Class 9 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers Constitutional Design

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Class 9 Civics Chapter 3 Extra Questions and Answers Constitutional Design

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 3 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
What was apartheid?
Answer:
Apartheid was a system of racial discrimination practised in South Africa some decades ago. It was imposed by the white Europeans on the blacks. It was another name of exploitation and oppression.

Question 2.
Why was Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964?
Answer:
He was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 because he dared to raise voice against the system of apartheid in his country.

Question 3.
What were the people of mixed races were called in South Africa?
Answer:
In south Africa, the people of mixed races were called ‘coloured’.

Question 4.
Name the groups that fought against the apartheid system.
Answer:
The blacks, coloured and Indians.

Question 5.
Which political party in South Africa led the struggle against the policies of segregation?
Answer:
The African National Congress-led the struggle against the policies of segregation.

Question 6.
Who was Vallabhbhai Patel?
Answer:
He was the leader of Bardoli peasant Satyagraha. He played a decisive role in the integration of the Indian princely states.

Question 7.
What was the Indian National Congress’s resolution at its Karachi session in 1931?
Answer:
Its resolution centred around how independent India’s Constitution should look like.

Question 8.
On what basis do we say that the British had introduced very weak legislatures?
Answer:
The British rule had given voting rights only to a few. On that basis we say that the British had introduced very weak legislatures.

Question 9.
When did the Indian Constitution come into force?
Answer:
The Indian Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950.

Question 10.
When did the Constituent Assembly adopt the Constitution?
Answer:
The Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949.

Question 11.
Who played a key role in the making of the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
Dr Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar played a key role in the making of the Indian Constitution.

Question 12.
Which national leader tried to draft a Constitution for India as far back as in 1928?
Answer:
In 1928, Motilal Nehru tried to draft a Constitution for India.

Question 13.
Name some important members of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer:
Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Dr Rajendra Prasad, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Kanhaiyalal Maniklal Munshi, etc.

Question 14.
What do you know about G. Durgabai Deshmukh?
Answer:
She was born in Andhra Pradesh. She was an advocate and public activist for women’s emancipation. She founded Andhra Mahila Sabha.

Question 15.
The Preamble to the Indian Constitution begins with ‘We’ the people of India’. What does this mean?
Answer:
It means the Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a king or any outside powers.

Question 16.
Why is India called a ‘republic’?
Answer:
India is called a ‘republic’ because here the head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position.

Question 17.
Highlight any one similarity between the story of South African struggle for freedom and the Indian National Movement.
Answer:
The leaders of both the struggles i.e. Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela followed the same policy— the policy of non-violence and they remained stick to this policy till the last.

Question 18.
What do you mean when you say ‘India is a sovereign country’?
Answer:
It means people have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the Government of India.

Question 19.
What do you mean when you say ‘India is a secular country?
Answer:
It means the citizens of India have complete freedom to follow any religion. There is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

Question 20.
Why did Dr B.R. Ambedkar often criticise Mahatma Gandhi?
Answer:
Dr B.R. Ambedkar often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi because he (Mahatma Gandhi) held different understanding of how inequalities could be removed from the Indian society.

Question 21.
How would you define the term ‘Preamble’?
Answer:
It is an introductory statement in a Constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the Constitution.

Question 22.
Why does the Constitution of India need to be amended quite regularly?
Answer:
The Constitution of India is a very long and detailed document. Therefore it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.

Question 23.
What is meant by the term ‘socialist’?
Answer:
The term ‘socialist’ means wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socioeconomic inequalities.

Question 24.
‘Justice’ is a term used in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution. What does it mean?
Answer:
The term ‘justice’ means citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender.

Question 25.
What is meant by the term ‘liberty’ used in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
‘Liberty’ means there are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.

Question 26.
Who was the founder President of Bharatiya Jansangh?
Answer:
Shyama Prasad Mukheijee was the founder President of Bhartiya Jansangh.

