Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Climate

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Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Climate

Climate Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 4 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
What does ‘climate’ refer to?
Answer:
Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time.

Question 2.
What does ‘weather’ refer to?
Answer:
Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time.

Question 3.
The elements of weather and climate are the same. What are these elements?
Answer:
These elements are—temperature, atmosphere pressure, wind, humidity and precipitation.

Question 4.
What is the climate of India described as?
Answer:
The climate of India is described as the ‘monsoon’ type.

Question 5.
What does monsoon refer to?
Answer:
Monsoon refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year.

Question 6.
When does most parts of the country receive rainfall?
Answer:
Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September.

Question 7.
When does the Tamil Nadu coast get rainfall?
Answer:
The Tamil Nadu coast gets rainfall during October and November.

Question 8.
Which areas experience less contrasts in temperature conditions?
Answer:
Coastal areas experience less contrast in temperature conditions.

Question 9.
What do you mean by the Coriolis force?
Answer:
Coriolis force is an apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. It is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern hemisphere.

Question 10.
What is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO?
Answer:
The periodic change in pressure conditions is known as the Southern oscillation or SO.

Question 11.
How is the intensity of the monsoon predicted?
Answer:
The difference in pressure over Tahiti (Pacific Ocean, 18°C/149°W) and Darwin in Northern Australia (Indian Ocean, 12°30’S/131°E) is computed to predict the intensity of the monsoons. If the pressure differences were negatives, it would mean below average and late monsoons.

Question 12.
What is known as ‘mahawat’?
Answer:
The total amount of winter rainfall is locally known as ‘mahawat’. It is small but very important for rabi crops.

Question 13.
What is known as the ‘Kaal Baisakhi”!
Answer:
Violent thunderstorms in the Gangetic plains of India are locally known as Kaal Baisakhi. These locallised events are generally associated with thunderstorms accompanied by strong winds and torrential rainfall.

Question 14.
What are ‘mango showers’?
Answer:
Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common especially, in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, and are often referred to as mango showers.

Question 15.
How is weather at the retreat of monsoon?
Answer:
The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature.

Question 16.
What is Mawsynram reputed for?
Answer:
Mawsynram is the wettest place on the earth. It is also reputed for its stalagmite and stalactite caves.

Question 17.
Name two regions where rainfall is low.
Answer:
The interior of the Deccan plateau and east of the Sahyadris.

Question 18.
What do you mean by October heat?
Answer:
The weather becomes oppressive during the day time in the month of October due to conditions of high temperature and humidity. This is commonly known as October heat.

Question 19.
Name the two branches of the monsoon?
Answer:

  • The Arabian Sea branch
  • The Bay of Bengal branch

Question 20.
What is known as the ‘burst’ of the monsoon?
Answer:
Around the time of the monsoon’s arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the “burst’ of the monsoon.

Question 21.
When does the Bay of Bengal branch of the monsoon arrive in Assam?
Answer:
It arrives in Assam in the first week of June.

Question 22.
When does Delhi receive the monsoon showers and from which branch?
Answer:
Delhi generally receives the monsoon showers from the Bay of Bengal branch by the end of June.

Question 23.
Mention summer months.
Answer:
From March to May, it is hot weather season or summer in India.

Question 24.
The peninsular region does not have a well-defined cold season. Why?
Answer:
There is hardly any noticeable seasonal change in temperature pattern during winters in the peninsular region due to the moderating influence of the sea.

Question 25.
When does the monsoon reach Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country?
Answer:
The monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh and the rest of the country by mid-July.

Question 26.
What is loo?
Answer:
Loo is a strong, gusty, hot, dry wind that blows during the day over the north and northwestern India. Direct exposure to these winds may prove to be fatal.

Question 27.
Name the atmospheric conditions that govern the climate and associated weather conditions of India.
Answer:

  • Pressure and surface winds
  • Upper air circulation
  • Western cyclonic disturbances, and
  • Tropical cyclones

Climate Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 4 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Distinguish between weather and climate.
Answer:
The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time.

  • Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions of a specific place over a short period of time, usually 24 hours. Climate refers to the average atmospheric conditions over relatively long period of time, usually 30 years.
  • Weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day but climate is the average weather over time and space.

