Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Power Sharing

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Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers Power Sharing

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Very Short Answers Type

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions Question 1.
What is majoritarianism? Name a country which has lost peace due to this. (Imp)
Answer:
It is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority. The country named Sri-Lanka has lost peace due to this.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions Question 2.
Which language was recognised as the only official language of Sri Lanka in 1956? (Imp)
Answer:
Sinhala was recognised as the only official language of Sri Lanka in 1956.

Power Sharing Extra Questions Question 3.
Why was the tension between the French-speaking and the Dutch-speaking communities more acute in Brussels?
Answer:
The reason was that the Dutch-speaking community constituted a majority in the country (Belgium), but a minority in the capital (Brussels).

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions PDF Download Question 4.
Apart from the Central and the State Government there is the third kind of government in Belgium. Name this government. Mention one feature of this government.
Answer:
The name of the third type of government in Belgium is community government. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German speaking. It does not matter where do they live.

Extra Questions Of Power Sharing Question 5.
What is meant by a community government?
Answer:
A community government is a type of government in which different social groups handle the affairs of their communities.

Class 10 Power Sharing Extra Questions Question 6.
What did the leaders of the Sinhala community do to establish their supremacy?
Answer:
The leaders of the Sinhala community adopted the principle of majoritarianism to establish their supremacy.

Class 10 Civics Ch 1 Extra Questions Question 7.
Where are Sri-Lankan Tamils concentrated in Sri Lanka?
Answer:
They are concentrated in the north and east of Sri Lanka.

Ch 1 Civics Class 10 Extra Questions Question 8.
What is the religion of most of the Sinhala-speaking people?
Answer:
Most of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhists.

Power Sharing Extra Question Answer Question 9.
Name the ethnic communities of Sri Lanka.
Answer:
Sinhalese, Sri Lankan Tamils, Indian Tamils and Muslims.

Extra Questions On Power Sharing Class 10 Question 10.
By 1980s several political organisations were formed by the Sri Lankan Tamils. What was the demand of these organisations?
Answer:
These organisations demanded an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

Civics Class 10 Chapter 1 Extra Questions Question 11.
What is the feature of a good democratic government?
Answer:
In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.

Extra Question Of Power Sharing Class 10 Question 12.
What is the difference between prudential and moral reasons of power sharing?
Answer:
Prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, whereas moral reasons emphasise the very act of power sharing as valuable.

Extra Questions Of Chapter Power Sharing Class 10 Question 13.
Which is the major religion of Sri Lanka?
Answer:
The major religion of Sri Lanka is Buddhism.

Extra Question Of Power Sharing Question 14.
In which city are the headquarters of the European Union located?
Answer:
The headquarters of the European Union are located in Brussels.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions And Answers Question 15.
What is one basic principle of democracy?
Answer:
One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power. In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government.

Extra Question Answer Of Power Sharing Class 10 Question 16.
What is meant by power sharing?
Answer:
Power sharing means the distribution of power of the government among as many citizens as possible.

Extra Questions Of Power Sharing Class 10 Question 17.
Which are the two main social groups in Sri Lanka? (Imp)
Answer:
The two main social groups in Sri Lanka are Sinhalese (74%) and Tamils (18%).

Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Extra Questions And Answers Question 18.
What is the system of checks and balances in power sharing? (Imp)
Answer:
When power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, one organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.

Extra Questions On Power Sharing Question 19.
What is meant by vertical division of power?
Answer:
Vertical division of power means division of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level.

Extra Questions Of Chapter 1 Civics Class 1 Question 20.
What is meant by horizontal distribution of power?
Answer:
When power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, it is called horizontal distribution of power.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Short Answers Type

Question 1.
Explain the vertical division of power by giving examples from India. (Imp)
Answer:
Vertical division of power: It is the sharing of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. In India. the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of governments i.e., the Central or Union government and the various state governments. There are certain subjects on which the Union government alone can make laws whereas there are others on which the State governments alone can make laws.

