Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers Manufacturing Industries

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Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 6 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Classify industries on the basis of source of raw materials.
Answer:
On the basis of source of raw materials used, industries are of two types

  • Agro-based: Cotton, woollen, jute, silk, textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee and edible oil.
  • Mineral-based: Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.

Question 2.
Which sector of economy do manufacturing industries fall in?
Answer:
Manufacturing industries fall in the secondary sector.

Question 3.
Which countries are considered prosperous?
Answer:
Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are considered prosperous.

Question 4.
What does India’s prosperity lie in?
Answer:
India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.

Question 5.
What are known as agglomeration economies?
Answer:
Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as agglomeration economies.

Question 6.
Classify industries on the basis of the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods.
Answer:
Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods, industries are classified into two types-

  • Heavy industries such as iron and steel.
  • Light industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.

Question 7.
Mention some industries that are based on agricultural raw materials.
Answer:
Cotton, jute, silk, woollen, textile, sugar and edible oil etc., industries are based on agricultural raw materials.

Question 8.
Why did our traditional industries suffer a setback during the colonial period?
Answer:
Our traditional industries suffered a setback during the colonial period because they could not compete with the mill-made cloth from England.

Question 9.
When and where was the first successful textile mill established?
Answer:
The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.

Question 10.
Where was the cotton textile industry concentrated in the country in the early years?
Answer:
In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Question 11.
Mention the factors that contributed towards the localisation of the cotton textile industry in Maharashtra and Gujarat.
Answer:
Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc., contributed towards the localisation in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Question 12.
Name some industries that are supported by the cotton textile industry.
Answer:

  • Chemicals and dyes
  • Mill stores
  • Packaging materials
  • Engineering works

Question 13.
Name the countries which import cotton goods from India.
Answer:
Japan, USA, UK, Russia, France, East European countries, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka and African countries.

Question 14.
Mention India’s position in the world in the production of raw jute and jute goods.
Answer:
India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.

Question 15.
Where are most of the jute mills located in West Bengal?
Answer:
Most of the jute mills are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli river, in a narrow belt which is 98 km long and 3 km wide.

Question 16.
What has once again opened the opportunity for jute products?
Answer:
The growing global concern for environment-friendly, biodegradable materials, has once again opened the opportunity for jute products.

Question 17.
Mention India’s position in the production of sugar.
Answer:
India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and khandsari.

Question 18.
Why is sugar industry suited to the cooperative sector?
Answer:
Sugar industry is suited to the cooperative sector because sugar production is seasonal in nature and saves the producers from the exploitation of money lenders.

Question 19.
What are mineral-based industries?
Answer:
Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials are called mineral-based industries.

Question 20.
Why is iron and steel industry called the basic industry?
Answer:
It is called so because all other industries like heavy, medium and light, depend on this industry for their machinery.

Question 21.
What is the use of steel?
Answer:
Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.

Question 22.
Why is iron and steel a heavy industry?
Answer:
Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs.

Question 23.
Which country is the largest producer as well as the largest consumer of steel?
Answer:
China is the largest producer as well as the largest consumer of steel.

Question 24.
Which is the electronic capital of India?
Answer:
Bengaluru is the electronic capital of India.

Question 25.
Name important centres for electronic goods other than Bengaluru.
Answer:
Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore.

Question 26.
Name some software technology parks of India.
Answer:
Noida, Jaipur, Indore, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Guwahati, etc.

Question 27.
What is the full form of NTPC?
Answer:
NTPC-National Thermal Power Corporation.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 6 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
“Industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand.” Validate the statement.
Answer:
(i) After an industrial activity starts in a town, urbanisation follows. Industry provides employment to the people of the area. Population migrates from rural hunterlands to seek jobs and other opportunities.

(ii) Housing and transport facilities are developed to accommodate these people. Other infrastructural developments also take place leading to growth and development of the town into a city.

(iii) Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc., to the industry. Thus, industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand.

Question 2.
Explain with examples, how do industries give boost to the agriculture sector?
Answer:
Industry and agriculture go hand in hand. This can be proved from the following examples:

  • The agro-based industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
  • Industries depend on the agriculture for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc., to the farmers.
  • Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only helped agriculturists in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient.