Question 2.
What are western cyclonic disturbances?
Answer:

  • The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomenon of the winter months brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region.
  • They usually influence the weather of the north and north-western regions of India. Tropical cyclones occur during the monsoon as well as in October-November, and are part of the easterly flow.
  • These disturbances affects the coastal regions of the country. We know how they cause disasters on Odisha and Andhra Pradesh coast.

Question 3.
What is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO? Mention the feature connected with it.
Answer:
It has been noticed that changes in the pressure conditions over the southern oceans also affect the
monsoons. Normally when the tropical eastern south Pacific Ocean experiences high pressure, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean experiences low pressure.

But in certain years, there is a reversal in the pressure conditions and the eastern Pacific has lower pressure in comparison to the eastern Indian Ocean. This periodic change in pressure conditions is known as the Southern Oscillation or SO. The El Nino phenomenon is connected with the SO.

In this phenomenon a warm ocean current flows past the Peruvian coast, in place of the cold Peruvian current, every 2 to 5 years. The changes in pressure conditions are connected to the El Nino. So, the phenomenon is referred to as ENSO or El Nino Southern Oscillation.

Question 4.
Withdrawal of the monsoon is a gradual process. Explain.
Answer:

  • The withdrawal of the monsoon begins in northwestern states of India by early September.
  • By mid-October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula.
  • The withdrawal from the southern half of the peninsula is fairly rapid. By early December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country.

Question 5.
The breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough. Explain.
Answer:
(i) The breaks in monsoon are related to the movement of the monsoon trough. For various reasons, the trough and its axis keep on moving northward or southward, which determines the spatial distribution of rainfall.

(ii) When the axis of the monsoon trough lies over the plains, rainfall is good in these parts. On the other hand, whenever the axis shifts closer to the Himalayas, there are longer dry spells in the plains and widespread rain occur in the mountainous catchment areas of the Himalayan rivers.

Question 6.
How do the frequency and intensity of tropical depressions determine the amount and duration of monsoon rains?
Answer:
The tropical depressions form at the head of the Bay of Bengal and cross over to the mainland. The depressions follow the axis of the monsoon trough of low pressure. The monsoon is known for its uncertainties. The alternation of dry and well spells vary in intensity, frequency and duration. While it causes heavy floods in one part, it may cause droughts in the other. It is often irregular in its arrival and retreat. So, it sometimes disturbs the farmers.

Question 7.
Give a brief description of the distribution of rainfall in India.
Answer:
The distribution of rainfall is not even. It rains heavily in one part and there is no rain at all in other part:

  • Parts of western coast and northeastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab.
  • Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau, and east of the Sahyadris. Leh in Jammu and Kashmir also receive low precipitation.
  • The rest of the country receives moderate rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region.

Question 8.
What do you mean by the south-west monsoon? Explain in brief.
Answer:
(i) The south-west summer monsoons occur from July through September. The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian sub-continent heats up considerably during the hot summers.

(ii) This causes a low pressure area over the northern and central Indian sub-continent. To fill this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush into the subcontinent.

(iii) These winds, rich in moisture, are drawn towards the Himalayas, which block the winds passing into Central Asia and force them to rise. As the clouds rise, their temperature drops and precipitation occurs some areas of the subcontinent receive up to 10,000 mm of rain annually.

Question 9.
What is known as the North East Monsoon or Retreating Monsoon? Explain in brief.
Answer:
Around September, with the sun fast retreating south, the northern landmass of the Indian sub-continent begins to cool off rapidly. With this air pressure begins to build over northern India, the Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere that still holds its heat.

This causes cold wind to sweep down from the Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic Plain towards the vast spans of the Indian Ocean, south of the Deccan peninsula. This is known as the Northeast Monsoon or Retreating Monsoon. The state of Tamil Nadu receives about 50% to 60% of rain from the Northeast Monsoon.

Climate Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 4 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
Describe the climatic controls of India.
OR
Give a brief description of the controls that affect the climate of India.
Answer:
There are six major controls that affect the climate of India—latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief features. Here is a brief description of all these climatic controls:
(i) Latitude: Due to the curvature of the earth, the amount of solar energy received varies according to latitude. As a result, air temperature generally decreases from the equator towards the poles.

