Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

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Class 10 History Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer History Chapter 1 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
What was the major issue taken up by the liberal nationalists?
Answer:
The liberal nationalists criticised the new conservation order and wanted the freedom of press. During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground and therefore they took the issue of freedom of press.

Question 2.
What was the major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to French Revolution in Europe?
Answer:
The major change that occurred in the political and constitutional scenario due to the French Revolution in Europe was the transfer of power from autocratic monarchy to a democracy. The new constitution granted equal rights to the people and limited the powers of the monarch.

Question 3.
What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Answer:
The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to establish a system based on equal prospects and freedom of speech. The system must accept sovereignty and a representative government.

Question 4.
What was a nation-state?
Answer:
A nation-state was one in which the majority of its citizens and rulers together developed a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.

Question 5.
Name the treaty of 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation?
Answer:
The Treaty of Constantinople recognised Greece as an independent nation. .

Question 6.
What was the Estates General renamed?
Answer:
The Estates General was renamed the National Assembly.

Question 7.
How did the new middle classes in Europe view liberalism?
Answer:
For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law.

Question 8.
‘Equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage in France’. What do you mean by this?
Answer:
In revolutionary France, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.

Question 9.
Why was Zollverein formed?
Answer:
Zollverein was in fact a custom union formed in 1834. The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. It created a wave of economic nationalism which strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.

Question 10.
Who was Johann Gottfried Herder? What did he claim?
Answer:
Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher who claimed that true German culture was to be discovered through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.

Question 11.
Why were secret societies established in many European states?
Answer:
Secret societies were established in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.

Question 12.
What did it mean to be revolutionary in early nineteenth-century Europe?
Answer:
To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.

Question 13.
Which factor helped in the formation of a nation-state in Britain?
Answer:
The parliament through a bloodless revolution grabbed power from the monarchy which gradually led to the emergence of a nation-state in Britain.

Question 14.
Which class promoted the idea of national unity in Europe?
Answer:
The educated liberal middle-class promoted the idea of national unity in Europe. This class was comprised of professors, school teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle class.

Question 15.
Who was Frederic Sorrieu?
Answer:
He was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints in 1848 visualising his dream of a world made up of‘democratic and social Republics’. In his utopian vision, the peoples of the world were grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume.

Question 16.
When was the Congress of Vienna held? Who hosted this?
Answer:
The Congress of Vienna was held in 1815. It was hosted by Austrain chancellor Duke Metternich.

Question 17.
How many states was Italy divided into during the middle of the nineteenth century? Name them.
Answer:
During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states -Sardinia Piedmont, Lombardy, Venetia, Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Papal state and Kingdom of the Both Sicilies.

Question 18.
Which state played a dominant role in the nation-building process in Germany?
Answer:
Prussian state played a dominant role in the unification of Germany.

Question 19.
Name the fields in which Prussia brought major changes.
Answer:
Prussia placed a strong emphasis on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.

Question 20.
Which were the two secret societies set up by Giuseppe Mazzini?
Answer:
They were Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.

Question 21.
What was the Act of Union, 1707?
Answer:
The Act of Union between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.

Question 22.
What is the Statue of Liberty? What is its significance?
Answer:
The Statue of Liberty is a colossal new-classical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States. It refers to a female figure signifying liberty. The figure holds a torch in one hand representing enlightenment and a book in the other hand which contains the Charter of the Rights of Man.

Question 23.
In what sense the anti-imperial movements that developed in many countries of the world were nationalist?
Answer:
The anti-imperial movements that developed in many countries of the world were nationalist, in the sense that they all struggled to form independent nation-states, and were inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism.

Question 24.
Name the European powers which were involved in the Balkan conflict?
Answer:
Russia, Germany, England and Austro-Hungry.

Question 25.
What did conservatives believe?
Answer:
Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society-like the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies, property and the family should be preserved.