Question 2.
Describe the ethnic composition of Belgium. (Imp)
Answer:

  • The ethnic composition of Belgium is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 percent lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch language.
  • Another 40 percent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.
  • Remaining one percent of the Belgians speak German.
  • In the capital city of Brussels, 80 percent people speak French while 20 percent are Dutch speaking.

Question 3.
What led to the tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities in Belgium during the 1950s and 1960s? Why was the tension between the two communities more acute in Brussels?
Answer:
In Belgium during the 1950s and 1960s, the minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. So, the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later resented this. As a result, tensions grew between the two communities. The tension between these two communities was more acute in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking people constituted majority in the country, but minority in the capital.

Question 4.
Describe the diverse population living in Sri Lanka.
Answer:
Sri Lanka is an island nation. It has about two crore population which is so diverse.

  • The major social groups are the Sinhala-speakers (74%) and the Tamil-speakers (18%).
  • Among Tamils, there are two sub-groups. Tamil natives of the country are called Sri Lankan Tamil (13%). The rest are called Indian Tamils. Their forefathers came from India as plantation workers during colonial period.
  • Most of the Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhists, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. There are about 7% Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala.

Question 5.
Why did the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strain over time? (Imp)
Answer:
(i) The governments in Sri Lanka followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs. A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.

(ii) The Sri Lankan Tamils got disappointed due to these policies. They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture.

(iii) They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and ignored their interests. As a result of the above reasons, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time.

Question 6.
What were the demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils?
OR
What forced the Sri Lankan Tamils to launch parties and struggles in the country?
Answer:
The Sri Lankan Tamils were fed up with the preferential policies of the governments. They wanted the governments to listen to them and stop undermining their interests. When nothing happened like this, they launched parties and struggles. Their demands included-

  • Recognition of Tamil as an official language.
  • Recognition for regional autonomy and equality or opportunity in securing education and jobs.
  • An independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

Question 7.
How is the power-sharing model accepted by Belgium different from that of Sri Lanka?
OR
How did Belgium and Sri Lanka handle demands for power-sharing in their respective countries?
OR
‘Belgium and Sri Lanka dealt with the question of power sharing differently’. Explain.
Answer:
Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies. Yet, they dealt with the question of power sharing differently

(a) In Belgium, the leaders realised that the unity of the country was possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. These arrangements were made on the principle of accommodation. So, it worked well and helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities.

(b) The story of Sri Lanka is quite different. It adopted the principle of majoritarianism in which importance was given to the majority community. It denied the Sri Lankan Tamils equal political rights and favoured the Sinhala community. By doing this, Sri Lanka undermined the unity of the country. It refused to share power by allowing a majority community to force its dominance over others.

Question 8.
How did the leaders in Belgium and Sri Lanka try to solve the ethnic problem in their respective countries?
Answer:
Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies. Yet, they dealt with the question of power sharing differently

(a) In Belgium, the leaders realised that the unity of the country was possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such a realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. These arrangements were made on the principle of accommodation. So, it worked well and helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities.

(b) The story of Sri Lanka is quite different. It adopted the principle of majoritarianism in which importance was given to the majority community. It denied the Sri Lankan Tamils equal political rights and favoured the Sinhala community. By doing this, Sri Lanka undermined the unity of the country. It refused to share power by allowing a majority community to force its dominance over others.

Question 9.
How is power shared among government at different levels in India? (Imp)
Answer:
India is a federal country. The constitution originally provided for a two-tier system of government the Central or Union government, representing the Union of India and the State governments. Later, a third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. The Constitution of India clearly lays down the powers of different levels of government.

There are certain matters on which the Union government alone can make laws. There are others on which the State governments alone can make laws. There are some subjects of common interests to both the Union government as well as the State governments. These matters are handled by both the Union government as well as the State governments in their own ways. The same principle is extended to the level of municipality and panchayat.

