DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 9 Notes – Establishment of Company Rule in India

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Establishment of Company Rule in India Class 8 DAV Notes

→ Many European trading companies established their trading centres in coastal areas of India. However, the English and the French emerged out as winners. They were the main rivals.

→ A series of episodes led to political dominance of India by the East India Company.

→ The East India Company set up trading posts in Surat and the three presidency settlements at Fort William in Bengal, Fort St. George in Madras and the Bombay Castle.

→ The East India Company became an imperial power to protect its trading interests from other European traders. It began as a trading company, took over political control and became the ruler of entire India.

→ The Carnatic wars were a series of battles fought between the English and the French, for the control of the trading posts of India, during the years 1746 to 1763.

→ As a result of these wars the French ambitions of establishing an empire in India ended and the British supremacy was firmly established.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 9 Notes - Establishment of Company Rule in India

→ The British wanted the control of the rich province of Bengal. They started extending the fortification of Calcutta. Siraj-ud-Daulah resisted but failed.

→ The Company was very keen to have a puppet rural in place of Siraj-ud-Daulah, so that it might enjoy trade concessions and other privileges.

→ It began to help one of Siraj-ud-Daulah’s rivals, Mir Jafar, became the Nawab. This infuriated Siraj-ud-Daulah which finally led to the Battle of Plassey. Siraj-ud-Daulah got defeated.

→ Mir Jafar could not fulfil the constant demands of the British. Hence, they installed his son-in-law, Mir Qasim, as the Nawab. But Mir Qasim too could not satisfy the British.

→ The British attacked him (Mir Qasim). He took refuge at Awadh with Shira-ud-Daulah, where Mughal Emperor, Shah Alam, was also taking refuge.

→ Shuja-ud-Daulah, Shah Alam and Mir Qasim together waged a war against the British at Buxar, but they were defeated.

→ Robert Clive, the British Commander in the battle, was appointed Governor of Bengal. The British got the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.

→ The right to collect Diwani by the British began a dual government in Bengal which was abolished in 1772 by Warren Hastings Governor of Bengal. It gave the governor the complete control over Bengal.

→ Warren Hastins faced stiff resistance from the Marathas in the North and Hyder Ali in Mysore.

→ Mysore had become powerful under rulers like Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. The British fought four wars with them popularly known as the Anglo-Mysore-Wars. Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital Srirangapattnam in 1792. This paved the way for the British.

→ The Company also subdued the Marathas in a series of wars known as the Anglo-Maratha Wars.

→ The Company wanted a complete control of Punjab by ending the Sikh Kingdom. For this, the British fought two wars with the Sikhs, known as the Anglo-Sikh wars.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 9 Notes - Establishment of Company Rule in India

→ The British remained victorious everywhere. This gave them intense confidence to build a strong army in India by limiting the process of the Indian princes.

→ Factories: The European trading centres were called factories.

→ Subsidiary Alliance: It was the British policy of providing military assistance to Indian rulers in exchange of paying for army maintenance.

→ Doctrine of Lapse: Under this system, if any ruler died without leaving behind a natural heir to the throve, his kingdom automatically became a part of the British territory.

→ Diwani: The right to collect land revenue.