(ii) Altitude: At higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills are therefore cooler during summers.

(iii) Pressure and wind system: It depends on the latitude and altitude of the place. Thus, it influences the temperature and rainfall pattern.

(iv) Distance from the sea: The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate. As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions.

(v) Ocean currents: Ocean currents along with onshore winds affect the climate of the coastal areas. For example, any coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it, will be warmed or cooled if the winds are onshore.

(vi) Relief: It also determines the climate of a plane. High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds; they may also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. The leeward side of mountains remains relatively dry.

Question 2.
What are the factors that affect India’s climate? Describe them.
Answer:
The factors affecting the climate of India are—latitude, altitude and pressure and winds. Here is a brief description of these factors:
(i) Latitude: India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as sub-tropical climates. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country. Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area, north of the Tropic; lies in the sub-tropics.

(ii) Altitudes: The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this sub-continent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia.

(iii) Pressure and winds: The pressure and wind conditions over India are unique. During winter, there is a high pressure area north of the Himalayas. Cold dry winds blow from this region to the low-pressure areas over the oceans to the south. In summer, a low-pressure area develops over interior Asia as well as over northwestern India. This causes a complete reversal of the direction of winds during summer.

Air moves from the high-pressure area over the southern India Ocean, in a south-easterly direction, crosses the equator, and turns right towards the low-pressure areas over the Indian subcontinent. These are known as the southwest monsoon winds which bring widespread rainfall over the mainland of India. The upper air circulation, western cyclonic disturbances and tropical cyclones also affect India’s climate.

Question 3.
State the factors that help in understand the mechanism of monsoon.
Answer:
The following factors helps us understand the mechanism of monsoon:
(i) The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure.

(ii) The shift of the position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer, over the Ganga plain. This is the equatorial trough normally positioned about 5°N of the equator. It is also known as the monsoon trough during the monsoon season.

(iii) The presence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar, approximately at 20°S over the Indian Ocean. The intensity and position of this high-pressure area affects the Indian monsoon.

(iv) The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer, which results in strong vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau at about 9 km above sea level.

(v) The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during summer.

(vi) The changes in pressure conditions over the southern oceans also affect the monsoons.

Question 4.
Describe briefly what you know about the onset of monsoon and its withdrawal.
Answer:
(i) The climate of India is described as the monsoon type. The monsoons are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature, affected by different atmospheric conditions encountered by it, on its way over the warm tropical seas. The duration of the monsoon is between 100—120 days from early June to mid-September.

(ii) The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by the first week of June. Subsequently, it proceeds into two—the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.

(iii) The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later on approximately the 10 of June. This is fairly rapid advance. The Bay of Bengal branch also advances rapidly and arrives in Assam in the first week of June. The lofty mountains causes the monsoon winds to deflect towards the west over the Ganga plains.

(iv) By mid-June the Arabian sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Saurashtra-Kuchchh and the central part of the country.

(v) The Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal branches of the monsoon merge over the northwestern part of the Ganga plains and cause rainfall. By mid-July, the monsoon reaches Himachal Pradesh
and the rest of the country.

(vi) The withdrawal of the monsoon begins in north-western states of India by early September. By mid-October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula. The withdrawal

Question 5.
Differentiate between south-west monsoon and north-east monsoon.
Answer:
(i) The south-west summer monsoons occur from July through September. The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian sub-continent heats up considerably during the hot summers.

(ii) This causes a low pressure area over the northern and central Indian sub-continent. To fill this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush into the subcontinent.

(iii) These winds, rich in moisture, are drawn towards the Himalayas, which block the winds passing into Central Asia and force them to rise. As the clouds rise, their temperature drops and precipitation occurs some areas of the subcontinent receive up to 10,000 mm of rain annually.

Around September, with the sun fast retreating south, the northern landmass of the Indian sub-continent begins to cool off rapidly. With this air pressure begins to build over northern India, the Indian Ocean and its surrounding atmosphere that still holds its heat.

