DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 10 Notes – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in North India

These DAV Class 7 SST Notes and DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 10 Notes – The Rise of Small Kingdoms in North India hold significant importance as study material for students.

The Rise of Small Kingdoms in North India 7 DAV Notes

→ Three powerful kingdoms emerged between 750 CE and 1000 CE out of the ruins of Harsha Vardhan’s empire. These three kingdoms were- the Palas in eastern India, the Pratiharas in Avanti and the Rashtrakutas in northern part of Deccan.

→ The Rashtrakutas established their empire in northern Deccan in 753 CE. Dantidurga is considered to be the real founder of this empire. Govinda 111 and Amoghavarsha were the famous Rashtrakuta kings. They maintained huge armies and encouraged trade for prosperity of the people. They followed Jainism but also patronised Buddhists, Hindus and Muslims.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 10 Notes - The Rise of Small Kingdoms in North India

→ The great empire of Rashtrakutas was crushed by the Chalukyas by the end of 10th century.

→ Gopala set up an empire in Bengal whose successors used ‘Pala’ after their name and therefore their empire came to be known as Pala dynasty. The Pala dynasty ruled over for about 400 years.

→ Dharampala was the greatest ruler of Pala dynasty. The Pala rulers were the followers of Buddhism. They were great patrons of art, education and literature.

→ Nagabhatta I was the founder of the Pratihara empire. The greatest ruler of this empire was Mihir Bhoj. He conquered Kanauj around 836 CE. The continuous battles weakened this empire and it broke into several smaller kingdoms.

→ Kanauj was a great power in north India. All the aforementioned three kingdoms were continuously engaged in a struggle to possess Kanauj. Their struggle for supremacy came to be known as the Tripartite Struggle.

→ The continuous battles weakened them and finally they lost their glory. Their empires disintegrated into many small kingdoms.

→ The Rajputs, famous for their bravery, played an important role in medieval India. There were 36 clans of Rajputs. But four clans were main- Paramaras (Malwa), Pratiharas (Rajasthan- Gujarat), Chauhans (Ajmer) and Chalukyas (Gujarat).

→ Chauhan dynasty emerged as the most prestigious among all the Rajput clans. Prithviraj Chauhan was the most powerful king who came to the throne in 1177 CE. He made many conquests and checked the advances made by Muhammad Ghori.

→ The administration in north india was well managed. The king was assisted by different officials. He was the head of the military as well as the judicirary.

→ But there prevailed great economic disparity in the society. Feudal system existed in north India and the officers enjoyed great privileges.

→ Caste system was rigid. The Brahmins enjoyed high positions while the Shudras led a life of misery. The condition of women was also pathetic.

→ Vishnu and Shiva were the main gods of the Rajputs. They also worshipped Goddesses like Kali, Laxmi and Durga. Superstition and narrow-mindedness were great hurdles to education. The elementary education was limited to temples and monasteries. The universities of Nalanda and Vikramshila were important centres offer higher education.

→ The art and architecture of north India included murals in palaces, caves and temples. Miniature paintings were also there. The Lingaraj and Mukteshwara temples at Bhubaneswar and the Sun Temple at Konark are the fine examples of the architecture of the period from eight to twelveth century.

→ India developed trade relations with the countries of the east, south-east, west and central Asia and the European countries.

DAV Class 7 SST Chapter 10 Notes - The Rise of Small Kingdoms in North India

→ Rajput: The word means the ‘son of a raja (king)’.

→ Suryavanshi : The Rajputs who trace their origin to Sun.

→ Chandarvanshi : The Rajputs who trace their origin to Moon.

→ Agnikulas : The Rajputs who were born from fire altars.

→ Epic poem : A long narrative poem usually about heroic deeds and events that are significant to the culture of the poet.

→ Feudal system : The socio-political set-up of Medieval Europe based on land holdings.

→ Miniature painting : A small painting executed with great detail.

→ Mural painting : Any piece of artwork painted or applied on a wall, ceiling, etc.

→ Patron : A person who supports an artist, writer, etc., with money, gift or endorsement.

→ Philosophy : The study of nature, cause of principles of reality.

→ Polygamy : The practice of having more than one wife.