Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Development 

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Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Development

Development Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Economics Chapter 1 Very Short Answers Type

Question 1.
What do you mean by per capita income?
OR
What is meant by the average income?
Answer:
The average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population. The average income is also called per capita income. Thus,
\(\frac { Total\quad income\quad ofa\quad country }{ Total\quad population\quad of\quad the\quad country } \)

Question 2.
Why is per capita income of different countries calculated in dollars and not in their own currencies by the World Bank? (Imp)
Answer:
The World Bank does so in order to ensure uniformity in calculation across different regions of the world.

Question 3.
Which countries are called rich countries as per the World Development Report, 2012?
Answer:
Countries with per capita income of US $ 12616 per annum and above in 2012, are called rich or developed countries.

Question 4.
Which countries are called low-income countries as per the World Development Report, 2012?
Answer:
Countries with per capita income of US $ 1035 or less are called low-income or under developed countries.

Question 5.
What was the per capita income of India in 2012? In which category would you place India high-income countries or low-income countries? (Imp)
Answer:
In 2012, the per capita income of India was just US $ 1530 per annum. On the basis of this, we would place India in low-income countries.

Question 6.
What is one of the most important attributes for comparing countries?
Answer:
For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.

Question 7.
What would be the developmental goals/aspirations for an urban unemployed youth?
Answer:
A job with a handsome salary, a peaceful working atmosphere, opportunity to learn, a sense of security and freedom, etc.

Question 8.
What would be the developmental goals for an adivasi from Narmada valley?
Answer:
A permanent source of livelihood, access and control over resources, a local school to provide quality education to his/her children, etc.

Question 9.
‘What may be development for one may be destruction for the other’. Give an example to support this statement.
Answer:
Industrialists may want more dams to get more electricity but this may cause large-scale displacement of local communities.

Question 10.
What do people seek besides better income?
Answer:
Besides seeking more income, people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others. They resent discrimination.

Question 11.
What are the important goals of people?
Answer:
Besides seeking more income, people also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others. They resent discrimination.

Question 12.
What do you mean by Infant Mortality Rate or IMR?
OR
What does the term Infant Mortality Rate indicate?
Answer:
Infant Mortality Rate or IMR indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 100 live children born in that particular area.

Question 13.
What is Net Attendance Ratio?
Answer:
Net Attendance Ratio is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

Question 14.
What does literacy rate measure?
Answer:
Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group.

Question 15.
Name two things which you cannot buy with money. ‘
Answer:

  • A pollution-free environment
  • A sense of security

Question 16.
What are non-renewable resources?
Answer:
Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use. For example, fossil fuels.

Question 17.
Mention three components of Human Development Index or HDI.
Answer:

  • Per capita income
  • Life expectancy
  • Literacy rate

Question 18.
Among Maharashtra, Kerala and Bihar, which state has the lowest infant mortality rate?
Answer:
It is Kerala.

Question 19.
What is meant by national development? (Imp)
Answer:
National development is development of country in all the aspects which includes increase in per capita income, improvement in people’s living standard, availability of proper health facilities, education, pollution-free environment, etc.

Question 20.
What is Human Development Index or HDI? (Imp)
Answer:
Human Development Index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

Question 21.
Why is the total income of countries not used to make comparisons between them? (Imp)
Answer:
Since, countries have different populations, comparing total income will not tell us what an average person is likely to earn.

Question 22.
Which term is used to describe the ‘average number of years a person is expected to live at birth’?
Answer:
The term used for this is ‘Life expectancy’.

Question 23.
Give two examples of renewable resources.
Answer:

  • Groundwater
  • Natural gas.

Question 24.
What is Public Distribution System or PDS?
Answer:
Public Distribution System or PDS is a food security programme initiated by the Government of India to provide foodgrains and other essential commodities at subsidised prices in rural and urban areas.

Question 25.
What is India’s HDI rank in the world as per Human Development Report, 2014?
Answer:
It is 135.

Development Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Economics Chapter 1 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Prove that development for some may be harmful to others. (Imp)
OR
With the help of examples show two groups who may have different notions of development.
OR
‘What may be development for one may not be development for the other’. Explain by giving examples.
Answer:
It is true that development for one may not be development for the other. The following examples can prove this truth:

  • Construction of dams may be beneficial for industrialists and large farmers, but this may sub¬merge the agricultural land, and disrupt the lives of the people.
  • More wages means development for a worker, but it can go against the employer.
  • A consumer wants to purchase different household articles at low prices but a trader or seller wants to sell these items at a higher price.

Question 2.
What is national development? What are the aspects covered under the national development? (Imp)
Answer:
National development is development of country in all the aspects which includes increase in per capita income, improvement in people’s living standard, availability of proper health facilities, education, pollution-free environment, etc.

Under national development, a country uses its resources in a fair and just way. The country tries to implement those programmes and policies which would benefit a large section of the people. Countries also focus on social infrastructure which includes education, health and other social services.

Question 3.
(i) What do you mean by developed countries?
(ii) What do you mean by developing countries?
Answer:
(i) Countries which have a wide industrial sector based on modern technology are developed countries. People in their countries earn higher income which ensures them high standard of living and better quality life. Most of these people are engaged in non-agricultural sector.

