These DAV Class 5 Science Notes and DAV Class 5 Science Chapter 5 Notes – Food and Health act as excellent revision resources, particularly in preparation for board exams.
Food and Health Class 5 DAV Notes
→ Nutrients: Various substances which are required by our body are present in food. These substances are called nutrients. Nutrients are required for proper growth and development of our body. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals are the main nutrients.
→ Healthy Eating Pyramid: It shows the proportion of food stuffs and nutrients which we should eat to maintain good health. The healthy eating pyramid shows the balanced diet.
Types Of Food:
On the basis of functions; food can be divided into following types:
- Energy giving food: Carbohydrates and fats
- Body building food: Proteins
- Protective food: Vitamins and minerals
→ A state of complete physical and mental well being is called health. For maintaining a good health, our body needs the following:
- A balanced diet
- Regular exercise
- Proper rest
- Good personal hygiene
- Clean and hygienic surroundings
→ Any defect or abnormality in the body is called a disease. A disease may be caused due to the malfunctioning of some body part or due to lack of particular vitamins or minerals in the body.
There are two main types of diseases:
(a) Non-communicable disease
(b) Communicable disease
→ A disease which does not spread from one person to another is called non- communicable disease. Some of the non- communicable disease may be present at birth. Most of the non-communicable diseases are caused by deficiency of a particular nutrient.
→ Deficiency Disease: A disease which is caused due to deficiency of any nutrient is called a deficiency disease. Some of the deficiency diseases are as follows:
→ Protein-carbohydrate Deficiency Disease: Such diseases are also called PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition). These diseases affect children between 6 months to 3 years of age. Following are the symptoms of protein-carbohydrate deficiency disease:
- Improper growth of the body
- Loose skin and sunken eyes
- Thin and light hair
- Person is inactive and gets tired easily
→ Prevention of Deficiency Diseases:
Deficiency diseases can be prevented by following measures:
(a) You should take a balanced diet which has all the nutrients.
(b) You should follow good eating habits.
(c) Children should take adequate amount of milk, fruits, porridge, salad and other healthy foods.
→ A disease which can spread from one person to another is called communicable disease. Communicable diseases are caused by bacteria, virus, fungi and many other living beings. These are transmitted through food, water, air and contact.
→ Modes of Transmission of Communicable Diseases:
→ By Insects: Some diseases are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person by insects. For example; mosquitoes transmit malaria and dengue. Houseflies spread cholera.
→ By Air, Water and Soil: Some diseases are transmitted through contaminated water and food, e.g. jaundice, typhoid and cholera. Some diseases are transmitted through air, e.g. common cold, flu and chickenpox. In case a sick person sneezes or coughs, germs from his body spread in the air. These genus enter a healthy person’s body and infect him.
→ Prevention of Communicable Diseases: Following steps can help in preventing communicable diseases:
All articles and clothes of the infected person should be disinfected.
- You should cover your mouth and nose while sneezing or coughing.
- We should keep our surroundings clean and hygienic.
- We should not allow water to stagnate near our homes. Stagnant water is the breeding ground for mosquitoes.
- We should change the water in room- coolers after every 3-4 days to prevent breeding of mosquitoes.
- Some diseases can be prevented through vaccination, e.g. measles, polio and chicken pox.
→ Health: A state of physical and mental well being.
→ Disease: Any abnormality in the body.
→ Communicable Disease: A disease which can spread from one person to another.
→ Non-communicable Disease: A disease which does not spread from one person to another.
→ Symptoms: Signs which indicate a disease.
→ Deficiency Disease: A disease caused by deficiency of nutrients.
→ Mineral Deficiency Diseases: The following table shows various mineral-deficiency diseases:
|Iron||Anaemia (less haemoglobin in blood)||Person looks weak and pale, gets tired very easily, is prone to different infections.|
|Calcium/Phosphorus||Osteomalacia||Weak teeth lose their shine and whiteness, weak, soft and fragile bones|
|Iodine||Goitre||Swelling in the neck region, retarded growth, mental disorder|
→ Vitamin Deficiency Diseases: The following table shows the diseases which happen due to vitamin deficiency:
|A||Night blindness||Unable to see in dim light, dullness in eyes, dry and scaly skin|
|B||Beri-beri||Extreme weakness, paralysis of body parts|
|C||Scurvy||Swollen and bleeding gums, loose teeth, pain in joints|
|D||Rickets||Soft and weak bones, bow-shaped legs|