Question 27.
Mention any two events that inspired Indian leaders for the making of the Constitution?
Answer:

  • The ideals of the French Revolution
  • The practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 3 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Describe the system of apartheid practised in South Africa some decades ago.
OR
How did the white Europeans occupy South Africa and begin to rule by imposing apartheid on the country?
Answer:
(i) Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. The white Europeans imposed this system on South Africa.

(ii) During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the trading companies from Europe occupied it with arms and force. They settled in South Africa in a large number and became the local rulers.

(iii) The system of apartheid divided the people of South Africa and labelled them on the basis of their skin colour—blacks, coloured and migrant Indians. The white rulers treated them as inferiors and deprived them of voting rights.

Question 2.
How was the apartheid system particularly oppressive for the black population?
Or
‘The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks’. Support the statement.
Answer:
There was no denying the fact that the apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks:
(i) The entire black population of South Africa was forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.

(ii) There were separate trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools and public toilets for the whites and blacks. The blacks could not use anything meant for the whites.

(iii) The blacks were not allowed to visit the churches where the whites worshipped. They could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.

Question 3.
How did the people of South Africa fight against the oppressive system of apartheid?
Answer:
(i) All the non-whites (the blacks, coloured and migrant Indians) made collective efforts and fought unitedly against the apartheid system which had made their lives so miserable. Their fight began in 1950 and continued till they uprooted this system.

(ii) They launched protest marches and strikes. The African National Congress or ANC was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included many workers’ unions and the Communist Party.

(ii) The non-whites also got support from many sensitive whites in their fight against apartheid. Several countries denounced this system as unjust and racist. But the white government remained stick to its policy of segregation.

Question 4.
What made the blacks and whites apprehensive at the time of Constitution making in South Africa?
Answer:
The following factors made both ethnic groups apprehensive at the time of Constitution making in South Africa:

  • The oppressor (whites) and the oppressed (blacks) in the new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They had their fears.
  • Both groups wanted to safeguard their interests. The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised. They wanted substantial social and economic rights.
  • The white majority was keen to protect its privileges and property.

Question 5.
What was the attitude of the black leaders towards the whites after the emergence of the new democratic South Africa?
Answer:
After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, blacks leaders refrained themselves from taking revenge on the whites for all their oppression and ill-treatment. Instead they maintained a very soft and liberal attitude towards the whites.

They appealed to fellow blacks to forgive the whites for the atrocities they had committed while in power. They said let us build a new South Africa based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights. The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle came together to draw up a common Constitution.

Question 6.
Why is a written Constitution needed in every country?
Answer:
Every country has diverse groups of people. Their relationships may be bad for various reasons. People may have differences of opinion and interests. Whether democratic or not, most countries in the world need to have some basic rules called a Constitution to run the society and country peacefully and cordially.

These rules must be considered supreme. They apply not just to government but to all the people living in a territory. This set of basic rules determines the relationship among people of a territory and also the relationship between the people and government.

Question 7.
Mention the role of the Constituent Assembly in the making of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
(i) Constituent Assembly was an assembly of people’s representatives that wrote the Constitution for India. First of all the assembly drafted the document called the Constitution.

(ii) The elections to the Constituent Assembly were hold in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. Soon after the country was divided into India and Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly was also divided and the one that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members.

(iii) The Assembly took 2 years 11 months and 18 days, during which the members deliberated for 114 days. The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but brought into effect on 26 January 1950, the day on which we celebrate the Republic Day every year.

Question 8.
What is the significance of the Preamble to the Indian Constitution?
Answer:
The Constitution of India begins with a Preamble which reads like a poem on democracy.

  • The Preamble contains the philosophy on which the entire Constitution has been built. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution.
  • It provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of government, to find out whether it is good or bad.
  • It has some key words like sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity which form the foundation for India’s democracy.

Question 9.
What compromises were made between the blacks and whites at the time of Constitution making in South Africa?
Answer:
(i) After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, the two parties, the one that ruled through oppression and the other that led freedom struggle, sat together to draw up a common Constitution. After long negotiations both parties agreed to a compromise.

