Humayun recaptured northern India. He defeated Sher Shah Suri’s successor and re-established Mughal empire in India.

→ Humayun met a sudden death. As a result his son Akbar ascended to the throne. Since he was minor Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 15 Notes - The Mughal Empire

→ Akbar conqured a large part of India. Under him, the Mughal empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Godavari river in the South and from Afghanistan in the west to Bengal in the east. Akbar also conquered Gondwana, Chittor, Ranthambhor, Bihar, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, Sindh, Deccan and Gujarat.

→ Akbar adopted the policy of religious tolerance. He started Din-i-llahi in 1582 by blending the good points of all religions with Islam.

→ Akbar was succeeded by his son Jahangir. He continued Akbar’s liberal and secular policies. He maintained friendly relation with the Rajputs.

→ Jahangir consolidated his territories and developed the administration system that was introduced by his father. The court culture of the Mughals flourished under his rule.

→ Shah Jahan succeeded Jahangir in 1628. The Mughal empire reached its greatest prosperity during his region. His ministers were efficient and able. He increased the magnificence of the court. He is known as an ‘Engineer King’.

→ Aurangzeb took over the throne in 1658 by putting his sick father in prison. He assumed the title of Alamgir. He was a Muslim fanatic and opposed religious tolerance.

→ Aurangzeb’s rule was a period of ceaseless wars in different parts of India. The Marathas, the Rajputs the Jats and the Sikhs never allowed him to rest in peace.

→ Bahadur Shah Zafar II was the last emperor of the Mughal empire. He had to face a trial by the East India Company for leading the mutiny of 1857.

→ The Mughals managed to unite the country politically. They established a uniform system of administration. They believed in the supreme authority of the king.

→ The society was divided into two levels – the nobility and the high officials formed the upper class. The lower class was involved in agricultural and other lowly jobs in the cities.

→ Land and trade were the main source of revenue. Land revenue was fixed at 1/3rd of the produce.

→ The Mughal emperors were the followers of Islam. Akbar was the first Mughal ruler to adopt a policy of religious tolerance towards other religions to build a strong empire in India.

→ Literature art and architecture flourished during the Mughal period. Tansen was the famous jewel of Akbar’s court. Persian, Hindi and Urdu literature prospered.

→ The Mughal built fine specimens of architecture. Humayun’s Tomb, Shalimar Bagh, Red Fort, Jama Masjid, Taj Mahal, etc. are some of the examples of their fine architecture.

→ The great empire of the Mughal declined due to several reasons. The most important among them was Aurangzeb’s religious intolrance. Many independent powers emerged which shook the foundation of the Mughal empire.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 15 Notes - The Mughal Empire

→ Other reasons included weak and inefficent successors of Aurangzeb, courpt officials, rise of the Europeans, etc.

→ Sulh-e-kul : Universal peace and harmony which was an important part of Din-i-llahi, started by Akbar.

→ Din-i-llahi : Divine faith, a religious way of life propounded by Akbar.

→ Rahdari : Inland duties.

→ Suba : Province

→ Subedar: Governor

→ Ibadat khana : A hall for worship, set up by Akbar

→ Nauroz : The New Year Day.

→ Inland duties : Collection of taxes by the government or authority on purchase or sale of things.

→ Kalima : There is only one God, Allah who is worthy of worship as per the holy Quran.

→ Mansabdar : Each officer was given a rank or position called ‘mansab’.

→ Mutiny : An open rebellion against authorities.

→ Octroi : A tax levied on goods entering a city.

→ Sarais : Rest houses. These were also used as the Dak Chaukis (post offices).