These DAV Class 7 SST Notes and DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 11 Notes – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in South India hold significant importance as study material for students.
The Rise of Small Kingdoms in South India Class 7 DAV Notes
→ The medival era of five hundred years (700-1200 CE) saw some important developments in southern India.
→ The three main kingdoms that emerged in southern India were the kingdoms of Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras.
→ The beginning of the medieval period witnessed the expansion and rise in the Chola empire. The Chola Kingdom extended from Nellore to Pudukotta and Mysore to Madras.
→ The founder of Chola kingdom was Vijayalaya who defeated Pallavas. Rajaraja I was the greatest Chola king. He pursued a policy of conquest and conquered the Chalukya kingdom of Vengi and captured Kerala and Madurai.
→ His son, Rajendra Chola expanded his territories over Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sumatra, Malaya and Pegu. He took the title of Gangaikondai.
→ The Pandyas ruled over Madurai, Tirunelvelli and parts of Travancore. The Pandya rule was started by Kandungori. His son Maruvarman Avani Sulamani came into conflict with the Pallavas and defeated them.
→ The Pandya kingdom was plundered and looted by the Muslim invaders. This made the kingdom very weak.
→ The Cheras ruled over an area comprising north Travancore, Cochin and South Malabar. King Senguttavan was the greatest ruler of this dynasty. The Chera capital was located at Vanji.
→ The central administration was divided into different departments. The king ran the administration with the help of his ministers. The kingdom was divided into provinces, known as mandalams.
→ The main source of income was land revenue. The economic condition of the people was good. Their major occupations were agriculture, trade and weaving.
→ Caste system was deeply rooted in the society of south India. The Brahmins and Kshatriyas dominated the lower castes.
→ Hinduism was the most popular religion of south India. Vedic sacrifices were quite common. Kanchipuram was an important centre of studies of Sanskrit and regional languages like Tamil.
→ The temples of south India were also the centres of culture administration and education. Students could stay there for education.
→ The rulers of the southern kingdoms were great patrons of art and architcture. They built several rock-cut temples.
→ Mandalam : A province under the Cholas.
→ Edict: an order, or a command.
→ Matha : A place, usually attached to a temple, where students were provided with free boarding, lodging and education.
→ Patron : Someone who protects or supports an artist, or an art form.
→ Advaita : It means ‘the absolute is one alone’. It was a system of Indian philosophy preached by Adi Shakaracharya.