(ii) The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person are vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers.

(iii) The blacks agreed that the majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority.

Question 10.
How can you say that the Constituent Assembly was the representative body of the people of India?
Answer:
(i) It is a fact the Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. Some of the important leaders who became its members were Rajendra Prasad, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Abul Kalam Azad, Sarojini Naidu. Frank Antony, K.M Munshi, etc., representing different section of the Indian society.

(ii) As there was no universal adult franchise at that time, so the Constituent Assembly was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country.

(iii) In social terms too, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 3 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
What is Constitution of a country? Why do we need it? Or, what is the importance of a Constitution in a country?
Answer:
The Constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory and also the relationship between the people and government. We need a Constitution for various reasons:

  • It generates a decrese of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
  • It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Question 2.
“The Constitution of India was drawn up under very difficult circumstances”. Support the statement.
Answer:
India’s Constitution, like South Africa, was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances. It was not an easy affair to make a Constitution for a country like India which is so vast and diverse.

At that time the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens. The country was bom through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a better experience for the people of both the countries i.e. India and Pakistan. Atleast ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border.

The British had left to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent. The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task. When the Constitution was being written, the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today. The makers of the Constitution had anxieties about the present and the future of the country.

Question 3.
What is called the Preamble to the Constitution? Mention any four key words used in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution.
Or
Which values are embedded in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution? Explain.
Answer:
The Constitution of India begins with a short statement of its basic values. This is called the preamble to the Constitution. These values guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution. The Preamble is the soul of our Constitution. It contains some key words such as sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic, republic, justice, etc.

(i) Sovereign: India is a sovereign country. People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the Government of India.

(ii) Socialist: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government . should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socioeconomic inequalities.

(iii) Secular: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion.
Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

(iv) Democratic: A form of government where people enjoy equal political rights, elect their rulers and hold them accountable. The government is run according to some basic rules.

Question 4.
Describe how South Africa became a democratic country under the leadership of Nelson Mandela.
Or
Explain the struggle of the South African people against apartheid.
Or
How did the policy of segregation come to an end in South Africa?
Or
What was the role of Nelson Mandela in making South Africa a democratic country?
Answer:
(i) Apartheid was a system of racial segregation and ill-treatment of blacks followed by the Government of South Africa between 1948 and 1989. The white European rulers treated all non-whites (blacks, coloured and migrant Indians) as inferiors, The non-whites did not have voting rights. The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas.

(ii) Since 1950, all the non-whites fought collectively against the apartheid system. They launched protest marches and strikes. The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation.

(iii) Nelson Mandela remained an inspiring force behind this struggle. He got support of many workers’ unions and the Communist Party. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose apartheid and played a leading role in this struggle. Several countries denounced apartheid as unjust and racist. But the white racist government continued to torture blacks and coloured people.

(iv) Protests and struggles against apartheid intensified with the passage of time. This compelled the government to realise that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through oppression. So, the white regime changed its policies.

(v) As a result, discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban of political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as a free man. Finally, at the midnight of 26 April 1994, the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa was hoisted marking the newly born democracy in the world. The apartheid system came to an end and a multi-racial democratic government was formed.

Question 5.
How can you say that the Indian Constitution is both rigid and flexible?
Answer:
One of the most important features of the Constitution of India is that it both rigid and flexible. It is rigid because the provisions related to the basic structure of the Constitution e.g. the division of powers between the legislature, the executive and judiciary cannot be changed by the Parliament alone.

If any change is needed to make, it has to be first passed by both the Houses of the Parliament with at least two-third majority. Then it has to be satisfied by the legislatures of at least half of the total states.

At the same time our Constitution is flexible also. It can be changed according to the need of the time. The Constitution makers did not see it as a sacred , static and unalterable law. So, they make provisions to incorporate changes from time to time to keep it updated. These changes are called constitutional amendments.

