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Ancient Education System of India
Ancient Education System of India Introduction
The lesson explains the ancient education system in India. It discusses that the source of information and its evidence are scattered throughout the nation in the form of inscriptions on stones, metals, palm leaf records. It discusses the cultural heritage and educational institutions. The education system was focused on the all-round development of a student and skill-based learning.
Ancient Education System of India Part 1 Summary of the Lesson
Various travelers have recorded their visit to different places, climates, and cultures in India. They have discussed the rich culture and education system in India in detail.
The salient feature of the Indian education system was the holistic development of a child with emphasis upon moral values as well. It also emphasized on harmony between humans and nature.
Vedas and Upanishads teach about fulfilling duties towards self and society. The ancient education system has evolved from Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads, and Dharmasutras.
Medical treatises of Charaka and Sushruta teachings were the sources of learning.
The branches of various disciplines display the rich and wide range of subjects taught in the ancient times. Shastras, Kavyas, Itihas, Anviksiki, Mimamsa, Shilpashastra, Arthashatra, Varta, Dhanurvidiya, Krida, yoga sadhana were some of the few disciplines taught with integrity and dedication.
Debates were organized for assessment. In addition to it, peer learning and group teachings were an integral parts of education.
Various institutions imparted education in a formal and informal way. Temples, schools and pathshalas, were the premier institutions. Universities were also there for higher knowledge. Gurukuls were the residential schools in the surroundings.
There were women Vedic scholars in that era. The focus was laid on personality development and oral learning.
Ancient Education System of India Part 2 Summary of the Lesson
During the times of Buddha, Viharas were set up for monks and nuns. The educational centers were set up for higher learning having students of various countries.
Kings and society used to promote education as scholars and stories (as in Jatak tales) reveal. Universities like Takshashila, Nalanda, etc. evolved during that period. Debates, discussions were an integral part of higher learning.
Kings used to organise meets, debates and exchange of views amongst various scholars. UNESCO has declared such universities as heritage sites. Takshashila a religious Buddhist center of learning had attracted students from various countries.
Scriptures, law, medicines, astronomy, military, science, arts, etc were part of its curriculum. The legendary Panini, Jivaka, Chanakya, the expert of their fields were also educated from there.
Teachers assisted by advanced students in framing curriculum and could take the autonomous decisions regarding the strength of their students. The prime focus was on oral learning.
Nalanda was one of the prestigious institutions in higher learning. Chinese scholars -I-Qing and Xuan Zang gave vivid accounts of it. It had a wide range of syllabus including Vedas fine arts, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, etc.
A financial support given to the institutions was primarily on donations from such merchants, parents, and society. In the south of India, Agra has served as a bigger educational institution that Ghatika and Brahmapuri.
During medieval period mastabas-madrassas served as educational institutions. Educational institutions were funded by society. Teachers were given the privilege of selecting the method of teaching and syllabus. The main concern of education was on the holistic development of the child.