Shakespearean Sonnet Characteristics

Shakespearean Sonnet Characteristics

A Shakespearean or English sonnet has fourteen lines, consisting of three groups of four lines each, followed by a single rhyming couplet. The rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef gg. Every (or nearly every) line will have ten syllables, divided into five feet of two syllables each. Each “foot” is called an iamb and consists of one unaccented syllable followed by one accented syllable, like this: My mis | tress’ eyes | are no | thing like | the sun. Each accented syllable is in bold, and the vertical lines mark the divisions between feet. This meter, consisting of the rhythm of the feet and the number of feet per line, is called iambic pentameter. “Iambic” refers to the rhythm of unaccented and accented syllables (each foot is called an iamb), and pentameter means that there are five feet (penta-) per line.

The three quatrains which make up the first twelve lines of “My mistress’ eyes” are actually a list of all the ways in which the speaker’s lover fails to measure up to things to which writers often compare their loves: the sun, coral, snow, roses, a goddess, and so forth. However, the volta, or turn, happens in the final two lines: the narrator declares that his lover is actually just as rare and special as any other love who is falsely compared to these things. Other speakers may lie and say that their lovers are like goddesses, but this is simply never the case. This narrator need not lie in order to glorify his lover.

Shakespearean Sonnet Characteristic

In terms of structure, a Shakespearean sonnet has 14 lines and is written in iambic pentameter. This means that is has 3 quatrains (4 line sections) and one heroic couplet. The rhyme scheme, therefore, is abab (quatrain 1), cdcd (quatrain 2), efef (quatrain 3), and gg (heroic couplet).

Like a Petrarchian sonnet, Shakespeare usually presents a problem in the first octet (8 lines) and a solution in the sestet (6 lines) with a volta (a turn) in line 9 which transitions from problem to solution.

There are some exceptions to this break down. Sometimes only the couplet can contain the solution. In Sonnet 116, for example, Shakespeare gives the solution early (“it is an ever fixed mark”) and develops his answer throughout the sonnet. In any case, most of Shakespeare’s sonnets deal with the themes of eternity (of art and artist). Here are a list of other questions to ask yourself:

  • What is happening in each quatrain? Are there shifts between each quatrain? Do the quatrains build on each other?
  • What purpose does the couplet serve? Is it a conclusion, or does it restate a message in the sonnet, only in stronger terms? Does it refute anything from the above 12 lines? What finality does it provide?
  • Does the sonnet begin with an image or “scene” from the external world? Does it use an extended metaphor throughout?
  • How does the sonnet form a wholeness from the sum of its parts? What is the speaker’s overall message? Does this message resonate in the internal and external world?

if by Rudyard Kipling analysis | What is the purpose of the poem “If” by Rudyard Kipling?

if by Rudyard Kipling analysis What is the purpose of the poem “If” by Rudyard Kipling

Everything that is built needs a plan or guide. Rudyard Kipling provided a blueprint for living a stellar life in his poem “If” written in 1895. The astounding aspect of the poem comes from the applicability of his rules in today’s society.

The purpose of the poem “If”

Kipling wrote the poem as if it were talking to his son. He gives advice to help the young man to find his place in the world and to live with integrity and dignity. The speaker talks to the person in second person. This encourages the reader to place himself in the place of the son. If a person takes to heart Kipling’s advice, he will find himself in a happier world each day.

The format

The poem has thirty-two lines with four stanzas. His first stanza follows the rhyming pattern: AAAABCBC. The three other verses use the pattern: ABABCDCD. Notice also that the poem is one long sentence with the thoughts separated by semi-colons.

The summary

1st Stanza

If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;

Self-control is the purpose of this verse. Try to keep a clear head and do not become bitter when people speak against you. Have patience in your daily life. Be honest and avoid dealing in emotions that work against you. Do not try to look or act better than other people.

2nd Stanza

If you can meet with triumph and disaster
And treat those two imposters just the same;

Shakespeare said: “We are the masters of our fate…” This verse reinforces this idea. Dream and ponder life. However, always be in control. Nothing should ever control you.