Question 6.
Mention five major characteristics of the South African Constitution.
Answer:
South Africa got independence from the apartheid government in 1994. Afterwards the process of Constitution making began. It took two years when South Africa got one of the finest constitutions of the world. In 1996, President Nelson Mandela promulgated it. Here are the major characteristics of this Constitution:

(i) The Constitution of South Africa is the highest law of the land. It is widely regarded as the most progressive Constitution in the world, with a Bill of Rights second to none.

(ii) The new Constitution was written in consultation with the public as well as elected public representatives.

(iii) The Constitution gives to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. It is based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights.

(iv) Freedom of expression and association, political and property rights, housing, health care, education, access to information and access to courts have also been incorporated in the Constitution of South Africa.

(v) Speaking on the South African Constitution, Mandela said that the Constitution speaks of both the past and the future. On the one hand, it is a solemn pact in which all the citizens of South Africa declare to one another that they shall never permit a repetition of their racist, brutal and repressive past.

Thus, the South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world. A state denounced by the entire world till recently as the most undemocratic one is now seen as a model of democracy.

Question 7.
Mention some of the major characteristics of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
The Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950. Some of its major characteristics are
given below:

(i) It is a very long and detailed document. Therefore, there are provisions to incorporate changed from time to time to keep it updated.

(ii) It describes the institutional arrangements in a very legal language. It lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country.

(iii) It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions. And it puts limits to what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizens that cannot be violated.

(iv) The Constitution of India begins with a short statement of its basic values such as secularism, fraternity, equality, justice, etc. This is called the Preamble to the Constitution.

(v) It does not reflect the views of its members alone. It express a broad consensus of its time. Perhaps therefore no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself.

Question 8.
Describe the role of the Constituent Assembly in the marking of the Indfian Constitution.
Or
Describe what contribution was made by the Constituent Assembly in framing of the Indian Constitution.
Answer:
(i) The Constitution was framed by the Constituent Assembly established under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946. The 299 individuals who comprised the Constituent Assembly can be called the founding fathers and mothers of the Republic of India.

(ii) Certain members of the Assembly played a key role in the making of the Indian Constitution. The foremost among them was Dr B.R. Ambedkar whose role as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Assembly has earned him the popular of‘Father of the Indian Constitution.’ Other Congress leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad and Maulana Azad also played valuable role in the making of the Constitution.

(iii) The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then the Drafting Committee chaired by Ambedkar prepared a draft Constitution for discussion.

(iv) Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the draft Constitution, clause by clause. More than two thousand amendments were considered . The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years.

(v) All the proceedings and discussions in the Constituent Assembly have been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution.

Question 9.
How did the white minority and the black majority agree to draw up a common Constitution for South Africa?
Answer:
(i) After the emergence of the new democratic South Africa, the two parties, the one that ruled through oppression and the other that led freedom struggle, sat together to draw up a common Constitution. After long negotiations both parties agreed to a compromise.

(ii) The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person are vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers.

(iii) The blacks agreed that the majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority.

South Africa got independence from the apartheid government in 1994. Afterwards the process of Constitution making began. It took two years when South Africa got one of the finest constitutions of the world. In 1996, President Nelson Mandela promulgated it. Here are the major characteristics of this Constitution:

(i) The Constitution of South Africa is the highest law of the land. It is widely regarded as the most progressive Constitution in the world, with a Bill of Rights second to none.

(ii) The new Constitution was written in consultation with the public as well as elected public representatives.

(iii) The Constitution gives to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. It is based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights.

(iv) Freedom of expression and association, political and property rights, housing, health care, education, access to information and access to courts have also been incorporated in the Constitution of South Africa.

(v) Speaking on the South African Constitution, Mandela said that the Constitution speaks of both the past and the future. On the one hand, it is a solemn pact in which all the citizens of South Africa declare to one another that they shall never permit a repetition of their racist, brutal and repressive past.

Thus, the South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world. A state denounced by the entire world till recently as the most undemocratic one is now seen as a model of democracy.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 3 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
Why should we accept the Constitution made by the Constituent Assembly more than fifty years ago? Give valid reasons.
Answer:
There are many reasons why we should accept the Constitution of India made by the Constituent Assembly more than fifty years ago: The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time.