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer History Chapter 1 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
‘Napoleon was a great administrator’. Explain the statement in the light of the changes he brought about in France.
Answer:
Napoleon was a great administrator. He brought many changes to make an efficient administrative system

  • The Civil Code of 1804, usually known as the Napoleonic Code, abolished all privileges based on birth.
  • It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
  • Napoleon also introduced many reforms even in those territories which came under his control. He simplified administrative divisions in the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
  • He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  • In towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were also improved. These reforms proved to be a boon for peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen who could now enjoy freedom to a great extent.

Question 2.
Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Answer:
(i) There were many state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods, people and capital. The new commercial classes argued for the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of these things.

(ii) Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency, weights and measures. This created difficulties for traders.

(iii) A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5% at each one of them. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculations.

Question 3.
How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule?
Answer:
In the areas conquered by Napoleon, the reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed.

  • Initially, in many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies were welcomed as harbinger of liberty.
  • But when it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom, the local people turned to hostility.
  • Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.

Question 4.
Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.
Answer:
The following events of French Revolution left deep impact on the people belonging to other parts of Europe:

(i) The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.

(ii) The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.

(iii) French revolutionaries declared that it was their mission to liberate the peoples of Europe from despotism and help them to become nations.

(iv) The ideals and virtues of liberty, equality and fraternity that emerged during the French Revolution inspired many nationalist movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, throughout the world.

Question 5.
How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain.
Answer:
The French revolutionaries took many steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people

  • The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
  • A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
  • The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  • New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
  • A central ised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  • Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  • Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.

Question 6.
How did a wave of economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiment growing in Europe? Explain.
OR
Explain any three ideas of liberal nationalists in the economic sphere.
Answer:
(i) Liberalism in the economic sphere stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state- imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the nineteenth century, this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes. Economically, this ideology propagated natural right to property.

(ii) Liberals argued for the unified economic territory comprising of common currency, weights and measures and unrestricted mobility of people, goods and capital. Many steps were taken to achieve economic liberalism. In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed that abolished trade barriers. It also reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two.

(iii) Zollverein sought to introduce uniformity in order to remove obstacles to economic growth in the region and brought about greater integration of economies. It aimed to bind German people economically as a nation by removing the economic barriers to their interaction.

Question 7.
Explain any three beliefs of the conservatism that emerged after 1815.
Answer:
Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism.
It was based on the following beliefs:

(i) Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society like the monarchy, the church, social hierarchies, etc. should be preserved.

(ii) Most conservatives, however, were very much influenced by the changes initiated by Napoleon. They began to favour modernisation instead of returning to the society of pre-revolutionary days. They now believed that modernisation could strengthen traditional institutions like monarchy. It would make state power more effective and strong.

(iii) A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.

Question 8.
Explain the contribution of Otto von Bismarck in German unification.
Answer:
German unification was a long and complicated process. It took a long time to unite Germany into one country and the credit goes to Bismarck. Its process includes

(i) In the early nineteenth century, Germany was a loose confederation of 39 states. This confederation was earlier set by Napoleon. In May 1848, various political associations convened the Frankfurt parliament. It tried its best to unify Germany under the leadership of Friedrich Wilhem IV, King of Prussia. But all its efforts failed when the king rejected the offer.

(ii) Prussia then took the charge of German unification. It was most powerful among 39 states and also got support from the large landowners called Junkers. Its Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

(iii) Bismarck fought three wars over seven years with Denmark (Danish-Prussian War 1864), Austria (Austro-Prussian War 1866) and France (France-Prussian War 1870-71). Prussia emerged as
victorious and with it the process of unification completed.

(iv) The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.

Question 9.
Explain the contribution of Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.
Answer:
Giuseppe Mazzini: Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary born in Geneva in 1807. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies – Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.

The members of Young Europe were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states. He opposed monarchy and favoured democratic republics. He believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind, So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms.

He wanted to see Italy as a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Mazzini’s vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

Question 10.
Why was the decade of 1830s known as great economic hardship in Europe? Explain any three reasons. (Imp)
OR
Explain any three economic hardships that Europe faced in the 1830s. (Imp)
OR
Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s.
Answer:
The decade of 1830s was of great economic hardship in Europe. There were several reasons behind it.
Some of them were

(i) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe. In most countries there were more seekers of jobs than employment. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.