(ii) Countries which have a very small industrial sector with little access to modern technology are developing countries. People in these countries earn low income as a result of which they fail to fulfil their aspirations of leading a quality life. Most of the people are engaged in agricultural activities.

Question 4.
What is per capita income? Mention any two limitations of per capita income as an indicator of development.
Answer:
The total income of a country divided by its total population is called per capita income.
Two limitations of per capita income

  • The criterion of per capita income takes into account only the economic aspect of life. It has nothing to do with the social aspect of life.
  • Per capita income criterion is not concerned with non-material things such as pollution free environment, education, healthcare, sanitation, etc.

Question 5.
Apart from income, which other six things people look for as important aspects of our lives?
Answer:

  • Freedom
  • Sense of security
  • Equal treatment
  • Respect of others
  • Good working atmosphere
  • Protection from infectious diseases.

If one gets a job in a far off place, before accepting it one would try to consider many factors, apart from income such as facilities for one’s family, working atmosphere or opportunity to learn, etc.

Question 6.
On the basis of which three parameters of HDI 2014 Sri Lanka has better rank than India? (Imp)
OR
Compare India and Sri Lanka on the basis of any three indicators of the Human Development Index for 2014.
Answer:

  • Per capita income: The per capita income of Sri Lanka is higher than that of India. It is $ 9250 for Sri Lanka and $ 5150 for India.
  • Life expectancy at birth: Life expectancy at birth in Sri Lanka is also higher than India. In Sri Lanka, life expectancy is about 74.3 while in India it is about 66.4.
  • Literacy rate: India is far behind Sri Lanka in terms of literacy rate. It is 91.2 in Sri Lanka whereas 62.8 in India.

Question 7.
Describe any three features of developed countries.
Answer:
Countries which have a wide industrial sector based on modern technology are developed countries. People in their countries earn higher income which ensures them high standard of living and better quality life. Most of these people are engaged in non-agricultural sector.

Question 8.
Explain common, different and conflicting developmental goals by giving appropriate examples. (Imp)
Answer:
Developmental goals may be common, different or conflicting.
(i) Common goals: People’s common goals are regular work, better wages, equal treatment, freedom, security, friendship, respect of others, etc. These are the things which are aspired by everyone.

(ii) Different goals: Development does not mean the same thing for every individual. It varies from person to person. For example, developmental goals of landless rural farmers may be more days of work and better wages, local school for their children, etc. while an unemployed youth may aspire for better employment opportunities etc.

(iii) Conflicting goals: Different people could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.

Question  9.
What is the significance of Human Development Index?
Answer:

  • Human Development Index or HDI is used to measure the level of development of a country.
  • It is published by UNDP to compare countries on the bases of education levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
  • It is a comprehensive approach and covers all the major aspects of life that are essential for the development of human beings.

Question 10.
Why are the countries of the Middle East not called developed countries inspite of higher per capita income? (Imp)
Answer:
The countries of the Middle East are small and there is a wide gap between the rich and the poor. Since these are oil producing countries, they have higher per capita income. But the wealth available in these countries is not equally distributed among people. As a result, some are very rich while others are very poor.

Development Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Economics Chapter 1 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
Mention various factors that determine the development of a country.
Answer:
Development of a country can generally be determined by the following factors
(i) Per capita income: It is the average income generated by each person in a given group of people.

(ii) Literacy rate: Literacy rate measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above age group. The more the people are educated, the more developed the country is. It means that human beings if highly educated and skilled are the most important asset of a nation. They play an important role in the nation’s development.

(iii) Health: People’s health is also an important factor that determines the development of a country. A healthy population is a boon and every country should pay much attention to it.

(iv) Life expectancy at birth: Life expectancy at birth denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth. If the life expectancy at birth is high in a particular country, it means development of that country.

(v) Net Attendance Ratio: Net attendance ratio is also an important indicator of economic development of a nation. It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of total number of children in the same age group.

Question 2.
Mention any five conditions or aspects that one would consider before accepting a job.
Answer:
Before accepting a job one would consider many factors. Some of them are –
(i) A handsome salary is the first and foremost requirement for almost all the job-seekers. Only good income can enable us to fulfil our long-cherished wishes. More income means more of all things that human beings need. Whatever people like and should have, they will be able to get with greater income.

(ii) Apart from income, one needs peaceful and safe working atmosphere. Without it, one cannot work well which will neither be in favour of oneself nor the company.

(iii) Job security is another important factor. A job may give you less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances your sense of security. Such a job can be accepted by many.

(iv) One also wants medical and other facilities for oneself and one’s family. In case of illnesses, there should be a provision of paid leaves. Provident fund, gratuity are another factors that are taken into consideration before accepting a job.

(v) One also wants opportunity to learn during job period. It will be in favour of the individual as well as the employer. Thus, we can infer that for a job seeker not only material or money is important but several non-material things are equally important.