There are two opposing poles in life: winning and losing [triumph and disaster]. A person must be just as graceful in losing as he is in winning. It is playing the game to the best of your ability that is most important.

Life is not always easy. When you have done something really well and it is broken beyond your control, you must begin again using whatever means that you can find.

3rd Stanza

If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,

Sometimes it is necessary to take chances. In your risks in life, you may lose. Start over and do not talk about it. When you are at the end of your life and your body no longer acts as it once did, never give up the will to go on.

4th Stanza

If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run –

A person should be able to communicate with ordinary people and with kings as well. Never forget who you are. Do not allow outside forces to infiltrate your spirit. Do not give yourself over to man completely. No one needs to shoulder completely the woes of other men. Never waste time. Fill every minute of each day with life, love, and work. If you can do these things, the world is your oyster. In addition, you will be a man among men.

If by Rudyard Kipling analysis

What is the meaning of ‘Te Amo’ in English and which language is this phrase an example of.

What is the meaning of ‘Te Amo’ in English and which language is this phrase an example of.

The meaning of this phrase, translated into English, is “I love you.”  The phrase is from the Spanish language.

The word “te” in this phrase means “you.”  It is a form of the word “you” that shows that the word is the object of the verb in the sentence.  The word “amo” is a conjugation of the word “amar,” which means “to love.”  “Amo” is the present tense of the verb.  The word “amo” is used with the word “yo” which means “I.”  In this phrase, the word “yo” can be dropped because the “amo” makes it clear that “I” am the one who is loving “you.”

The phrase you have quoted is well known for being included in a number of films and other such texts. Literally, it can be translated to mean “I love you.” It is an example of the Spanish language. The phrase consists of an object pronoun, “te,” which is used to refer to the “you” of the translation. Then it includes the first person singular form of the verb to love, “amar,” which becomes “amo” in its form here. As you can imagine, such an important phrase is very famous as Spanish is a language that is spoken by vast numbers of the world’s population. It might be a good idea to take even a basic beginner’s course in Spanish so that you can understand more of this important language. The phrase you have quoted is incredibly important if you are looking to marry a Spanish speaker

Meaning of ‘Te Amo’ in English

In Of Mice and Men, how does George feel about Lennie and the mouse?

  • In Of Mice and Men, how does George feel about Lennie and the mouse?
  • Does George hate Lennie petting the mouse?
  • Does George like Lennie being happy with petting the mouse?

George takes the dead mouse away from Lennie and says, “You ain’t petting no mice while you walk with me.” At first, then, we think that George disapproves of Lennie’s petting mice. After Lennie retrieves the mouse, however, and George throws it away again, Lennie breaks down and cries.

George explains, “I ain’t takin’ it away jus’ for meanness. That mouse ain’t fresh…and you’ve broke it pettin’ it. You get another mouse that’s fresh and I’ll let you kept it a little while.”

George understands that Lennie likes to touch soft things, which are a comfort somehow to Lennie; however, because Lennie doesn’t know his own strength, he typically kills small animals. That the mouse is dead is what disturbs George, I think, because it could carry disease and make Lennie sick. George is willing for Lennie to have another mouse so he doesn’t disapprove of Lennie’s having mice.

What is the major theme in the Outsiders?

What is the major theme in the Outsiders?

One of the most dominant themes in The Outsiders is that of class conflict. The beginning of the novel strongly introduces this theme as a group of Socs, the West Side rich kids, jump and terrorize Ponyboy, a young boy from the East Side:

“Hey, grease,” one said in an over-friendly voice. “We’re gonna do you a favor, greaser. We’re gonna cut all that long greasy hair off” (5).

The Socs target Ponyboy because of his social status as a greaser; the differences between the values and socio-economic status of the greasers and Socs in The Outsiders have turned the two groups against each other in animosity. Each group targets the other as an enemy, and because of their different lifestyles and the resulting stereotypes, each side despises the other.

The greasers are seen as hoods and juvenile delinquents by the Socs while the greasers perceive the Socs as the group that “has all the breaks” with their “tuff” mustangs and madras shirts. The class conflict between Socs and greasers drives the plotline of the novel, becoming one of the most important themes in The Outsiders.

