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Class 9 Civics Chapter 6 Extra Questions and Answers Democratic Right
Democratic Right Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 6 Very Short Answers Type
Who called the Right to Constitutional Remedies as ‘the heart and soul of the Constitution?
Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar called the Right to Constitutional Remedies as ‘the heart and soul of the Constitution’.
Women in Saudi Arabia are subjected to many public restrictions. Give one example.
The testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women.
What are rights?
Rights are reasonable claims of persons recognised by society and sanctioned by law.
When do the socially recognised claims acquire real force?
The socially recognised claims acquire real forces when they are written into law.
When is it called violation or infringement of rights?
When fellow citizens or the government do not respect the rights recognised by society, it is called violation or infringement of rights.
What can citizens do in case of violation of their rights?
In case of violation of their rights, citizens can approach courts to protect their rights.
What are called Fundamental Rights?
In India, like most other democracies in the world, the basic rights of the citizens are written down in the Constitution. These rights are fundamental to our life and are called Fundamental Rights.
What is called the rule of law?
The rule of law means that everyone is equal before the law. No person is above the law. There cannot be any distinction between a political leader, government official and an ordinary citizen.
What does the word ‘equality’ mean?
Equality means giving everyone an equal opportunity to achieve what one is capable of.
What does ‘Freedom’ mean in practical life?
In Practical life freedom means absence of interference in our affairs by others—be it other individuals or the government.
Why is freedom of speech and expression essential for an individual?
Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others.
The Constitution says that no person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. What does it mean?
It means that no person can be killed unless the court has ordered a death sentence. It also means that a government or police cannot arrest or detain any citizen unless he has proper legal justification.
What is meant by ‘right against exploitation.
It means that every citizen has a right not to be exploited. If it happens, one can approach the courts to get justice.
What idea is secularism based on?
Secularism is based on the idea that the state is concerned only with relations among human beings, and not with the relations between human beings and God.
Give one feature of a secular state.
A secular state does not establish any one religion as official religion.
What is meant by the Right to Constitutional Remedies?
It is possible that sometimes our fundamental rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies.
What do you know about the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India?
The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted on 12 October 1993 under the protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993. It focus on helping the victims secure their human rights.
What is the Right to Information Act?
Parliament has enacted a law giving the right to information to the citizens. This act was made under the Fundamental Right to freedom of thought and expression. We have a right to seek information from the government offices.
Is the right to property a Fundamental Right?
No the right to property is not a Fundamental Right but it is a Constitutional right.
Name two rights which are not Fundamental Rights but are Constitutional rights.
- Right to property
- Right to vote in election.
Democratic Right Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 6 Short Answers Type
What was Amnesty International’s report on the condition of the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay?
(i) Amnesty international collected information on the condition of the prisoners in Guantanamo Bay and reported that the prisoners were being tortured in ways that violated the US laws.
(ii) The prisoners were being denied the treatment that even prisoners of war must get as per international treaties. Many prisoners had tried protesting against these conditions by going on a hunger strike.
(iii) Prisoners were not released even after they were officially declared not guilty. An independent inquiry by the UN supported these findings but the US government paid no heed.
Give a brief description of the citizens’ rights in Saudi Arabia?
What is the position of the citizens in Saudi Arabia with regard to their government?
Saudi Arabia is a country ruled by a hereditary King and the people have no role in electing or changing their rulers. The king selects the legislature as well as the executive. He appoints the judges and can change any of their decisions. In such a country, citizens have very limited scope of freedom:
- They cannot form political parties or any political organisations. Media cannot report anything that the monarch does not like.
- There is no freedom of religion. Every citizen is required to be Muslim. Non-Muslim residents can follow their religion in private, but not in public.
- Women in Saudi Arabia are subjected to many public restrictions. The testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women.
Give some implications of the Right to Equality.
Mention any three provisions of the Right to Equality.
The right to equality is an important Fundamental Right. Some of the implications of this rights are:
- The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
- Every citizen shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels and cinema halls.
- There shall be no restriction with regard to the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads, playgrounds and places of public resorts maintained by government or dedicated to the use of general public.
- All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any position in the government.
Describe with an the principle of non-discrimination extends to social life as well.
(i) The Constitution mentions one extreme form of social discrimination, the practice of untouchability. It clearly directs the government to put an end to it.