(ii) Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine made goods from England, where industrialisation was more advanced than on the continent.

(iii) In those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations. The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest added their misery.

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer History Chapter 1 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
“Equality before law did not stand for universal suffrage in France after the revolution.” Explain with suitable examples. (V. Imp)
Answer:

  • Equality before law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage.
  • In revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men.
  • Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage.
  • However, the Napoleonic code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a mirror, subject to authority of fathers and husbands.
  • Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.

Question 2.
How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe-
(i) Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment in Europe. Romantic artists did not glorify reason and science. They focussed on emotions, intention and mystical feelings. They tried to create a sense of collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.

(ii) Romanticists chose folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularise the true spirit of the nation. For them, collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation building.

(iii) The emphasis on vernacular language was also important to take the nationalist message to a large number of people who were mostly illiterate.

(iv) In Poland, nationalist feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his opera and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

(v) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation the Polish language was forced out of the schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was crushed. Following this, the Polish language began to be used as a weapon of national resistance against Russian dominance.

Question 3.
Explain the process of unification of Italy.
Answer:
(i) Like Germany, Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into many states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house. Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations.

(ii) Giuseppe Mazzini took the task of the unification of Italy. During the 1830s, he put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He set up a secret society called Young Italy in Marseilles to achieve his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through wars.

(iii) Under the leadership of Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

Question 4.
What were Jacobin Clubs? How did their activities and campaigns help to spread the idea of nationalism abroad? Explain.
Answer:
Jacobin clubs were political clubs that came into existence during the French Revolution. These clubs were associations of people who were inspired and motivated by the ideas of nationalist writers like Voltaire and Rousseau. The members of these clubs believed in the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity and rose to oppose and overthrow the French monarchical system and unshackle the middle and lower classes.

A large group among the Jacobins adopted the sans culottes, literally meaning those without knee breeches as against the fashionable sections of society, especially nobles, who wore knee breeches. It was a way of proclaiming the end of the power by the wearers of knee breeches. They took pride in their clothing which was loose and mostly of the colours of the French National flag blue, white and red.

This brought about a sense of unity and equality among all. The red cap that they wore symbolised liberty. Jacobin clubs became a great success. Many students and other members of educated middle-class from the different cities of Europe began setting up these clubs.

Thus, the activities and campaigns of the Jacobins prepared the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and much of Italy in the 1790s. With the outbreak of the revolutionary wars, the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.

Question 5.
Explain any five social and administrative reforms introduced by Napoleon in regions under his control.
Answer:
Napoleon was a great administrator. He brought many changes to make an efficient administrative system

  • The Civil Code of 1804, usually known as the Napoleonic Code, abolished all privileges based on birth.
  • It established equality before the law and secured the right to property. Napoleon also introduced many reforms even in those territories which came under his control. He simplified administrative divisions in the
  • Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
  • He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  • In towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were also improved. These reforms proved to be a boon for peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen who could now enjoy freedom to a great extent.

Question 6.
How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 1815? Explain with examples
Answer:
(i) Following the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. They were autocratic and did not tolerate criticism and dissent and therefore imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays, etc.

(ii) The fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. But they were not idle. Instead, they set up secret societies in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.

(iii) To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.

(iv) Most of these revolutionaries saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom. Giuseppe Mazzini, a young revolutionary from Italy was a member of the secret society of the Carbonary. In 1831, he was sent into exile for attempting a revolution in Ligura.

(v) Mazzini set up two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Bireuen, whose members were like-minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German States. Mazzini was dead against monarchy and wanted to set up democratic republic in its place. He believed that the unification of Italy alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.

Question 7.
‘Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe’. Support the statement with suitable examples.
Answer:
Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe-
(i) Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment in Europe. Romantic artists did not glorify reason and science. They focussed on emotions, intention and mystical feelings. They tried to create a sense of collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.

(ii) Romanticists chose folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularise the true spirit of the nation. For them, collecting and recording these forms of folk culture was essential to the project of nation building.

