DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 10 Notes – Colonialism: Rural and Tribal Societies

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Colonialism: Rural and Tribal Societies Class 8 DAV Notes

→ The English emerged as a supreme power in India. There was hardly any aspect of Indian economy which was not affected by them. They totally shattered the traditional self-sufficient rural economy.

→ The British brought many changes in the field of land revenue system, agriculture, trade, industry and administration to fulfil their own interest.

→ In 1793 Lord Cornwallis introduced the Zamindari System in Bengal under the Permanent Settlement. Large parts of South and West India were put under the Ryotwari System, whereas Punjab, North-West Provinces and Awadh came under the Mahalwari system.

→ Zamindari was made a hereditary right of the zamindars under the Permanent Settlement. This system gave birth to a new class of landlords called zamindars who exercised immense power. They used oppressive methods to collect taxes.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 10 Notes - Colonialism: Rural and Tribal Societies

→ The Ryotwari System established a direct settlement between the government and the ryots, i. e., the cultivators.

→ In the Mahalwari System, a settlement was made collectively with a group of villages called mahal. The villages were jointly responsible for the payment of land revenue. This system proved to be a curse for the peasants.

→ The Company used coercive methods to procure goods which were in great demand in Europe. It forced the farmers to grow crops like indigo, cotton, raw silk, opium, pepper, tea, etc.

→ The rising demand of sugar in the west, attracted many Europeans to set up sugar plantations in India.

→ The condition of the farmers became miserable. Those who failed to pay the land revenue lost their land and became landless labourers.

→ This created widespread resentment among the farmers of North India which culminated in the revolt of 1857.

→ In 1930, the organisation of Kisan Sabhas came into existence which started supporting the cause of the peasants.

→ The Company’s next target was the tribals of India. Their traditional economy was built around forests. They practised shifting cultivation.

→ The life of the tribals got badly affected. Under the British rule, the chiefs of the tribals lost all power and were forced to follow the laws made by the British officers in India. The Britishers opposed shifting cultivation.

→ Changes in the forest laws made the tribal life very difficult. Many tribals had to move to other areas in search of livelihood. A large number of them were recruited through contractors to work in the tea plantations in far off areas of Assam. They were paid low wages and were not allowed to go back home.

→ The unjust policies of the British resulted in rebellions by tribals in different parts of India. Revolts by Khasis took place in 1829. The Kukas of hilly regions of Manipur and Tripura kept on attacking the British territories from 1829.

→ The Mundas of Chhotanagpur revolted in 1831. The struggle was suppressed by the British forces.

→ Birsa Munda emerged in 1895 as a hero of the tribals. He instigated the tribals attack zamindars. His movement ended in 1900.

→ The Company’s policy destroyed crafts, cottage industries and artisanship of India. This led to the decline in the national income of the country.

→ The national movement for freedom and international developments opened the gates of modern industries in India. Tea became the biggest plantation industry in Assam, Bengal and South India. Industries like cotton, jute, iron and steel developed at a fast rate. With the passage of time, the cement, chemical and sugar industries also developed.

DAV Class 8 SST Chapter 10 Notes - Colonialism: Rural and Tribal Societies

→ Permanent Settlement: Under this settlement it was decided that the rates of revenues once fixed would not be changed.

→ Mahal: In the British revenue records mahal is a revenue estate which may be a village or a group of villages.

→ Mahalwari System: Under this system the rates of revenues were to be revised periodically, not permanently fixed.

→ Ryot: Cultivator.

→ Indigo: A plant that produces rich blue colour.

→ Revolt or Rebellion: A mass outburst.

→ Railway Sleeper: The horizontal planks of wood on which railway lines are laid.

→ Plantation: A large farm operated by a planter employing various forms of forced labour. Plantations are associated with the production of coffee, sugarcane, tobacco, tea and cotton.