Question 3.
Why has the Chhotanagpur Plateau Region the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries? Analyse the reasons.
Answer:
It is because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry:

  • Low cost of iron ore is available, since it is mined in this region.
  • Iron and steel industry requires high-grade coal, limestone and manganese ore as raw materials. These things are available in abundance in close proximity in this region.
  • Cheap labour is also available here.
  • There is a vast growth potential in the home market well connected by roadways and railways.

Question 4.
Analyse three major challenges faced by the sugar-industry in India.
Answer:
The sugar industry in India faces several challenges. Three of them are:

  • Seasonal nature of the industry
  • Old and inefficient methods of production of sugar
  • Transport delay in reaching cane to factories.

Question 5.
“Agriculture and industry move hand in hand.” Analyse the statement with three examples.
Answer:
Industry and agriculture go hand in hand. This can be proved from the following examples:

  • The agro-based industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
  • Industries depend on the agriculture for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc., to the farmers.
  • Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only helped agriculturists in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient.

Question 6.
Why is India not able to perform to her full potential in iron and steel production? Explain any three reasons.
Answer:
Although India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world, we are not able to perform to our full potential largely due to the following reasons:

  • High costs and limited availability of coking coal, which is an important raw material for iron and steel industry.
  • Lower productivity of labour. We know iron and steel industry requires cheap, hard and skilled labour. Cheap labour, no doubt, is available in our country but there is always dearth of skilled labour.
  • Irregular power supply. Our country faces severe crisis of power.

Question 7.
What were the major objectives of the National Jute Policy, 2005? Why has been the internal demand for jute on the increase?
Answer:
In 2005, National Jute Policy was formulated with the following objectives:

  • To increase productivity
  • To improve quality
  • To ensure good prices to the jute farmers, and
  • To enhance the yield per hectare.

The internal demand for jute has been on the increase because of the following reasons:

  • The government has made it mandatory to use jute packaging.
  • The growing global concern for environment friendly, biodegradable materials, has once again opened the opportunity for jute products.

Question 8.
Explain any three reasons for the expansion of sugar industry in the southern and western states of India. (Imp.)
Answer:
In recent years, there is a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra because of the following reasons:

  • The cane produced in these states has a higher sucrose content.
  • The cooler climate of these regions also ensures a longer crushing season.
  • Aslo, the cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Question 9.
Give a classification of industries on the basis of ownership.
OR
Classify industries on the basis of ownership.
Answer:
On the basis of ownership, industries are classified in the following ways-

(i) Public sector industries are owned and operated by government agencies; for example, BHEL, SAIL, etc.

(ii) Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals; for example, TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd, Dabur industries, etc.

(iii) Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals; for example, Oil India Limited (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sectors.

(iv) Cooperative sector industries are owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both.

Question 10.
Mention any three features of textile industry.
OR
‘The textile industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy.” Explain.
OR
“The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.” Justify the statement.
Answer:
(i) The textile industry contributes significantly to industrial production (14 percent), employment generation (35 million persons directly) and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6 percent).

(ii) It contributes 4 percent towards GDP.

(iii) It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e. from raw material to the highest value added products. The following flow chart shows value addition in the textile industry:

Question 11.
Mention a few problems faced by cotton textile industries in India.
OR
“Although, we have made significant increase in the production of good quality long staple cotton, the need to import is still felt.” Why?
Answer:

  • Power supply is erratic. Frequent power cuts and load shedding affect this industry adversely.
  • This industry continues to use obsolete machinery. As a result, production of cotton is badly affected. Hence, machinery nee d to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors in particular.
  • Low output of labour is also a major problem before the cotton textile industries in India.
  • Stiff competition in the international market from the synthetic fibre industry also poses a big problem.

Question 12.
Name three agro-based and three mineral-based industries.
Answer:

  • Agro-based industries: Cotton, woollen, jute, silk, textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil (any three).
  • Mineral-based industries: Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemical (any three).

Question 13.
What is the importance of automobile industry? Where is this industry located in India?
Answer:

  • Automobiles provide vehicle for quick transport of good services and passengers.
  • Trucks, buses, cars, motor cycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres.
  • This industry provides employment to the people. This industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bengaluru.

