Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Resource and Development

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Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Resource and Development

Resource and Development World Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 1 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Mention two factors on which resource development depends.
Answer:

  • Latest technology
  • Quality of humans as resource

Question 2.
What is resource? Give one example.
Answer:
Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, and which is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘resource’. For example, water is a resource.

Question 3.
How can you say that resources are not free gifts of nature?
Answer:
Resources are, in fact, a function of human activities. Human beings, who themselves are essential components of resources, transform materials available in our environment into resources and use them. So, it is wrong to say that resources are free gifts of nature.

Question 4.
What is meant by sustainable development?
Answer:
Sustainable development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

Question 5.
Why was Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit convened in 1992?
Answer:
The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development at the global level.

Question 6.
What is Net Sown Area (NSA)?
Answer:
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year is known as Net Sown Area.

Question 7.
What is meant by gross cropped area?
Answer:
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Question 8.
What are the physical factors that determine the use of land?
Answer:
The physical factors that determine the use of land are — topography, climate and soil types.

Question 9.
What are the human factors that determine the use of land?
Answer:
The human factors that determine the use of land are – population density, technological capability and culture and traditions etc.

Question 10.
India has land under a variety of relief features. Name them.
Answer:
Mountains, plateaus, plains and islands.

Question 11.
What are shelter belts? How have they proved helpful?
Answer:
Rows of trees which are planted in between the crops are called shelter belts. These shelter belts have proved helpful in the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

Question 12.
What do you mean by international resources?
Answer:
Resources that are owned and regulated by international institutions is called international resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.

Question 13.
How does the contour farming help in the soil conservation?
Answer:
Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes and thus helpful in the soil conservation.

Question 14.
Name the four states where mining have caused severe land degradation.
Answer:
These states are- Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.

Question 15.
What are the important factors in the formation of soil?
Answer:
The important factors in the formation of soil include relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time.

Question 16.
What is gully erosion?
Answer:
Gully erosion takes place when running water cuts deep ravines in the absence of vegetation. This type of erosion makes soil unfit for cultivation.

Question 17.
Name the areas where red and yellow soils are found.
Answer:
The eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau, parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.

Question 18.
Where does the laterite soil develop?
Answer:
The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rainfall.

Question 19.
What causes land degradation?
Answer:
Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it causes land degradation.

Question 20.
What is Agenda 21?
Answer:
Agenda 21 is a declaration signed by the world leaders in the Earth Summit held at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992 in order to achieve global sustainable development.

Question 21.
Which human factors have contributed to land degradation?
Answer:
Deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying are some of the human factors which have contributed to land degradation.

Question 22.
Name the states where overgrazing has caused land degradation.
Answer:
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

Question 23.
What are the necessary conditions for the development of any region?
Answer:
The availability of resources and corresponding changes in technology and institutions are the necessary conditions for the development of any region.

Question 24.
How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation?
Answer:
Over irrigation leads to waterlogging in the field which further leads to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.

Question 25.
What do you mean by bad land?
Answer:
Land that is highly unsuitable for cultivation is called bad land. Soil erosion is the factor which converts a fertile land into a bad land.

Resource and Development World Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 1 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Mention any two human activities which are responsible for the process of soil erosion. Explain the two types of soil erosion mostly observed in India.
Answer:
Large scale deforestation and mining are some of the human activities responsible for the process of soil erosion. The most common types of soil erosion in India are
(a) Gully erosion, and
(b) Sheet erosion.

(a) Gully erosion: It is the removal of soil along drainage lines by surface water run off. Once started, gullies will continue to move by head ward erosion or by slumping of the side walls unless steps are taken to stabilise the disturbance.

(b) Sheet erosion: Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.

Question 2.
Discuss the role of humans in resource development. (Imp)
Answer:
(i) Humans play an important role in resource development. They interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.

(ii) They convert materials available in our environment into resources. To fulfil their needs, they make the natural elements useful and valuable by dint of their intelligence, skill and technical knowledge.

(iii) For example, running water of rivers is a natural gift and it becomes a resource when man uses it (river water) for irrigation by constructing a canal. Man can also use this water for power generation by building dams on rivers. Thus, in the process of conversion of materials to resource creation, man’s role is more important.

