India Our Country: Physical Divisions of India, Location & Climate

The compilation of these Our Country – India Notes makes students exam preparation simpler and organised.

India Our Country

India is one of the most beautiful places on earth. Known as the land of rivers, India with its beauty and its diverse topography has captured the fancy of many travellers since ancient times. Let us learn more about the geography of India our country.

India Our Country

India our country is a vast land. It stretches from Kashmir in the north to Kanyakumari in the south and Arunachal Pradesh in the eastern end to the deserts of Kutchh in the west.

Spread across its vast expanse of 3.28 square kilometers, the land is surrounded by the Himalayas in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, the Arabian Sea on the west, and the Indian Ocean on the south. With so much variation in the landscape within one landmass, India our country is most certainly, rich in diversity.

Location & Climate

India our country is located in the northern hemisphere between 8°4’N to 37°6’N latitudes and 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes. And, the Tropic of Cancer cuts the landmass halfway through, at 23°30’N latitude. Due to this, the country enjoys a subtropical climate. Learn about the Climate of India in detail here.

Also, the longitudinal distance of the country causes variation in time. Like, in Arunachal Pradesh, the sun rises almost two hours earlier than in the Kutch region. But, we consider the longitude of 82°30’E to set the Indian Standard Time.

India Our Country

Neighbours & Administration

India, our country, shares its borders with seven countries, whom we call our neighbours- Nepal, Bhutan, China, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. For administrative purposes, our government has divided India into 28 States and 7 Union Territories, with Delhi as the capital of the country.

Furthermore, each state also has a number of districts. Of these, Rajasthan is the largest state while Goa forms the smallest state, with respect to land area. Each of these states and territories is unique with its own culture and languages, therefore adding to the country’s diversity. India is also the second most populated country in the world, after China.

Physical Division India

India our country, is gifted with a variety of landscapes– the lofty Himalayas, the Great Indian Desert, the Northern Plains, the Deccan plateau surface, and the scenic coasts and islands. Because each of these landforms has a beauty of its own, it also adds to the physical diversity of the country. Let’s find out about each of these.

Himalayan Mountains
In the northernmost part of the country, the mighty mountain ranges of the Himalayas stand as guards. This mountain is run as three parallel ranges, namely-

  • The Greater Himalayas or Himadri, which boasts the world’s and India’s highest peaks.
  • The Middle Himalayas or Himachal.
  • The southern Himalayas of Shivalik Ranges.

Northern Plains
Right at the foothills of the Himalayas, are the vast Northern Plains. Due to the network of the largest rivers like Ganga, Indus, and Brahmaputra, these plain regions are rich in alluvial soil, and therefore, highly fertile. This helps in the heavy cultivation of crops. As a result, the Northern Plains have the maximum concentration of population.

Great Indian Desert
Another important feature of India’s physical landscape is the Great Indian Desert. It lies on the western end of the country in the state of Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat. Due to the hot and dry climate, there is very little vegetation in this region.

Peninsular Plateau
This triangular landmass lies to the south of the Northern Plains. With a rugged and sloping landscape, the peninsula offers a number of hill ranges and valleys. The Aravalli Hills, for example, is one of the oldest ranges of the world, sits on the northwest side of the peninsula. Likewise, the Vindhya and Satpura mountains are the most noteworthy landscapes of the region, with Narmada and Tapi rivers flowing through them.

The entire Peninsular Plateau is bordered by the Western Ghats on the West and the Eastern Ghats on the east. While the Western Ghats is a continuous stretch of mountains, the Eastern Ghats are interrupted by plains. Furthermore, the entire plateau region is rich in minerals and metals.

Coastal Plains
The strips of land along both the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats from the Coastal Plains. The western coast lies on the Arabian Sea and is narrow, while the eastern coast, along the Bay of Bengal, is much broader. The rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri drain into the Bay of Bengal and form fertile deltas. The most noteworthy of all Indian deltas is the Sunderbans, in West Bengal, formed by Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

Just outside the eastern and western coasts, there are two groups of islands, which also form an important feature of India our country. The Lakshadweep Islands are on the Arabian Sea, on the west, while the Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie on the Bay of Bengal, in the south-east.


Question 1.
State the exact geographical location of India our country.
India our country, is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It extends between 8°4′ to 37°6′ north latitudes and 68°7 and 97°25′ east longitudes. The Tropic of Cancer cuts the country in half at 23°30’ north latitude.

Question 2.
Which seven countries are India’s neighbours?
India our country, is surrounded by 7 neighbouring countries- Pakistan, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.