Question 14.
Which factors led to the healthy growth of the automobile industry in India?
Answer:
(i) This industry was delicensed in 1991. This means that no license is required for setting up any unit of manufacturing in any part of the country.

(ii) 100 percent foreign direct investment (FDI) is permissible. FDI brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global development.

(iii) After the liberalisation, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market.

(iv) At present, there are 15 manufacturs of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of the two and three-wheelers.

Question 15.
What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of information technology in India.
Answer:
Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), is a society set up by the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India in 1991 with the objective of encouraging, promoting and boosting the software export from India. STPI maintains internal engineering resources to provide consulting, training and implementation services. Software technology parks of India have come up across 46 locations at different centres of India. However, the major industry concentration is at Bengaluru, Noida, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad and Pune.  IT industry is of great significance

  • It is associated with employment generation. It is encouraging to know that 30 percent of the people employed in this sector are women.
  • This industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in the last two or three years because of its fast growing Business Processes Outsourcing (BPO) sector.

Question 16.
Analyse the role of the manufacturing sector in the economic development of India.
Answer:
The manufacturing sector covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.

Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular chiefly because of the following reasons-

(i) Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

(ii) Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and proverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.

(iii) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

(iv) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are rich. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 6 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
If the jute industry has to be set up which would be a better location Damodar basin or Hugli basin? Give five reasons to support your answer.
Answer:
Better location for setting up jute industry is the Hugli basin. Reasons for location in the Hugli basin are-

  • Proximity of the jute producing areas
  • Inexpensive water transport
  • Good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw material to the mills.
  • Abundant water for processing raw jute
  • Cheap labour from West Bengal and adjoining states of Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Kolkata provides banking insurance, and port facility for export of jute goods.

Question 2.
What is the manufacturing sector? Why is it considered the backbone of development? Interpret the reason.
Answer:
The manufacturing sector covers activities in which natural products are changed into other forms through ways of manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.

Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development in particular chiefly because of the following reasons-

(i) Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

(ii) Industrial development is a precondition for eradication of unemployment and proverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.

(iii) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

(iv) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of furnished goods of higher value are rich. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.

Question 3.
What is manufacturing sector? Describe the four types of manufacturing sectors on the basis of ownership.
Answer:
Manufacturing industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

Private sector industries are owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals; for example, TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd, Dabur industries, etc.

Question 4.
“Agriculture and industry are complementary to each other.” Explain with five examples.
Answer:
Industry and agriculture go hand in hand. This can be proved from the following examples:

  • The agro-based industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
  • Industries depend on the agriculture for raw materials and sell their products such as irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines and tools, etc., to the farmers.
  • Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industry has not only helped agriculturists in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient.

Question 5.
“Production and consumption of steel is often regarded as the index of a country’s development.” Examine the statement.
Answer:
(i) Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods.

(ii) It is in great demand for export. So, higher the steel output, greater is the available material for earning through exports.

(iii) Steel making consumes large amounts of energy. It also requires efficient transportation. So, greater the production of steel, the greater is the demand for energy, coal mining, transportation and many other economic activities.

(iv) Steel enters into final goods of consumption of so many goods such as cars, table, chairs, bed frames, refrigerators, etc. If the production and consumption of steel is high, it means the production and consumption of thousands of final goods is also high.

(v) Steel has one of the highest forward and backward linkages for economic activities and growth. From the above points it becomes clear how important steel is. So, it can be easily said that production and consumption of steel is the index of a country’s development.

Question 6.
Why was cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain reasons.
Answer:
In the early years, the cotton textile industry was concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of the following reasons-

  • Maharashtra and Gujarat have no dearth of black soil which is ideal for growing cotton.
  • Moist climate in these regions helps in spinning and weaving the yam.
  • Well developed transport network and proximity to port facilities have led to the concentration of textile industry in these regions.
  • A wide market is available here.
  • Cotton textile industry requires intensive labour which is easily available in these regions.
  • India is a tropical country and cotton clothes are comfortable to wear in such climate. So a large population of the country favours to wear clothes made of cotton.