Question 10.
What do you mean by community government? Explain some of its features.
OR
Explain the concept of community government in the context of Belgium.
Answer:
A community government is a government in which different social groups are authorised to handle the affairs of their communities. They share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage. They work together for the welfare of the common masses without ignoring the interests of any community. The community government in Belgium is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German-speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Long Answers Type

Question 1.
State the main elements of power sharing model evolved in Belgium. (V. Imp)
OR
Give an assessment of the power sharing arrangements made in Belgium.
OR
What did the Belgian leaders do to accommodate different social groups?
Answer:
The Belgian leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. This came to be known as the Belgian model of power sharing. The main elements of this model are-

(i) The Belgian constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking minister shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.

(ii) Many powers of the Central government have been given to State governments of the two regions of the country. The State governments are not subordinate to the Central government.

(iii) The capital city of Belgium i.e., Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central government.

(iv) There is also a third kind of government in Belgium known as Community government. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.

Question 2.
Explain the four forms of participation in government under modern democratic system. (Imp)
Answer:
Different forms of power sharing in modern democracies are
(i) Horizontal distribution of power: The division of government into the legislature, executive and judiciary is an example of horizontal distribution of power. In this power sharing arrangement, the different organs of government are placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others.

This results in a balance of power among various institutions. In a democracy, even though ministers and government officials exercise power, they are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies. In the same way, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can put a check on the functioning of executive. This arrangement is based on checks and balances.

(ii) Vertical division of power: ¡fis the sharing of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. In India. the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of governments i.e., the Central or Union government and the various state governments. There are certain subjects on which the Union government alone can make laws whereas there are others on which the State governments alone can make laws.

(iii) Power sharing among different social groups: This type of arrangement is meant to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise would feel alienated from the government. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power. A good example of this arrangement is the ‘Community government’ in Belgium. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community such as Dutch, French and German- speaking and enjoys power to make decisions on cultural, educational and language-related issues.

(iv) Power sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements: In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to choose among various contenders for power. In contemporary democracies, this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand. Instead it is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. Pressure groups and movements also have a share in governmental power. They can either participate in governmental committees or can influence the decisioninaking process.

Question 3.
How is the political system in Belgium innovative and different from other countries of the world? Explain.
OR
What measures were adopted by the Belgian leaders to accommodate regional differences and cultural diversities? (Imp)
Answer:
The Belgian leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. This came to be known as the Belgian model of power sharing. The main elements of this model are-

(i) The Belgian constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking minister shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.

(ii) Many powers of the Central government have been given to State governments of the two regions of the country. The State governments are not subordinate to the Central government.

(iii) The capital city of Belgium i.e., Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central government.

(iv) There is also a third kind of government in Belgium known as Community government. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community – Dutch, French and German¬speaking – no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

Question 4.
Describe horizontal and vertical power sharing in modern democracies.
Answer:
(i) Horizontal distribution of power: The division of government into the legislature, executive and judiciary is an example of horizontal distribution of power. In this power sharing arrangement, the different organs of government are placed at the same level to exercise different powers. Such a separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others.

This results in a balance of power among various institutions. In a democracy, even though ministers and government officials exercise power, they are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies. In the same way, although judges are appointed by the executive, they can put a check on the functioning of executive. This arrangement is based on checks and balances.

(ii) Vertical division of power: ¡fis the sharing of power among governments at different levels a general government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. In India. the constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of governments i.e., the Central or Union government and the various state governments. There are certain subjects on which the Union government alone can make laws whereas there are others on which the State governments alone can make laws.

(iii) Power sharing among different social groups: This type of arrangement is meant to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise would feel alienated from the government. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power. A good example of this arrangement is the ‘Community government’ in Belgium. This government is elected by people belonging to one language community such as Dutch, French and German- speaking and enjoys power to make decisions on cultural, educational and language-related issues.