What source does Douglass rely on to learn how to read and write ?

What source does Douglass rely on to learn how to read and write as explained in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave?

In Chapter VII, Douglass shows his determination to read and write by pursuing both through a variety of means. His mistress, Mrs. Auld, first teaches him his letters and the rudiments of reading until she realizes that it is dangerous to teach a slave to read and begins to actively prevent Douglass from reading. For instance, if she sees him with a newspaper, one method he used to practice reading, she takes it from him, and if he is in his room, she questions what he is doing there, fearing that he is reading.

Being forbidden to read only whets Frederick’s appetite for it. With reading at home now a problem, he turns to the poor white boys on the streets of Baltimore, who will help him learn in exchange for bread. Douglass is also able to get hold of books such as The Columbian Orator, which was a popular set of excerpts from writers as diverse as George Washington and Cicero. Douglass goes through a period when he realizes that reading has inflamed him with outrage over being a slave, and he wishes to go back to the time when he had not yet learned to read. Better to be like a “beast,” he thinks, then to know how he is being wronged.

He learns to write by copying the letters sailors write on boards to label them, copying out of books, and challenging boys to write letters so he can copy them. He explains to the reader that he is fortunate to be a slave in the city at this time, as it gives him more freedom of movement and because most masters are ashamed to abuse slaves where neighbors can overhear the screams. His role running errands offers him opportunities to meet people and to learn.

Frederick Douglass was initially taught how to read by his master’s wife, Mrs. Auld. Mrs. Auld taught Frederick the alphabet and small words before her husband forbade her from teaching Frederick. Frederick then realized that reading could be his path to freedom and decided to learn to read at any cost.

When Frederick would run his errands, he would always take a book and a piece of bread with him. Frederick would then exchange the bread for reading lessons from the poor white children. Frederick recalls reading The Columbian Orator and being profoundly affected by a dialogue between a slave and his master in which the slave argues for and wins his freedom. Frederick also recalls reading one of Sheridan’s influential speeches on behalf of Catholic emancipation.

Frederick learned to write by copying letters from pieces of timber at the shipyard, which were used to identify the location of the planks on the ship. He would then challenge literate boys to write as well as him and watch as they wrote articulate letters. Frederick then began copying the Italics in Webster’s Spelling Book until he had expert penmanship.

Declamation Piece – Short Declamation Piece For High School

Declamation Piece – Short Declamation Piece For High School

A wonderful candidate for an easy-to-learn, yet, powerful declamation is the 1895 poem “If” by British Nobel Laureate Rudyard Kipling. It is a tribute to colonial politician and activist Leander Starr Jameson.

This is a good choice for a teenager, because the language is simple, direct, and still relevant to issues in the 21st century. It is made of only 4 stanzas and the words carry a very powerful, active voice.

It is also a heartfelt piece, in which paternal advice is given to a son. It teaches many good lessons on behavior, self-control, humility, and common sense; the poem is perfect for times like these, times of dissension and turmoil that cause people to be disrespectful and heartless to one another.

As we live in a society that has opted to attack, rather than rationalize, the thoughts of others, this poem is even more relevant today. Also, as we witness people who are supposed to be role models ignoring principles once taught to previous generations, one may see “If” as what it actually is: a masterpiece that can persist through time and that carries lessons that can be applied everywhere.

You can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too:

“If” is also a great piece because it has rhyme in it, which makes it easy to remember. Moreover, it is a poem that entices readers to consider both sides of an argument, to be humble, to learn to mold their public persona, and to learn to be temperate in times of adversity. These are fundamental teachings that not many men or women have been raised to understand. Yet, they are just that: fundamentals for an agreeable and healthy social existence.

If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise

Finally, this poem fits well in a world that expresses itself and lends its reputation to social media and internet influence. It is perfect for this particular generation because it brings them back to the fundamental blocks of coexistence:

  • mutual respect
  • tolerance
  • acceptance
  • understanding
  • objectivity
  • forgiveness
  • hope

‘If” will inspire the audience and will teach very much needed lessons. The audience will be put back in touch with topics that are basic for survival, both moral and physical.