Question 3.
Distinguish between developed and developing countries. (Imp)
Answer:
The following differences can be observed between developed and developing countries:

Developed Countries Developing Countries
(i) Developed countries have more average income, higher per capita income and better standard of life. (i) Developing countries have low average income, less per capita income and low standard of life.
(ii) People of developed countries enjoy public facilities without any discrimination. (ii) People of developing countries lack public facilities.
(iii) Developed countries invest in human resources especially in the field of education and health. These people become asset and contribute in the further development of their country. (iii) Developing countries are not in position to invest much in human resources. As a result, they become liability to their country. Also, they lag behind from those living in developed countries in several ways.
(iv) Literacy rate is quite high in developed countries. Needless to say that educated people are highly productive and play important role in their country’s development. (iv) Literacy rate is usually low in developing countries because a bulk of population is deprived of education.
(v) More people are engaged in non-agricultural sector. They earn good income and live a quality life. This raises the life expectancy rate in these countries. (v) People are mostly engaged in agricultural sector. They earn low income and live a tough life. Hence, the rate of life expectancy in these countries is low.
(vi) Example; America, United Kingdom, France, etc; (vi) Example; India, China, etc.

Development Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Economics Chapter 1 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
What is the meaning of Infant Mortality Rate? Give two reasons for low infant mortality rate in Kerala.
OR
What is Infant Mortality Rate? Suggest two measures to keep the infant mortality rate low.
Answer:
The number of children that die before the age of one year per 1,000 children born live in a particular year is called Infant Mortality Rate. Kerala has low infant mortality rate because

  • It has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
  • The Public Distribution System is functioning well in Kerala. People there get foodgrains and other essential commodities at subsidised rates.
    Note: The above measures are applicable to all the states of India to keep the IMR low.

Question 2.
‘Human development is the essence of social development’. Explain.
Answer:
Human development focuses on the quality life of the people. It is concerned with their well-being, their needs, choices and aspirations. These are the aspects which help in building a good society. Human development is also concerned with harnessing/building of human capabilities so that people lead a long and healthy life, get education and knowledge and find adequate opportunities of livelihood, etc. It also focuses on the expansion of basic choices. A society can be said to be ideal and well-developed when all its members are leading a quality life.

Question 3.
Why are public facilities needed for the development of a country?
Answer:
Public facilities are provided by the government to its people at subsidised rates. They play an important role in the development of a country as they include our basic needs such as water, health, education, transportation, electricity, etc. Needless to say that availability of these facilities forms the base for the development of any country.

Water: Water is essential to life and good health. Unless the government makes provisions for safe drinking water for the rich as well as the poor, it cannot ensure development in its country.

Health: Healthy people are an asset to any country. Only healthy people can think positively about themselves and their country.

Education: Education is an important public facility which is required by all. It is education that empowers human beings. Educated people prove to be useful for a country or community and are treated as valuable resources.

Question 4.
Explain the importance of sustainable development with reference to groundwater by giving example.
OR
What is meant by sustainable development? Explain it by taking the case study of water.
Answer:
Development i.e. progress does not only mean securing a better present, but it also means securing a better future for the coming generations. Sustainable development means development should take place without undue draining of resources, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.

Thus, the issue of sustainability is important for development because if natural resources are not sustained, then development will be hindered and will stop after some time. This also compels us to think that we should minimise our needs as far as possible so that future generations may not face crisis of anything.

Explanation: For example, groundwater is a renewable resource. These resources are replenished by nature. But if we use it more than what is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resource. We must use water in such a way that people of future generations may also be able to use this resource.

We should not overuse and degrade the quality of groundwater for selfish purposes. If we don’t take responsibility people of coming generations will curse us. Hence, we should value its sustainability.

Development Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Economics Chapter 1 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
‘Money cannot buy all the goods and services that one needs to live well.’ Explain.
Answer:
(i) Money or material things that one can buy with it, is one factor on which our life depends. But the quality of life also depends on non-material things like equal treatment, freedom, security and respect of others.

(ii) Money cannot buy a pollution-free environment, unadulterated medicines, peace, harmony etc. This can be possible only when we shift to a community that already has all these non-material things.

(iii) There are many public facilities such as schools, colleges, parks, hospitals, etc. which an individu¬al cannot afford. All these are to be provided by the government or society for the common people.

Question 2.
How do public facilities change our life?
Answer:
(i) Public facilities relate to our basic needs such as water, health, education, transport, electricity, schools, colleges, etc. These facilities are provided by the government at subsidised rates.

(ii) Once public facilities are provided, their benefits can be shared by many people. For example, if public transport is available in a region it means that the entire people of that region can take its benefit.

(iii) It is noteworthy that poor people in any country survive mainly because of these public facilities.

Question 3.
Which values are associated with sustainable development?
Answer:
Sustainable development is not only concerned with present generation but also with future generation. We can associate the following values with it-

  • Use of natural resources in a judicious manner.
  • Although groundwater, solar energy, etc. are renewable resources, we should use them continuously.
  • It is necessary to be very careful in the use of land. Scientific reports indicate that the modern farming methods have overused the natural resource base. Hence, land should be used in such a way that its fertility is maintained.
  • Environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built up over many years. Once destroyed it is very difficult to restore them. We must take care of the environment to ensure future development of agriculture.