DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 13 Notes – Delhi Sultanate

These DAV Class 7 SST Notes and DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 13 Notes – Delhi Sultanate hold significant importance as study material for students.

Delhi Sultanate Class 7 DAV Notes

→ During the late twelfth century, there was a lack of unity among the Indian rulers. Muhammad Ghori, the ruler of a small state of Ghor, took advantage of this situation and invaded India.

→ Delhi Sultanate comprised of five dynasties- Slave dynasty, Khalji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty, Sayyid dynasty and Lodi dynasty.

→ These dynasties ruled from 1206 CE to 1526 CE.

→ Muhammad Ghori put his territories under the charge of Qutubuddin Aibek, who was a trusted slave and general of Muhammad Ghori.

→ Qutubuddin Aibek established the Slave dynasty. He established a strong kingdom based on military power. He built Qutub Minar and Quwwat-ul-lslam mosque in Delhi.

→ After Qutubuddin Aibek, his son-in-law, Iltutmish was made the Sultan of Delhi. Iltutmish was an able and shrewd administrator.

→ He made many administrative reforms to strengthen his hold on Delhi Sultanate. He divided his empire into many Iqtas for administrative efficiency.

→ Iltutmish had no faith in his sons to rule. So he nominated his daughter, Razia, as his successor. She was an able military general and was considered an exceptionally capable ruler. But she could rule for a short period of 3!4 years only.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 13 Notes - Delhi Sultanate

→ After Razia, Iltutmish’s youngest son Nasiruddin Mahmud became the Sultan and ruled for 20 years. Ghiyasuddin Balban was his Prime Minister as well as the actual ruler. After Nasiruddin’s death, Balban became the Sultan.

→ Balban was a capable ruler. His darbar was very disciplined. He enhanced the prestige and power of the sultan. After his death in 1286, Jalal-ud-din-Khalji laid the foundation of the Khalji dynasty which ruled India from 1290 to 1320.

→ Jalal-ud-din Khalji was assisted by his nephew, Ala-ud-din, in his military expeditions. Ala-ud- din was a very ambitious person. He murdered his uncle and captured the throne in 1296 CE.

→ Ala-ud-din was a brave general. He wanted to conquer the whole world. He captured Gujarat, Ranthambor, Chittor, Malwa, Marwar, etc. in the north and Devgiri, Warangal, Madurai, etc. in the south.

→ Ala-ud-din ruled for 20 years. He died in 1316. His successors could survive only upto 1320 CE. After that Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq became the Sultan, he laid the foundation of the Tughlaq Dynasty in 1320 which lasted till 1412.

→ Tughlaq consolidated the scattered Sultanate and restored peace and order in the country. He was a kind ruler and was very much concerned about the peasants.

→ After his death, his son, Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq became the Sultan to Devgiri to avoid the fury of attacks of Mangols. After 5 year he ordered a retreat, which caused great hardship to the people.

→ Muhammad Tughlaq had no son. His cousin Feroz Tughlaq was made the Sultan after his death. He adopted the policy of appeasing the nobles, Ulemas and the orthodox Muslims to strengthen his position. He imposed Jazia on Hindus.

→ He made many reforms to redress the grievances that the people had against Muhammad Tughlaq. He reduced land revenue and markets were open to sell the surplus produce.

→ Nasiruddin Tughlaq was the last ruler of Tuglaq dynasty. During his time, Timur Lang invaded India and took away a large amount of wealth.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 13 Notes - Delhi Sultanate

→ Sayyid dynasty existed for a short period. It was founded by Khizr Khan in 1414.

→ Lodi dynasty came into power in 1451 and lasted till 1526. Bahlol Lodi was the first ruler of this dynasty. His rule extended from Punjab to some parts of Bihar.

→ Sikandar Lodi succeeded his father in 1489. He was very kind to the Muslims but very harsh and intolerant towards the Hindus. He founded the new city of Agra in 1506 and made it his capital and shifted the centre of power from Delhi to Agra.

→ Ibrahim Lodi was an intelligent, able and brave ruler of Lodi dynasty. Babar invaded India during his rule. He met Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat in 1526 and defeated him. This marked the end of Delhi Sultanate and the beginning of Mughal rule in India.

→ The sultan dominated the central government as he was the head of the state. He also acted as the chief executive and highest court of appeal.

→ The Indian society was divided mainly in two classes—Hindus and Muslims. Muslims were the ruling class in the Islamic state. They were divided mainly in two sects—Sunni and Shia.

→ The Hindus formed a large majority of total population of the country but were economically backward.

→ Agriculture was the backbone of economy. Industries like spinning, weaving, pottery, etc. were also there. India had a flourishing internal and foreign trade which was carried on both by sea and by land.

→ A new style of architecture developed during the Sultanate period. It came to be known as Indo-lslamic architecture.

→ Tughlaq founded many new cities, e.g., Feroz Shah Kotalah, Ferozabad, Tughlaqabad, etc.

→ Chaliha : A group of 40 Turkish nobles organised by lltutmish.

→ Diwan-i-Wazarat : He looked after the finance and the entire central administration of Delhi Saltanate.

→ Diwan-i-arz: He was the head of the military administration and organised the military.

→ Diwan-i-insha: He was the incharge of the entire correspondence of the state with the rulers of other important states and his own subordinate officials.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 13 Notes - Delhi Sultanate

→ Chief Barid: They were spies of the sultan.

→ Quazi-ul-Quzaat: He was the head of the judiciary.

→ Vakil-i-Dar: He looked after the personal comport of the sultan and his family.

→ Counterfeit: fake, imitation.

→ Dag : A stamp (mark).

→ Hulia : Physical description of a person.

→ Iqtas : Provinces.

→ Jazia : A tax paid by non-Muslims to live in an Islamic state.

→ Mamluks : Earlier rulers of Slave dynasty.

→ Tomb : A burial place.

→ Ulemas : Scholars of Islamic learning who were generally orthodox in their outlook.