(ii) The practice of untouchability has been forbidden in any form. Untouchability here does not only mean refusal to touch people belong to certain castes. It refers to any belief or social practice which looks down upon people on account of their birth with certain caste labels.
(iii) Such practice denies them interaction with others or access to public places as equal citizens. So, the Constitution made untouchability a punishable offence.
What does P. Sainath say about untouchability and caste discrimination?
On the basis of P. Sainath’s news reports in The Hindu enlist various forms of untouchability and caste discrimination still being practised against Dalits or persons belonging to Scheduled Castes.
In 1999, P.Sainath travelled to various parts of the country and found many forms of untouchability still in practice. He found that in many places
- Tea stalls kept two kinds of cups, one for Dalits and one for others;
- Barbers refused to serve dalit clients;
- Dalit students were made to sit separately in the classroom or drink water from separate pitcher;
- Dalit grooms were not allowed to ride a horse in the wedding procession; and
- Dalits were not allowed to use common handpump or if they did it, the handpump was washed to purify it.
Our Constitution guarantees six kinds of freedom. Name them.
Under the Indian Constitution all citizens have the right to:
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms.
- Freedom to form associations and unions.
- Freedom to move freely throughout the country.
- Freedom to reside in any part of the country, and
- Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
Explain the freedom to travel to any part of the country and the freedom to carry on any occupation.
We are free to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. This right allows lakhs of people to migrate from villages to towns and from poorer regions of the countries to prosperous regions and big cities. The same freedom extends to choice of occupations. No one can force you to do or not to do a certain job. Women cannot be told that some kinds of occupations are not for them. People from deprived castes cannot be kept to their traditional occupations.
Enlist the procedures which have to be followed by a government or public officer before arresting or detaining any citizen.
The Constitution says that no person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. It also means that a government or police officer cannot arrest or detain any citizen unless he has proper legal justification. Even when they do, they have to follow some procedures given below:
- A person who is arrested and detained in custody will have to be informed of the reasons for such arrest and detention.
- A person who is arrested and detained shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24 hours of arrest.
- Such a person has the right to consult a lawyer or engage a lawyer for his defence.
What is called PIL? Write in brief about it.
- In recent years the courts have given several judgements and directives to protect public interest and human rights. Any one can approach the courts if public interest is hurt by the actions of government. This is called public interest litigation.
- One can write to the judges even on a postcard. The court will take up the matter if the judges find it in public interest.
- The court check malpractices on the part of public officials.
Mention the features of a secular state.
The features of a secular state are given below:
- A secular state is one that does not confer any privilege or favour on any particular religion. Nor does it punish or discriminate against people on the basis of religion they follow.
- The government cannot compel any person to pay any taxes for the promotion or maintenance of any particular religion or religious institution.
- There shall be no religious instruction in the government educational institutions. In educational institutions managed by private bodies no person shall be compelled to take part in any religious instruction or to attend any religious worship.
Explain what do you mean by the right to freedom of assembly in a peaceful manner.
(i) Citizens have the freedom to hold meetings, processions, rallies and demonstrations on any issue.
They may want to discuss a problem, exchange ideas, mobilise public support to a cause, or seek votes for a candidate or party in an election.
(ii) But such meetings have to be peaceful. They should not lead to public disorder or breach of peace in society. Those who participate in these activities and meetings should not carry arms with them.
(iii) Citizens also can form associations. For examples, workers in a factory can form a workers’ union to promote their interests. Some people in a town may come together to form an association to campaign against corruption or pollution or any other issue.
‘Some rights need to be placed higher than the government’. Give reason.
Though it is the responsibility of a democratic government to protect its citizens’ rights but sometimes elected governments may not protect or may even attack the rights of their own citizens. That is why some rights need to be placed higher than the government, so that the government cannot violate them. In most democracies basic rights of the citizens are written down in the Constitution.
Democratic Right Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 6 Long Answers Type
What do you mean by the right to freedom of speech and expression? What are the limitations of this right?
Freedom of speech and expression is one of the essential features of any democracy. Our ideas and personality develop only when we are able to freely communicate with others. One may think differently from another. One has the right to think differently and express one’s views accordingly.
One has right to disagree with a policy of government or activities of an association. One is free to criticise the government or the activities of the association in one’s conversations with parents, friends and relatives. One has right or freedom to publicise one’s views through a pamphlete, magazine or newspaper. One can do it through different means which include paintings, poetry or songs.