Question 3.
Classify resources on the basis of exhaustibility.
OR
Distinguish between renewable and non-renewable resources.
Answer:
On the basis of exhaustibility, resources are of two types:
(i) Renewable resources, and
(ii) Non-renewable resources.
(i) Renewable resources: These resources can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes. These are also known as replenishable resources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forest and wildlife.

(ii) Non-renewable resources: These resources occur over a long geological time. For example, minerals and fossil fuels take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

Question 4.
What is Agenda 21? What does it aim at?
Answer:
Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit i.e. UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) which took place at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. The ‘21’ in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st century.

It aims at achieving global sustainable development. It is an agenda to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities. One major objective of Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local agenda 21.

Question 5.
Mention three factors that are involved in resource planning.
OR
‘Resource planning is a complex process’. Explain.
Answer:
Resource planning is a complex process and it involves the following factors:
(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves survey¬ing, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.

(iii) Matching the resources development plans with overall national development plans.

Question 6.
Mention any three characteristics of arid soils.
Answer:
The three characteristics of arid soils are-
(i) These soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas, the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.

(ii) These soils are mainly found in Western Rajasthan. As the region is characterised by dry climate and high temperature, evaporation is faster. That is why soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iii) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by kanker because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The kanker layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water up. This makes the soil unsuitable for cultivation.

(iv) These soils can be converted into cultivable land by proper irrigation.

Question 7.
Distinguish between khadar and bangar soils. (Imp)
OR
Classify alluvial soils on the basis of their age

Khadar Bangar
(i) This soil belongs to the category of new alluvium. (i) This soil belongs to the category of old alluvium.
(ii) It contains fine soil particles and is light in colour. (ii) It contains coarse soil particles and is dark in colour.
(iii) It is very fertile because of having fine particles. (iii) It is comparatively not very fertile because of having kanker nodules with calcium carbonate.
(iv) It is found along the banks, flood plains and delta regions. (iv) It is found above the level of flood plains.

Question 8.
Which is called regur soil? Mention any three characteristics of this soil. (Imp)
Answer:
Black soil is also called regur soil. This soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil.
Three characteristic features of this soil are-

  • The black soils are made up of extremely fine (clayey) material. They are well-known for their capacity to hold moisture.
  • These soils are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime but are deficient in phosphoric contents.
  • They become sticky when wet and develop cracks on drying up. These cracks help in mixing air in the soil.

Question 9.
How does red soil develop and in which part of India? What makes it look red and yellow?
Or
How is red soil formed? Mention its three characteristics.
Answer:
Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
Three characteristics of red soil-

  • This soil develops a reddish colour due to diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
  • It is porous in nature and more fertile. It is also very thick.
  • On the uplands, this soil consists of loose gravels and highly coarse materials, but in the lowlands it is rich, deep dark coloured, fertile and red.

Question 10.
Which is the most widespread and important soil of India? Mention its important characteristics.
Answer:
Alluvial soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast. Three main features of this type of soil are –

  • This soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. It is a very fertile soil.
  • Mostly these soils contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat etc.
  • Due to its high fertility, regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated.

Question 11.
Name the soil type which is widely found in Western Rajasthan. Explain two important characteristics of this soil type which make it unsuitable for cultivation. (Imp)
Answer:
The three characteristics of arid soils are-
(i) These soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. In some areas, the salt content is very high and common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.

(ii) These soils are mainly found in Western Rajasthan. As the region is characterised by dry climate and high temperature, evaporation is faster. That is why soil lacks humus and moisture.

(iii) The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by kanker because of the increasing calcium content downwards. The kanker layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water up. This makes the soil unsuitable for cultivation.

(iv) These soils can be converted into cultivable land by proper irrigation.

Question 12.
Explain the distribution of the black soil.
Answer:
This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap region spread over northwest Deccan plateau and is made up of lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.

