The compilation of these Food Security in India Notes makes students exam preparation simpler and organised.
Imagine a situation where you have to struggle to have a proper meal during the day. Doesn’t it sound weird? Don’t be shocked as this is the situation prevailing in many nations. The struggle to manage food resources is an issue which quickly impacts a region. If we skip a meal or two, hunger strikes in full swing. There have been several areas in India that are hit by famine and drought in the past, leading to widespread hunger. Hence, let us try to understand the importance of food security, storage, and management in a precise manner.
What do you understand by the term ‘Food Security’? It is surely not the protection of food, but a larger concept associated with feeding the whole population. In simple terms, you can call it the ability to guarantee on a long-term plan an arrangement of nutritionally sufficient food supply.
Under food security, there are basically four stages which completely highlight its definition and motive. These are mentioned below:
- Prepare an adequate amount of cereals available for all to safeguard survival.
- Sufficient availability of pulses and cereals.
- Food security with the inclusion of pulses, cereals, milk & milk products.
- It includes pulses, cereals, vegetables & fruits, milk, and milk products. Fish, meat, and egg, considering non-vegetarians.
Food Security Scenario in India
Presently, India is facing a situation which is called the triple affliction of malnutrition. There are pieces of evidence gathered from national surveys combined with smaller studies that stress this issue. For example, based on the National Family Health Survey(2005–06), a third of married women in India hold a BMI (Body Mass Index) less than normal. This also indicated that 28% of men added to the same class.
Undernutrition is a result of multiple factors; however, food security lies at the core of it. You can categorize food security as a situation where all people have physical, economic, and social access to adequate, nutritious, and safe food. In addition, the scheme works to fulfill their dietary requirements and food preferences for leading a healthy life.
In India, food security infers to nutritional security and the fulfillment of individual capabilities. Also, people are the prime focus, even though community-level or household-level food security is a suitable concern.
How can you ensure food security in India?
Food security in any country can be ensured if the three dimensions of food security are checked upon. So, what are these three dimensions?
- First: Availability of food: Presence of enough food for all the persons
- Second: Accessibility of food: Absence of barrier on access to food
- Third: Affordability of food: Capability of all persons to buy food of acceptable quality
National Food Security Mission
The outbreak of the National Food Security Mission has been a blessing for India. It has laid the foundation to augment the production of cereals and pulses. Most of this has happened to support production increase across the eastern regions of India.
There has been a strong and ongoing trend concerned with the diversification of non-cereal as well as high-value supplies. Under high-value supplies, dairy, vegetables, and fruits are included. Also, investments in the agricultural sector have stayed strong post the period 2004–05. This is associated with both public and private investments.
Sources of Foodgrains Across the Nation
One of the foundations of food security is the capability to grow self-sufficient. It means, the ability to harvest crops in the nation without any assistance from external sources. Currently, some of the prime food grain regions in India are as follows:
Rice is mainly grown in Assam, Bihar, West Bengal, Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Eastern Madhya Pradesh, and Kashmir valley. Moreover, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, Kerala, and Coastal areas of Maharashtra are also active rice-growing regions. Interestingly, rice has also been grown in the chief irrigated sections of Punjab and Haryana.
Wheat production is focused in the regions of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Bihar, and parts of Rajasthan.
Millets such as jowar, Ragi, and bajra are also grown in the country. To be precise, Bajra requires a warm region, therefore is dominant in Rajasthan. Whereas, Ragi is considered as a rain-fed yield grown in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
At last, pulses are grown both as Kharif and Rabi crops. The winter season crops or Rabi crops, include Peas and Masoor. On the other hand, Kharif crops include Urad, Arharand Moong. Additionally, the primary gram generating areas are Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
How has the Green Revolution made India self-sufficient in terms of food grains?
Specifically, in the late 1960s, the introduction of the Green Revolution motivated Indian farmers to cultivate HYV (high-yielding varieties) seeds. This trend led to increasing in the production of food grains, particularly rice and wheat. Moreover, after the outburst of the Green Revolution India has avoided famines even during worse weather conditions.