Limitations: But this freedom has to be used in the right manner so that it does not harm others. The limitations of this freedom are:
- One cannot use this freedom to instigate violence against others. .
- One cannot use it to incite people to rebel against government. .
- One cannot use this freedom to defame others by saying false and mean things that cause damage to a person’s reputation.
How has expansion of rights taken place from time to time? Or Describe how the scope of rights has been expanding.
(i) From time to time, the rights of the citizens have expanded. Certain rights like right to freedom of
press, right to information, and right to education are derived from the Fundamental Rights.
(ii) Now school educational has become a right for Indian citizens. The governments are responsible for providing free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years. ;
(iii) The Right to Information is another important right given to the citizens of India. This right has been derived from the Fundamental Right to freedom of thought and expression. We have a right to seek information from government offices.
(iv) Recently the Supreme Court has expanded the meaning of the right to life to include the right to food.
(v) Our Constitution provides many more rights, which may not be Fundamental Rights. For example, the right to property is not a Fundamental Right but it is a Constitutional Right. Right to vote in elections is another important Constitutional Right.
(vi) Right to work, right to safe and healthy working conditions, right to adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing and housing, right to health, etc. are another important right which have been evolved over time. Thus, the scope of rights has been expanding and new rights are evolving over time. They are the result j
of struggle of the people.
Describe what is right to freedom of religion. What are the limitations of this right?
India is a country in which many religions are practised. Our Constitution defines our country as a secular state. This means that all religions are equal before law. The state does not establish any one religion as official religion. Indian secularism practices an attitude of a principled and equal distance from all religions.
The state has to be neutral and impartial in dealing with all religions. Every citizen of India has a right to profess, practice and propagate the religion he or she believes in. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religions affairs.
Limitations: The right has certain limitations:
- A right to propagate one’s religion does not mean that a person has right to compel another person to convert into his religion by means of force, fraud, inducement or allurement. However, a person can change religion on his or her own will.
- Freedom to practice religion does not mean that a person can do whatever he wants in the name of religion. One cannot sacrifice animals or human beings as offerings to supernatural forces or Gods.
- Religions practices which treat women as inferior or those that infringe women’s freedom are not allowed. For example, widowed women cannot be forced to wear white clothes.
The Right to Equality is an important Fundamental Right. Mention some of the features of this right.
(i) In order to remove all kinds of inequalities from our society, our Constitution made all the citizens of India equal before law. It means no one can be discriminated against on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
(ii) People committing the same crime are punished in the same way, regardless of a person’s status. This is called the rule of law. It means that no person is above the law. No person can legally claim any special treatment or privilege just because he or she happens to be an important person.
(iii) Every citizens shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels and cinema halls. Similarly, there shall be no restriction with regard to the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads, playgrounds and places of public resorts maintained by government or dedicated to the use of general public.
(iv) The same principle applies to public jobs. All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any position in the government. No citizen shall be discriminated against or made ineligible for employment on the grounds mentioned above.
(v) The practice of untouchability has been forbidden in any form. Untouchability here does not only mean refusal to touch people belonging to any belief or social practice which looks down upon people on account of their birth with certain caste labels. Such practice denies them interaction with others or access to public places as equal citizens. So, the Constitution made untouchability a punishable offence.
Democratic Right Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 6 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions
What is the National Human Rights Commission? How does it work? What are its powers?
(i) The National Human Rights Commission of India is an autonomous public body set up on 12 October 1993 under the Protection of Human Rights Ordinance of 28 September 1993. It was given a statutory basis by the protection of Human Rights Act, 1993.
(ii) The NHRC is the National Human Rights Commission, responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights, defined by the Act as ‘right relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants.
(iii) Appointed by the President and others like retired judges, officers and eminent citizens, the Commission does not decide court cases. It only focus on helping the victims secure their human rights.
(iv) The NHRC cannot by itself punish the guilty. That is the responsibility of courts. The NHRC is there to make independent and credible inquiry into any case of violation of human rights. It also inquires into any case of abetment of such violation or negligence in controlling it by any government officer and takes other general steps to promote human rights in the country.