Question 13.
Describe the laterite soil under the following headings:
(i) Why are they called laterite?
(ii) Distribution of this soil
(iii) Crops grown in these soils
Answer:
(i) The word ‘laterite’ has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. Since its colour is red and resembles brick colour that is why it is called laterite soil.
(ii) Laterite soils are mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.
(iii) Crops grown in these soils are tea, coffee and cashew nuts.

Question 14.
What do you mean by land degradation? What is the area of degraded land in India? Mention the name of various types of wasteland and their percentage share.
Answer:
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-included processes acting upon the land. At present, there are about 130 million hectares of degraded land in India. Approximately, 28 percent of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area, 56 percent of it is water eroded area, 6 percent of it is saline and alkaline land and 10 percent of it is wind eroded area.

Question 15.
Where are forest soils found in India? Mention the major characteristics of these soils.
Answer:
Forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rainforests are available.
Major characteristics of these soils are:

  • The texture of these soil varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed. They are loamy and salty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.
  • In the snow-covered areas of the Himalayas, these soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
  • The soils found in the lower parts of the valleys particularly on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.

Resource and Development World Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 1 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
Classify resources on the basis of ownership. Mention major features of these resources.
OR
Explain the classification of resources on the basis of ownership. (Imp)
Answer:
On the basis of ownership, there are four types of resources-

  • Individual resources
  • Community owned resources
  • National resources
  • International resources

Individual resources: These resources are owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. People in urban areas also own plots, houses and other property. Other examples of resources owned by individu¬als include plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells, etc.

Community owned resources: These resources are accessible to all the members of the commu¬nity. Village commons, public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds etc. are accessible to all the people living in that area.

National resources: All the resources such as water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation and therefore, known as national resources.

International resources: There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these resources without the concurrence of international institutions.

Question 2.
Explain the classification of resources on the basis of the status of development. (Imp)
OR
Distinguish between stock resources and reserve resources. (Imp)
Answer:
On the basis of the status of development resources are classified in the following categories:

  • Potential resources
  • Developed resources
  • Stock
  • Reserves

Potential resources: Potential resources are those resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have huge potential for the development of wind and solar energy. But these have not been developed properly till date.

Developed resources: These resources are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation. The development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.

Stock: Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but they are not accessible due to lack of appropriate technology, are included among stock resources. For example, water is a compound of two inflammable gases hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy. But in absence of required technology to use them for this purpose, it is considered as stock resources.

Reserves: These are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technology but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilised only to a limited extent. Thus, water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be utilised in the future.

Question 3.
What is soil? What is its importance in human life? Explain the factors that contribute to soil formation.
Answer:
Soil is the uppermost layer of the unconsolidated particles found on the surface of the earth. It is made up of parent rocks and vegetation. It is rich in both organic and inorganic materials and supports the growth of plants.

Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

Soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil upto a few cm in depth.
There are different factors which help in formation of soil:

  • Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life and time are important factors in the formation of soil.
  • Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers, etc. contribute to the formation of soil.
  • Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil also contribute to soil formation.

Question 4.
What is meant by soil profile? Draw a labelled diagram of soil profile.
Answer:
Soil profile is the sequence, colour, texture and nature of the horizons superimposed one above the other and exposed in a pit-section dug through the soil mantle.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Resource and Development 2

The various layers of soil profile are:

  • Top soil or the upper soil layer
  • Sub soil weathered rocks sand and silt clay
  • Substratum weathered parent rock material
  • Unweathered parent bed rock

Top soil of the uppermost layer is the real soil. It contains humus and inorganic materials. Below it is the subsoil which consists of rocks. sand particles and clay. The third layer, which comes below the second layer is made up of weathered parent rock material and the fourth layer is made up of parent bed rock.

Question 5.
What is soil erosion? What factors contribute to it? Mention various types of soil erosion.
Answer:
Soil erosion is the washing or blowing away (by wind or water) of the top layer of soil. This is a serious problem particularly for farmers. The process of soil formation and erosion, go on side by side. Generally, there is a balance between the two. But when this balance is disturbed, soil erosion takes place. The factors that contribute to soil erosion are-

  • Deforestation
  • Over grazing
  • Construction and mining activities
  • Natural forces such as wind, glacier and water.

