DAV Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Notes – Food

These DAV Class 6 Science Notes and DAV Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Notes – Food act as excellent revision resources, particularly in preparation for board exams.

Food Class 6 DAV Notes

→ Food: All living beings need food for growth and survival. Food gives energy which is needed by living beings to do work. Food also protects us from various diseases and keeps us healthy and fit.

→ Components of Food:

→ Components of food can be divided into three main categories:

→ Energy giving food: Carbohydrates and fats are called energy giving foods. Cereals like rice, wheat and maize are rich sources of carbohydrates. Fruits like mango, banana, litchi, melon, etc. are also good sources of carbohydrates. Potato and sweet potato also contain starch. Cooking oil, ghee and butter are the main sources of fat.

→ Body building food: Protein is called body building food. Pulses, meat and eggs are good sources of protein.

→ Protective food: Vitamins and minerals are required by the body in minuscule amount. They help in protecting the body against various diseases.

DAV Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Notes - Food

→ Water: Some important functions of water:

  • All biological functions happen in presence of water.
  • Water helps in removal of waste from our body.
  • A major portion of blood is composed of water.
  • Water helps in maintaining the temperature of the body.

→ Roughage: Roughage comes from green vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Roughage does not have nutritive value. Roughage is necessary for proper movement of food through digestive system. Roughage helps in clearing of waste from digestive system.

→ Balanced Diet: A diet which contains all the required nutrients in proper ratio is called a balanced diet. A balanced diet contains carbohydrates in the largest amount; followed by proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins; in that order.

→ Malnutrition: When a person is unable to get a balanced diet for a long duration, he may suffer from malnutrition. Poor people often take too much carbohydrate in their diet but are unable to take other nutrients. Such people suffer from a condition called PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition).

→ Kwashiorkor: It is a type of PEM. It usually happens in a one to three years old child; whose mother has become pregnant. The child no longer gets mother’s milk and is fed on carbohydrate rich diet. The growth of the child is retarded. Face, feet and abdomen are swollen due to water retention. Hair discolouration and diarrhea are common symptoms in such children.

→ Marasmus: It is also a type of PEM which happens in somewhat older children. This happens due to deficiency of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The child becomes very thin and skin becomes loose. General weakness and retarded growth is the final result of this condition.

→ Obesity: When a person consumes too much fat and carbohydrate, he gains too much weight. Such condition is called obesity. Obesity can lead to many health disorders.

→ Nutrition: The process of taking and utilizing food; by a living being; is called nutrition. Nutrients: The main components of food are called nutrients.

→ Macronutrients: Nutrients which are needed in large quantities are called macronutrients. Micronutrients: Nutrients which are needed in minuscule quantities are called micronutrients.

→ Dairy Products: Products which are made from milk are called dairy products.

→ Energy Giving Food: Nutrients which provide energy to the body are called energy giving foods.

→ Body building Food: Nutrients which help in growth and repair of the body are called body building foods.

→ Protective Food: Nutrients which help the body in fighting against diseases are called protective foods.

→ Night Blindness: It is a condition in which the person suffering from it is unable to see in dim light.

→ Beriberi: Beriberi is a condition in which the person feels general weakness due to weakness in muscles.

→ Scurvy: It is manifested by soft and bleeding gums.

DAV Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Notes - Food

→ Rickets: In this condition, the bones become curved and deformed.

→ Blood coagulation: In case of an injury, the blood clots at the site of injury. This prevents further bleeding and prevents excessive blood loss.

→ Osteomalacia: In this condition, the bones become soft and brittle.

→ Anaemia: In this condition, the number of RBCs significantly decreases in the blood. The person develops pale eyes and skin and feels a general weakness.

→ Goitre: In this condition, a permanent swelling develops in the neck.

→ Malnutrition: The condition in which a person does not get all the nutrients for a long duration.

→ Balanced diet: The diet which contains all nutrients in proper ratio is called a balanced diet. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM): The condition which happens because of lack of carbohydrate or protein or lack of both in the diet.

→ Obesity: Too much weight gain because of eating too much food is called obesity.

→ Sources of Food
Food from Plants:

Difference Type of food from plants
Cereals Pulses Fruits Leafy vegetables and vegetables Oil Spices
Examples Wheat, rice, maize, jowar, bajra Green gram, gram, black gram, kidney beans, red gram, red lentil, pea, soyabean Mango, apple, banana, orange, watermelon Spinach, mustard, fenugreek, tomato, ladyfinger, turnip, carrot, brinjal, potato Mustard oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, groundnut oil, coconut oil Cumin, turmeric, black pepper, cardamom, chilli, carom seeds, clove

DAV Class 6 Science Chapter 2 Notes - Food

→ Food from Animals:

Food Milk Eggs Meat
Source animal Cow, buffalo, goat, camel Hen, duck Goat, sheep, chicken, fish

Protective food

Vitamins, their sources, functions and deficiency diseases
Vitamins Sources Functions Deficiency diseases
Vitamin A Carrot, cod liver oil, milk, butter, ghee, yellow vegetables, fruits Helps in maintaining healthy eyes, skin and tissues. Night blindness, dryness of skin
Vitamin B Wheat, rice, yeast, liver, milk and yoghurt, green leafy vegetables, fermented food, sprouted pulses Helps in stronger muscles, in getting energy to do work Beriberi, weak muscles and general weakness
Vitamin C Citrus fruits like orange, lemon and guava, green chillies, amla Maintains healthy gums, teeth, bones and bone joints Scurvy (spongy and bleeding gums)
Vitamin D Milk and dairy products, cod liver oil, eggs, vitamin D is made by our skin when exposed to sunlight Maintains healthy bones and teeth Rickets (curved and deformed bones, bow legs)
Vitamin E Vegetable oil, liver, green vegetables, tomato Proper functioning of reproductive system Sterility
Vitamin K Green leafy vegetables Blood coagulation Excessive bleeding due to delayed clotting of blood

→ Minerals:

Minerals and their functions
Mineral Sources Function Deficiency diseases
Calcium Milk and dairy products, green leafy vegetables Maintains healthy bones and teeth Weak bones, cramps in legs, faulty contraction of heart muscles.
Phosphorus Milk, cereals, pulses, fish, meat Maintains healthy bones and teeth Loss of weight, weak bones, general weakness, loss of teeth
Iron Green leafy vegetables, nuts and jaggery Formation of haemoglobin in blood. Iron deficiency results in anaemia. Anaemia (low haemoglobin in blood)
Iodine Fruits, Proper functioning of thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency Goiter (a permanent swelling in neck)