This causes cold wind to sweep down from the Himalayas and Indo-Gangetic Plain towards the vast spans of the Indian Ocean, south of the Deccan peninsula. This is known as the Northeast Monsoon or Retreating Monsoon. The state of Tamil Nadu receives about 50% to 60% of rain from the Northeast Monsoon.

Question 6.
What are the characteristic features of retreating monsoon?
Answer:
Following are the characteristics features of retreating monsoon:
(i) During October-November, with the apparent movement of the sun towards the south, the monsoon trough or the low-pressure trough over the northern plains becomes weaker. This is gradually replaced by a high-pressure system. The south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually. By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdraws from the northern plains.

(ii) The months of October-November from a period of transition from hot-rainy season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature.

(iii) While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. The land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive
during the day. In second, half of October, the mercury begins to fall rapidly in northern India.

(iv) The low-pressure conditions, over north-western India, get transferred to the Bay of Bengal by early November. This shift is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions, which originate over the Andaman sea. These cyclones generally cross the eastern coasts of India cause heavy and widespread rain.

Climate Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 4 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
What is Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone. Write in brief about it.
Answer:
(i) The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a belt of converging trade winds and rising air that encircles the earth near the equator.

(ii) The rising air produces high cloudiness, frequent thunderstorms, and heavy rainfall; the dol¬drums, oceanic regions of calm surface air, occur within the zone.

(iii) The ITCZ shifts north and south seasonally with the sun. Over the Indian Ocean, it undergoes especially large seasonal shifts of 40°-45° of latitude.

Question 2.
Give an account of weather conditions and characteristics of the hot season.
Answer:
The hot weather season in India remains from March to May. Some of the characteristics of this season are:
(i) The summer months experience rising temperature and falling air pressure in the northern part of the country.

(ii) A striking feature of this season is the loo. These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blowing during the day over the north and northwestern India. Sometimes they even continue until late in the evening. Direct exposure of these winds may be fatal.

(iii) Duststorms and thunderstorms are major features of this season. While dust-storms bring temporary relief as they lower the temperature and may bring light rain and cool breeze. Thunderstorms are associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail.

(iv) Pre-monsoon showers are common towards the end of the summer season. They help in early ripening of mangoes.

Question 3.
Give some of the major characteristics of the advancing monsoon or the rainy season.
Answer:
The duration of rainy season is between 100-120 days from early June to mid-September. Some of the
major characteristics of this season are:

(i) Early in the season, the windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall, more than 250 cm. The maximum rainfall of this season is received in the north-eastern part of the country. Mawsynram receives the highest average rainfall in the world.

(ii) Rainfall in the Ganga Valley decreases from the east to the west. Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat get very poor rainfall.

(iii) Monsoon has a tendency to have ‘breaks’ in rainfall. Thus, it has wet and dry spells. It means, the monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time.

(iv) The monsoon is known for its uncertainties. It is often irregular in its arrival and its retreat. While it causes heavy floods in one part, it may cause droughts in the other.

Climate Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 4 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
How are the Himalayas a boon to us?
Answer:

  • The Himalayas lie to the north of India. They have an average height of about 6,000 m.
  • The Himalayas are a boon to us. They prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the sub-continent.
  • It is because of these mountains that this sub-continent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to Central Asia.

Question 2.
Describe the monsoon as a unifying bond.
Answer:
(i) The unifying influence of the monsoon on the Indian subcontinent is quite perceptible. The seasonal alternation of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons. Even the uncertainties of rain and uneven distribution are very much typical of the monsoons.

(ii) The Indian landscape, its animal and plant life, its entire agricultural calendar and people’s life, including their festivities, revolve around this phenomenon. People eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon every year.

(iii) The monsoons bind the whole country by providing water to set the agricultural activities in mo¬tion. The river valleys which carry this water also unite as a single river system unit.

Climate Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Geography Chapter 4 Map-based Questions

On an outline political map of India, locate and label the following cities:

Thiruvanthapuram, Chennai, Jodhpur, Bengaluru, Mumbai, Kolkata, Leh, Shillong, Delhi, Nagpur
Class 9 Geography Chapter 4 Extra Questions and Answers Climate 1