(iv) Power sharing between political parties, pressure groups and movements: In a democracy, citizens have the freedom to choose among various contenders for power. In contemporary democracies, this takes the form of competition among different parties. Such competition ensures that power does not remain in one hand. Instead it is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. Pressure groups and movements also have a share in governmental power. They can either participate in governmental committees or can influence the decisioninaking process.

Question 5.
What were the reasons for the alienation of Sri Lankan Tamils? What was the effect of this on the country? (V. Imp)
OR
Mention the steps taken by the Sri Lankan government to adopt majoritarianism in the country.
OR
What were the provisions of the 1956 Act? How did it affect the Sri Lankan Tamils?
Answer:
(i) Sri Lanka became independent in 1948. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. Hence, the democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.

(ii) The government passed an Act in 1956 to recognise Sinhala as the only official language, thus disregarding Tamil.

(iii) The governments followed preferential policies that favoured Sinhala applicants for university position and government jobs.

(iv) A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. All these measures coming one after the other, gradually increased the feelings of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.

They felt that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders was sensitive to their language and culture. Hence, they launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity.

But their demands were repeatedly denied. The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war as a result of which thousands of people of both the communities were killed.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Questions

Question 1.
What caused a civil war in Sri Lanka? How did it cost the country?
OR
Under what circumstances did a civil war break out in Sri Lanka? What were its results?
Answer:
The Constitution and government policies in Sri Lanka favoured the Sinhala community and denied the Sri Lankan Tamils equal political rights, discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests. As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time. The Sri Lankan Tamils launched parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.

But their demands were repeatedly denied. This angered them and created distrust between the two communities. As a result, widespread conflict took place which soon turned into a civil war. Thousands of people of both the communities were killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. The war caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.

Question 2.
How can power be shared among different social groups? Explain giving examples from India and Belgium.
Answer:
In some countries, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in legislatures and administration.

(a) In India, seats are reserved for the people belonging to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in Parliament and State legislatures. The system of reservation has been extended to other weaker sections at the district and local levels. One-third of the seats are reserved in rural and urban local bodies for women candidates. Even in government jobs, seats have been reserved for these classes. This type of arrangement has been made in order to bring socially weaker sections and women of the country in the mainstream by empowering them.

(b) In Belgium, apart from the central and the state government, there is a third kind of government, known as community government. This government provides equal representation to both the communities i.e., Dutch and French-speaking people.

Question 3.
‘The idea of power sharing has emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power.’ Explain.
Answer:
For a long time it was believed that all power of a government must reside in one person or group of persons located at one place. It was felt that if the power to decide is dispersed, it would not be possible to take quick decisions and to enforce them. But these notions have changed with the emergence of democracy. In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-government. Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies.

Power Sharing Class 10 Extra Questions and Answer Civics Chapter 1 Value-based Questions (VBQs)

Question 1.
Why is power sharing desirable?
Answer:
(i) Power sharing helps to reduce conflict between different social groups. It is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

(ii) Imposing the will of majority community over others proves disastrous. Tyranny of the majority is not just oppressive for the minority, it often brings ruin to the majority as well.

(iii) A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

Question 2.
Which values are associated with a good democracy?
Answer:

  • In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.
  • Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies.
  • People are the source of all political power. They rule themselves through institutions of self-government.
  • Everyone feels his/her worth and extends support to the government.

Question 3.
Give a comparative study of the principle of accommodation adopted in Belgium and the principle of majoritarianism adopted in Sri Lanka. Which one is based on the human values?
Answer:
The Belgian leaders followed the principle of accommodation to solve the ethnic problem. They realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. Such realisation resulted in mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power. These arrangements have worked well so far. They helped to avoid civic strife between the two communities.

But the Sri Lankan leaders adopted the principle of majoritarianism to solve the same problem. They imposed the will of the majority community i.e., Sinhala on the minority community i.e., Sri Lankan Tamils. The Belgian model is based on human values.