(v) The Commission presents its findings and recommendations to the government or intervene in the court on behalf of the victims. It has wide ranging powers to carry out its inquiry. Like any court it can summon witnesses, question any government official, demand any official paper, visit any prison for inspection or send its own team for on the spot inquiry.
Why are certain section of society given special privileges and reservations?
The Government of India has provided reservations for Scheduled Castes, Schedules Tribes and other Backward Classes. Are these reservations against the Right to Equality? Give your opinion.
(i) Certain sections of Indian society such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, OBCs, women, poor or physically handicapped have been granted some special privileges and reservations which are not against the Right to Equality.
(ii) Equality does not mean giving everyone the same treatment no matter what they need. Equality means giving everyone an equal opportunity to achieve whatever one is capable of.
(iii) Sometimes it is necessary to give special treatment to someone in order to ensure equal opportunity. We should not forget that the weaker sections of our society have been exploited a lot by the upper castes. Hence, it became necessary to give them special treatment to make up for centuries of exploitation which has kept them backward. They were denied opportunities of education.
(iv) In order to bring them in country’s mainstream special privileges and reservations were considered necessary. The Constitution clearly says that reservations of this kind are not a violation of the Right to Equality.
Why do we need rights in a democracy?
Why are rights important in a democracy?
(i) Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of a democracy. In a democratic country every citizen wants to enjoy the right to vote and the right to be elected to government.
(ii) For democratic elections to take place, it is necessary that citizens should have the right to express their opinion, form political parties and take part in political activities.
(iii) Rights are also important to protect minorities from the exploitation of majority. They ensure that the majority cannot do whatever it likes. Rights are guarantees which can be used when things go wrong.
(iv) Things may go wrong when some citizens may wish to take away the rights of others. In such a situation it is the duty of the government to protect the citizens’ rights.
(v) Sometimes elected governments may not protect or may even attack the rights of their own citizens. So some rights are placed higher than the government, so that it cannot violate them.
Why does our Constitution specify the cultural and educational rights of the minorities? What are these rights?
It is a fact that the majority gets power in the working of democracy. So, this section of the people does not need special guarantees. It is the language, culture and religion of minorities that needs special protection. Otherwise, they may get neglected or undermined under the impact of the language, religion and culture of the majority. So the Constitution specifies the cultural and educational rights of the minorities which are given below:
- Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture have a right to conserve it.
- Admissions to any educational institution maintained by government or receiving government aid cannot be denied to any citizen on the ground of religion or language.
- All minorities have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
How can we secure our Fundamental Rights?
(i) Our Constitution has guaranteed Fundamental Rights to the citizens of India. It safeguards all these rights by granting us the Right to Constitutional Remedies which according to Dr Ambedkar is ‘the heart and soul’ of the Constitution. This itself is a Fundamental Right and makes other rights effective.
(ii) It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government.
(iii) When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a state.
(iv) The Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to declare null and void any order or law passed by the government which violates Fundamental Rights of the citizens by issuing directions, orders or writs. Courts also enforce our fundamental rights against private individuals and bodies.
(v) They can also award compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators. We know our judiciary is very powerful and can do whatever is needed to protect the rights of the citizens. In case of any violation of a Fundamental Right the aggrieved person can go to a court for justice.
Democratic Right Class 9 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 6 Value-based Questions (VBQs)
State any three provisions of the Right against Exploitation.
The under-privileged section of the society is open to exploitation by the privileged and influential people. Women and children of this section are more vulnerable. So the Constitution makers thought it was necessary to write down certain clear provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society.
The Constitution mentions three specific evils and declares them illegal:
- The Constitution prohibits ‘traffic in human beings’. Traffic here means selling and buying of human beings, usually women, for immoral purposes.
- Our Constitution also prohibits forced labour or begar in any form. Begar is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the moneylender without wages.
- The Constitution also prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of fourteen to work in any factory or mine or in any other hazardous work, such as railways and ports.
Enlist the rights that have been recognised by the International Covenant.
The International Covenant recognises many rights that are not directly a part of the fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution. These rights include:
- Right to work: Everyone should have the opportunity to earn livelihood by working.
- Right to safe and healthy working conditions, fair wages that can provide decent standard of living for the workers and their families.
- Right to adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing and housing.
- Right to social security and insurance.
- Right to health i.e. medical care during illness, special care for women during childbirth and prevention of epidemics.
- Right to education i.e. free and compulsory primary education and equal access to higher education.