Question 7.
State the challenges faced by the jute industry in India.
Answer:

  • Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes and from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
  • The industry needs to diversify which it fails.
  • The industry still uses old technology, as a result of which the cost of production is high. So the demand for jute products has declined.
  • The yield per hectare is low which has deterrent effect on this industry.
  • Since jute farmers do not get good prices, they feel discouraged.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 6 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
What steps have been taken by NTPC towards environmental protection?
Answer:
The NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) has a proactive approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants. It has taken several steps in order to protect our environment

  • Optimum utilisation of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
  • Minimising waste generation by maximising ash utilisation.
  • Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
  • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
  • Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.

Question 2.
Give an assessment of the contribution of manufacturing industry to national economy.
Answer:
Over the last two decades, the share of manufacturing sector has stagnated at 17 percent of GDP – out of the total of 27 percent for the industry which includes 10 percent for mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. This is much lower in comparison to some East Asian economies, where it is 25 to 35 percent. The trend of growth rate in manufacturing over the last decade has been around 7 percent per annum.

The desired growth rate over the next decade is 12  percent. Since 2003, manufacturing is once again growing at the rate of 9 to 10 percent per annum. With appropriate policy interventions by the government and renewed efforts by the industry to improve productivity, economists predict that manufacturing can achieve its target over the next decade.

Question 3.
How do industries pollute water? Suggest any four measures to control water pollution.
Answer:
Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers. The major culprits in this regard are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let our dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead, mercury pesticides, fertilisers, plastics and rubbers etc., in the water bodies. Fly ash, phosphogypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes that are discharged into water. Four measures to control water pollution.

  • Minimising use water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stags.
  • Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirement.
  • Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
  • Ground water resources need to be regulated legally.

Question 4.
What is noise pollution? What is its major source? How does it affect human health? Suggest two ways to reduce noise pollution.
Answer:
Noise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains. Noise pollution leaves adverse effects on human health. It not only results in irritation and anger, it can also cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate and blood pressure among other physiological effects. Unwanted sound is an irritant and a source of stress.

Question 5.
Mention different stages of manufacture of steel.
Answer:
The manufacture of steel includes the following stages or processes-

  • Transport of raw material to plant
  • Iron ore is melted in blast furnace. Limestone is fluxing material which is added. Slag is removed, coke is burnt to heat the ore.
  • Molten materials poured into moulds called pigs.
  • Pig iron is further purified by melting and oxidising the impurities. Manganese, nickel, chromium, etc. are added.
  • The last process is rolling, pressing, casting and forging.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 6 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
Which social values are associated with industrialistion?
Answer:

  • Industrialisation creates opportunities of employment. More and more people get employed in industries/factories. This reduces the level of poverty.
  • It helps in human capital formation.
  • Women come out of their houses and find jobs of their choice and ability. This leads to their empowerment.
  • Regional disparity is also reduced to a great extent due to industrialisation.

Question 2.
Mention some values associated with the cotton textile industry.
Answer:
(i) This industry has close links with agriculture and provides a living to farmers, cotton boll pluckers and workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing.

(ii) The industry by creating demands supports many other industries, such as, chemical and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 6 Map Skills

Question 1.
On the given outline political map of India, locate and label the following features-

  • Cotton textile centres: Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Kanpur, Hugli and Madurai.
  • Woollen textile centres: Srinagar, Agra, Mirzapur, Gwalior and Bikaner.
  • Silk textile centres: Baramula, Belagaon, Murshidabad, Kolar and Mysore.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers Manufacturing Industries 1

Question 2.
On the given political map of India, locate and label the following features-
(i) Pune software technology park
(ii) Thiruvananthapuram software technology park
(iii) Guwahati software technology park
(iv) Bokaro iron and steel plant
(v) Vijaynagar iron and steel plant
(vi) Bhilai iron and steel plant
(vii) Durgapur iron and steel plant
(viii) Noida software technology park
(ix) Mohali software technology park
Answer:

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers Manufacturing Industries 2

Question 3.
Identify the features marked as A, B, C, D, E, F and G on the given political map of India.
A. Woollen textile industry
B. Cotton textile industry
C. Silk textile industry
D. Iron and steel plant
E. Software technology park
F. Iron and steel plant
G. Software technology park
Answer:

Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers Manufacturing Industries 3