If you can dream—and not make dreams your master;
If you can think—and not make thoughts your aim,
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
. . . treat those two impostors just the same

For more insight on Rudyard Kipling, check out his study guide here on Enotes. Also, check out the analysis of “If” right here, too.

Justinian’s Code – What is the significance of Justinian’s Code?

Justinian’s Code – What is the significance of Justinian’s Code?


There are at least two ways to answer this question.

First, we can say that the Code of Justinian was significant for the Byzantine Empire. The creation of the Code ensured that the Byzantine Empire would have a coherent set of laws that could be easily understood.
The Code came into use around the year 530 and continued to be used as the basis of Byzantine law until the fall of the empire in 1453. Thus, the Code was significant simply because it was the basis of law for an empire for more than 900 years.

Second, we can say that the Code is significant to Western Europe as well. The Code never applied to this region because Western Europe was not part of the Byzantine Empire. Even so, the Code had a major effect in the West.
It was written in Latin so it was easy for scholars in the West to use it.
In the 11th century, scholars in Italy started to study the code. Before long, the Code was used to create a system of canon law. It was then used as the basis for secular legal codes. It eventually became the foundation of legal codes across all of Europe.

An Eye For An Eye Makes The Whole World Blind Meaning

An Eye For An Eye Makes The Whole World Blind Meaning

what is the meaning of”an eye for an eye only ends up making the world blind”? and give one example in the world today.

I think that this statement is saying that taking revenge is a bad idea.  It is saying that if you take revenge (like by taking an eye for an eye), you just end up hurting everyone.

I think we can see that in a lot of cases in our world.  Countries or groups think that every time something is done to them, they have to do it back.  One example I can think of is our own political parties.  Starting about 20 years ago, it seems like they have been taking revenge on each other all the time.

One party gets into power and abuses the other.  Then the other gets into power and takes revenge.  This has led to the parties being totally unable to get along with each other even when it would be good for us if they did.  In this way, their revenge has made them all blind.

The phrase “an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” is used frequently to describe an approach of revenge and of disposing justice in which, people retaliate toward any harm done or losses incurred by them, by trying to cause equal harm to anyone seen to be the cause of the harm.

An approach like this tends to increase enmity and ill feeling towards each other among all people. A person may cause some harm to another unintentionally and perhaps without any fault on his or her part. It is also possible that a individual who is seen as the perpetrator of the harm has not caused it at all. But when the attitude of the people is to retaliate and take revenge in equal measure, the party harmed initially will inflict similar harms on the party supposed to be the cause of the harm.

Unfortunately the party thus becoming the target of retaliation is not likely to accept the retaliation as justified, and will indulge in counter retaliation. Thus a never ending chain of retaliation and counter retaliation will be started resulting in widespread violence and fight among people. Everyone in the society will be hurt seriously by such approach.

Figuratively we say that if we try to take an eye of a person or his near or dear one because he or she has caused me or my near and dear one to loose an eye, the other person will react in similar manner and this will start a chain reaction leading to people from both the warring factions becoming blind. And if this principle is adopted by all the people in the world the entire world will become blind.


Atoms to Grams – What is the formula for converting grams to atoms or atoms to grams?

Atoms to Grams – What is the formula for converting grams to atoms or atoms to grams?

To convert grams to atoms, first convert grams to moles and then convert moles to atoms. In 878g of fluorine there are 2.777 x 10^25 atoms.

You cannot directly convert grams to atoms.  First you must covert your grams to moles, then you can take the moles and covert to atoms.  If you take your 878 grams of fluorine and then look at the atomic mass.

You divide and find that 1 gram of fluorine is equal to 0.0525350025878 moles.

Then you multiply that by your 878 grams.  After you get that answer you can use Avagadro’s number, 6.022X10^23  to find the atoms.  To get moles from atoms, divide number of atoms by 6.022 x 10^23.

To get atoms from moles, multiply number of moles by 6.022 x 10^23.