The Biography of Famous Personalities of India will tell you about the controversies, the dark sides of a person that you may have never heard of.
A Fearless Revolutionary, Birth, Childhood And Education of Bose
A Fearless Revolutionary
The Quit India movement of 1942 was the final struggle for independence in India. The entire country resounded with slogans and cries of ‘Go away, Britishers !’ At this time, the eastern border of India saw the Azad Hind Fauj proceeding forward with the rallying cry, ‘Chalo Delhi !’ (‘Onward to Delhi !’) under the leadership of Subhashchandra Bose. Both these movements contributed significantly towards the attainment of India’s independence.
The creation of the Azad Hind Fauj, its attempts to lead India to independence and its brave crusades against British Raj, are passionate, inspiring and unmatched events in the history of the Indian freedom struggle. Gandhiji wished to lead India towards freedom on the path of non-violence, whereas Subhashchandra wanted freedom for the country by any means and at all cost. He used to say, ‘Give me your blood, and I shall give you freedom.’
Talking to an American journalist Louis Fischer in 1944, Gandhiji had described Netaji as The Patriot of all patriots’.
Even today, India remembers, reveres and respects Subhashchandra, the fiery warrior of Indian independence, and the fearless revolutionary warrior who pledged to shed the last drop of his blood in the fight against injustice, terror and oppression.
There were innumerable men and women involved in the fight for the freedom of the Motherland. They shone brightly in the history of India’s freedom, like stars in the Milky Way. One bright star in this Milky Way was Subhashchandra. Youngsters were ready to lay down their lives with just one nod from him. He had different ways of achieving freedom. He firmly believed that one could not drive away oppressors politely, and it took a needle to pluck out a thorn.
The non-violent path that Gandhiji was advocating did not sit well in the mind of the radical and revolutionary Subhashchandra. And yet, Gandhiji held an esteemed and revered position in his heart. He had said, “Mahatma Gandhi is my Gum. He is a modem day sage. His ideal of non-violence is a ray of hope for the entire human race. I bow down to him. However, non-violence is the weak link for this enslaved nation.”
These words of Subhashchandra show his admirable humility: I have fought with Gandhiji and come abroad. This does not mean that I want to blow my own tmmpet. If I can succeed in removing the cormpt and evil British raj from my country, then I will immediately lay the control of my free country at the feet of Mahatmaji.”
Subhashchandra Bose is well-known in history as Netaji (Leader). The Indian government conferred the ‘Bharat Ratna’ on him posthumously in 1992.
Birth, Childhood And Education
Subhashchandra was born in Cuttack, Orissa, on the 23rd of January, 1897. His father was Raibahadur Jankinath, and his mother was Prabhavati Devi. He was the ninth among fourteen children. His father was a well-known lawyer and his mother was a religious housewife. Prabhavati Devi’s father was Ganganarayan Dutta. The Dutta family was considered dignified in Calcutta for generations.
His father’s hometown was a village called Kodilia, from 24 Parganas of West Bengal. He worked very hard to become a lawyer. He came to Cuttack to practice Law, and settled here. He also became a government lawyer. The government gave him the title of ‘Raibahadur’ in appreciation of his successful legal practice, which he returned to the government during the freedom struggle of 1930. He also became a member of the Legislative Assembly of Bengal in 1912.
In spite of being a government administrator, Jankinath was a true patriot. He encouraged students of a missionary school, where he delivered a speech during a prize distribution function, to fill their hearts with the desire to free their motherland from foreign rule, to fight against injustice and to work hard to create good governance after the attainment of self-governance in India. Subhash had inherited the quality of fearlessness from him.
His mother was a great woman. She was a devotee of Ramakrishna Paramhans. Her religious ideologies created a strong conscience in Subhash, the child. The cultured parenting of Prabhavati Devi ensured that all her children were intelligent and academically sound.
Subhashchandra’s elder brother was a businessman. He owned the Prabha Mill at Viramgam, which he had named after his mother.
Subhashchandra was admitted into the Baptist Missionary School in 1902 for his primary education. It was a very strict school, and Subhashchandra liked it to be so. He became the favourite student of all the teachers very quickly.
In 1909, he was admitted to the Ravenshaw Collegiate School. This was a school steeped in Indian culture and nationalism. The seeds of patriotism were planted here in Subhashchandra’s heart. Here, he encountered a teacher named Beniprasad Madhavdas, who had a lasting influence on Subhash. Beniprasad, the then Headmaster of the school, lectured him about serving the afflicted and distressed people.
At this time, there was an outbreak of Cholera in Cuttack, and many were dying because of it. So, under the influence of Beniprasad, Subhashbabu collected a group of friends and went around the poor areas of the city, distributing medicines and helping to clean up dirty areas. Reading the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and hearing about them, made Subhashchandra’s own life very dignified. The brilliant light of such books lit up the darkness when he was faced with difficult times.
Subhash passed his Matriculate examination in 1913. Then he went to Calcutta and entered Presidency College. This was a westernised college. A renowned professor named Oaten taught here. He was a staunch racist, and would often insult Indian students. He considered Indians worse than animals. Once, he got angry with an Indian student, used foul language and slapped him. Subhash’s tolerance reached its limit when he witnessed this deliberate insult.
An enraged Subhash slapped the professor back. The whole college was taken aback. Subhash was expelled from the college by the University for such unprecedented, bad behaviour. He had to return to Cuttack and face his father.
Subhash’s mind was drawn towards spirituality as well as patriotism. His mother’s religious culture and Vivekananda’s ideology aroused a deep desire of self-knowledge. At the tender age of fifteen, Subhash left home in search of a Guru and went to the Himalayas. He met quite a few sages and yogis at different holy places on the way, but he could not find a Guru for himself. He roamed around on the Himalayas for six months and then returned home.
Two years later, during the tenure of Ashutosh Mukherjee, the Vice-chancellor of Calcutta University, Subhash’s education was terminated. He then took admission into the Scottish Church College, and passed his B.A. in Philosophy in 1919, ranking second in the University.
His father advised him to appear for the Indian Civil Service examination. At this time, this examination was held at London. Subhash did not wish to work for the British government. He believed that the ICS was a golden leash around the neck of a person, nevertheless, he still decided to appear for the ICS exam, just in order to respect his father’s wishes.
Subhash left for England on The City of Calcutta’ ship on 15th September 1919. He reached London in October, 1919, and entered the Cambridge University in order to prepare for the exam. Subhash passed the ICS exam which was taken in March, 1920, ranking fourth overall. The happiness of the Bose family knew no bounds ! After the examination, he needed to take a year of training.
He finished his apprenticeship in February, 1921, and was to be given his appointment within a month, when Subhashbabu quit ICS because his desire to serve the country was greater. Thus, he became a shining example of the renunciation of power and wealth at a very young age, to innumerable youngsters all over the country. His father was very upset. Subhash returned to India on 16th of July 1921, after experiencing severe racial discrimination in England. His patriotism and his extreme dislike for the British increased after his stay at England.