Many countries of the world have had to rewrite their Constitution afresh because the basic rules were not accepted to all major social or political parties. The experience of our Constitution is different. Over the last fifty years, several groups have questioned some provisions of the Constitution. But no large social group or political party has over questioned the legitimacy of the Constitution itself. This is an unusual achievement for any Constitution.

The second reason for accepting the Constitution is that the Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. There was no universal adult franchise at that time. So the Constituent Assembly could not have been chosen directly by all the people of India. It was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country.

The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress, but there were many ! members who did not agree with the Congress. In social terms too, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.

Last but not the least , the manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to our Constitution. The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft Constitution for discussion. Then several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause.

More then two thousand amendments were considered. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution.

Question 2.
What factors led to the making of the Indian Constitution?
Or
Enlist all the major factors that contributed to the making of the Indian Constitution.
Or
Describe how the political institutions of colonial rule helped develop an agreement over the institutional design of Constitution.
Answer:
The factors that led to the making of the Indian Constitution were:
(i) The goal of our national movement was not only to oust the Britishers but also to rejuvenate our country and to transform our society and politics. There were sharp differences of opinion within the freedom struggle about the path India should take after Independence, but almost everyone accepted some basic ideas.

(ii) In 1928, Moti Lai Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a Constitution for India. In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi Session of the Indian National Congress centred around how independent India’s Constitution should look like. Both these documents were committed to the inclusion of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the right of minorities in the Constitution of independent India.

(iii) The familiarity with political institutions of colonial rule also helped develop an agreement over the institutional design. The British rule had given voting rights only to a few. It was highly undemocratic. But the experience gained by Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country in the setting up its own institutions and working in them. That is why, the Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details and procedures from colonial laws like the Government of India Act, 1935.

(iv) Many of our leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution, the practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the US.

(v) The socialist revolution in Russia had inspired many Indians to think of shaping a system based on social and economic equality. At each step the leaders were questioning whether these things suited our country. All these factors contributed to the making of the Indian Constitution.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 3 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
What values are reflected from the Constitution of South Africa? Mention any three.
Answer:
The values reflected by the Constitution of South Africa are:

  • It gives to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.
  • The Constitution is based on equality of all races and men and women on democratic values, social justice and human rights.
  • It gives assurance to the white minority that their property would not be taken away by the black majority.
  • The South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world because it is not based on the policy of revenge but on equality of all races and cherishes faith in human beings.
  • The Constitution makers agreed that everybody should become part of the solution to the problems. It does not exclude anyone.

Question 2.
“The South African Constitution inspires democrats all over world”. Explain.
Answer:
The South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world. A state denounced by the entire world till recently as the most undemocratic one is now seen as a model of democracy. What made this possible was the determination of the people of South Africa to work together, to transform bitter experiences into the binding glue of a rainbow nation as it is called by the South Africans.

They built a new South Africa based on equality of all races and men and women, on democratic values, social justice and human rights. The party that ruled through oppression and brutal killings and the party that led the freedom struggle sat together and draw up a common Constitution. This is really inspiring.

Question 3.
There are some basic values that our Constitution has embodied into institutional arrangements. Mention them.
Answer:

  • The Constitution of India is a long and detailed document which has certain flexibilities. It can be amended quite regularly to keep it updated and in accordance with the people’s aspirations and changes in society.
  • It lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country. It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions.
  • It also puts limits to what the government can do by providing some rights to the citizens that cannot be violated.

Question 4.
Mention some basic ideas that were accepted by almost every Indian even before the Constituent Assembly met to frame the Constitution.
Answer:
In 1928, Moti Lai Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a Constitution for India. In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi Session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how the Constitution of India should look like.

Both these documents were committed to the inclusion of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities in the Constitution of independent India. Thus, some basic values were accepted by all leaders much before the Constituent Assembly met to deliberate on the Constitution.