These DAV Class 8 SST Notes and DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 19 Notes – The Union Government: The Executive hold significant importance as study material for students.
The Union Government: The Executive Class 8 DAV Notes
→ Executive is that organ of the government which enforces laws made by the legislature, executes them and runs the administration of the country.
→ There are two types of executives – the nominal executive and the real executive. The President of India is the nominal executive and the Prime Minister is the real executive.
→ The President enjoys nominal powers and is called the Head of the State. He holds the office for a five-year term and can be re-elected.
→ The President of India is elected indirectly by an electoral college consisting of only the elected members of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and Legislative Assemblies of the states.
→ If President violates the Constitution, he/she can be removed from the office through the process of impeachment.
→ In this case, the Vice President of India takes over the responsibility to officiate as President till the new President is elected.
→ The President of India has executive, legislative, judicial, financial and emergency powers. He/ She makes all the important appointments including those of the Prime Minister, Council of Ministers, Governors, etc.
→ He can summon, prorogue and address the two Houses of the Parliament. No bill passed by both the Houses of the Parliament, becomes a law without his/her consent.
→ His emergency powers include national emergency, breakdown of constitutional machinery in a state and financial emergency.
→ The Vice President of India is elected for a period of five years. He is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He/She performs the same functions in the Rajya Sabha as the Speaker of Lok Sabha does.
→ The Council of Ministers is headed by the Prime Minister. It comprises of the Prime Minister, the Cabinet Ministers and the Ministers of State.
→ The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of India. Other Ministers are appointed afterwards by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister.
→ Normally, the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is appointed as the Prime Minister. In case, no single party gets a clear majority, a coalition government is formed.
→ Some of the functions of the Council of Ministers include the formation of internal and external policy of the country, taking decisions at the national and international levels, etc.
→ The Prime Minister is the Head of the Government. He enjoys real powers. The entire administration revolves around him/her. He/She forms Council of Ministers, presides over the meetings of the Cabinet as well as Council of Ministers, etc
→ Executive: The organ of the government which enforces laws made by the legislature, executes them and runs the administration of the country.
→ Collective responsibility: This means that all the Ministers together are answerable to the Parliament for any decision taken by the Cabinet. All of them swim or sink together.
→ Council of Ministers: It comprises of the Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers.
→ Cabinet: It consists of Ministers who are influential and important members of the party/parties in power.
→ Ambassador: Diplomat sent by a country as its official representative to a foreign country.
→ Attorney General: A legal officer who represents a country or a state in legal proceedings and gives legal advice to the government.
→ Comptroller and Auditor General: An authority which audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the State governments.
→ Contingency: An event which cannot be predicted with certainty.
→ Emoluments: A salary, fee or profit from employment or office.
→ Office of profit: A position that brings financial gain or benefit to the person holding it.
→ Officiating: An official in-charge.
→ Proportional representation: An electoral system in which parties gain seats in proportion to the number of votes cast for them.
→ Succession: A number of people or things sharing a specified characteristic and following one after the other.