(iii) The emphasis on vernacular language was also important to take the nationalist message to a large number of people who were mostly illiterate.

(iv) In Poland, nationalist feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his opera and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.

(v) Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation the Polish language was forced out of the schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Poland. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was crushed. Following this, the Polish language began to be used as a weapon of national resistance against Russian dominance.

Question 8.
Describe the process of unification of Germany.
Answer:
German unification was a long and complicated process. It took a long time to unite Germany into one country and the credit goes to Bismarck. Its process includes

(i) In the early nineteenth century, Germany was a loose confederation of 39 states. This confederation was earlier set by Napoleon. In May 1848, various political associations convened the Frankfurt parliament. It tried its best to unify Germany under the leadership of Friedrich Wilbem IV, King of Prussia. But all its efforts failed when the king rejected the offer.

(ii) Prussia then took the charge of German unification. It was most powerful among 39 states and also got support from the large landowners called Junkers. Its Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy.

(iii) Bismarck fought three wars over seven years with Denmark (Danish-Prussian War 1864), Austria (Austro-Prussian War 1866) and France (France-Prussian War 1870-71). Prussia emerged as
victorious and with it the process of unification completed.

(iv) The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.

Question 9.
Describe any five steps taken by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
Answer:
The French revolutionaries took many steps to create a sense of collective identity among the French people

  • The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
  • A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
  • The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  • New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation.
  • A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  • Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
  • Regional dialects were discouraged and French became the common language of the nation.

Question 10.
‘The Balkan issue was one of the major factors responsible for the First World War’. Explain by giving examples.
Answer:
The area called the Balkans was the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871. There were many reasons behind it

(i) The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slays. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.

(ii) The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.

(iii) All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire tried to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but achieved little success. One by one, its European subject
nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.

(iv) The Balkan peoples used history and national identity to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence, the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their independence.

(v) The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became
the scene of big power rivalry. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area.

Question 11.
Mention the role of the following personalities in the process of unification of Italy:

  • Mazzini
  • Cavour
  • Garibaldi

Answer:
Like Germany, Italy was also politically fragmented. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states – Sardinia-Piedmont, Lombardy, Venetia, Parma and Modena, Tuscamy, Papal state and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Unification of Italy was a tough task and Mazzini, Cavour and Garibaldi played an important role in it-

Mazzini- Giuseppe Mazzini set up a secret society to spread his nationalist sentiments among the like-minded people. He put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic.

Cavour- He was the chief minister. He formed a tactful diplomatic alliance with France and defeated the Austrian forces.

Garibaldi- He formed armed volunteers. In 1860, these volunteers marched into South Italy and Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in driving out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II became the king of unified Italy.

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer History Chapter 1  Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
“Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Support the statement.
Answer:
Napoleon was a great administrator. He brought many changes to make an efficient administrative system

  • The Civil Code of 1804, usually known as the Napoleonic Code, abolished all privileges based on birth.
  • It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
  • Napoleon also introduced many reforms even in those territories which came under his control. He simplified administrative divisions in the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
  • He abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
  • In towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were also improved.
    These reforms proved to be a boon for peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen who could now enjoy freedom to a great extent.

Question 2.
Who elected the ‘National Assembly’ in France? What were the changes introduced by it?
Answer:
The National Assembly was the new name of the Estates General. It was elected by the body of active citizens of France. It introduced several changes. Some of them are-

  • It introduced a centralised administrative system which formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory.
  • It established equality of all before the law and secured the right to property.
  • It abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.

Question 3.
Which values are associated with the French Revolution? Mention any three.
Answer:
(i) The French Revolution created a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
(ii) It emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(iii) The constitution began with a Declaration of the Rights of Man. It promised freedom to the people of France.
(iv) The document is about how people should live together in society, and it has had an impact on people all over the world. Some of its key principles are-

  • Equality of all before the law
  • Freedom of expression and religion
  • All people are presumed innocent until proven guilty.

The ideals of freedom, of equality before the law and of fraternity remained inspiring ideals that motivated political movements in France and the rest of Europe for a long time.