What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

The Golgi apparatus is one of the most significant organelles present in most of the eukaryotic cells. It is a membrane-bound sac and is also known as Golgi body, Golgi complex, etc. The key functions of this organelle are as follows:

  • It carries out the processing of the proteins generated in the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • It transports proteins to different parts of the cell.
  • It involves the modification of cargo proteins by Golgi enzymes.
  • It imports nucleotide sugars from the cytosol in order to carry out the processes of glycosylation and phosphorylation.
  • It breaks down proteins and forms small, active fragments.
  • The addition of sulfate groups to the proteins takes place in the Golgi apparatus.
  • Phosphate molecules are also incorporated into the proteins in the Golgi apparatus.
  • It transports the lipids around the cell.
  • It is important in the creation of lysosomes.
  • It involves the processing and packaging of the macromolecules (for example, proteins and lipids).
  • It involves the synthesis of proteoglycans.
  • The Golgi apparatus can also be thought of as the “post office” of a eukaryotic cell.