There are different types of soil erosion-

Water erosion and surface water runoff:
The loss of top soil due to water is called water erosion. During rainy season, when raindrops fall directly on top soil, they loosen the material binding it together. As a result, small fragments get detached. If the rainfall continues, water gathers on the ground, causing water flow on the land surface, known as surface water runoff. This runoff carries the detached soil away.

Sheet erosion:
Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as ‘sheet erosion’.

Rill erosion:
Sometimes rainfall does not soak into the soil, and gathers on the surface and runs downhill, forming small channels of water called rills. These rills get dry up after the rainfall but the stream bed created by the temporary stream becomes prominent.

Gully erosion:
The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies. This type of erosion poses problems for farmers because the affected land is not put for cultivation.

Wind erosion:
Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion.

Defective methods of farming:
Due to defective farming methods, there arises the problem of soil erosion. Ploughing in a wrong way i.e. up and down the slope form channels for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion.

Question 6.
What is meant by land degradation? Write five human activities which are mainly responsible for land degradation in India. (Imp)
Answer:
Land degradation is a process through which the land becomes unsuitable for agricultural activities. The following human activities are responsible for land degradation:

(i) Mining: Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete leaving deep scars and traces of over burdening. In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation.

(ii) Overgrazing: Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. In states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation.

(iii) Over irrigation: In states of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation. It occurs due to water logging that leads to increase in salinity
and alkalinity in the soil.

(iv) Mineral processing: The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.

(v) Industrial effluents as waste have also become a major source of land degradation in many parts of the country.

Resource and Development World Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 1 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
Why is resource planning so important in a country like India? Give reasons.
Answer:
(i) India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources. There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.

(ii) There are some regions which can be considered self-sufficient in terms of the availability of resources and there are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.

(iii) The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits. Arunachal Pradesh has no dearth of water resources but lacks in infrastructrual development. The state of Rajasthan is gifted with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources. Ladakh has rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water; infrastructure etc. This calls for balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels.

Question 2.
What are the various methods of conservation of soil? Explain.
Answer:
There are various methods of soil conservation:

  • Contour farming in mountainous regions: Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
  • Terrace farming: Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion.
  • Strip farming: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.
  • Shelter belts: Planting lines of trees to create shelters have contributed significantly to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.
  • Other methods include afforestation, control on grazing, etc.

Question 3.
Why is there a need to conserve resources? What was Gandhiji’s opinion regarding the conservation of resources?
Answer:
Resources are vital for any developmental activity. But irrational consumption and over-use of resources for selfish purposes may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. In order to overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important.

Gandhiji voiced his concern about resource conservation in these words, “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed”. He placed the greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level. He didn’t believe in mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.

Question 4.
‘India has land under a variety of relief features’. Support the statement with the help of a pie chart.
Answer:
The name of these relief features are mountains, plateaus, plains and islands.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Resource and Development 3

 

  • About 43 percent of the land area is plain which provides facilities for agricultural and industrial activities.
  • Mountains account for 30 percent of the total surface area of the country and ensure perennial flow of some rivers. They also provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
  • About 27 percent of the area of the country is the plateau region. It possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.

Resource and Development World Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 1 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
Natural resources are of great importance. Which values are associated with them?
Answer:
The values associated with resources are-

  • They are used to satisfy human needs. For example, water is a resource and it is used for drinking, irrigation, cleaning purposes and cooking.
  • Resources make human life simpler and happier. They bring quality change in man’s life.
  • Resources are the basic requirements for country’s economic development. Today the countries which have more resources are considered as developed and prosperous.
  • Land resources support natural vegetation, wildlife, human life as well as man’s economic activities.
  • Water is an important resource because we cannot survive without it.

Question 2.
Mention three problems which have been caused due to indiscriminate use of resources.
Answer:

  • Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.
  • Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two groups- haves and have nots (the rich and the poor).
  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.

Resource and Development World Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 1 Map-based Questions

Question 1.
Identify six major soil types shown in the given map of India.
Answer:

  1. Forest and mountainous soil
  2. Alluvial soil
  3. Red and yellow soil
  4. Black soil
  5. Laterite soil and
  6. Arid soil.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Resource and Development 4