Factual Description Class 12 CBSE Format, Topics Exercises and Examples

Factual Description Class 12

Factual description is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Such a writing task is essentially sequential and directional – proceeding from one point to the other in a fixed direction. Although the focus is on factual accuracy, stylistic creativity and innovation make the description more interesting for the reader. Otherwise, a factual description may become mundane and boring.

The factual description is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. Such a writing task is essentially sequential and directional – proceeding from one point to the other in a fixed direction. Although the focus is on factual accuracy, stylistic creativity, and innovation, makes the description more interesting for the reader. Otherwise, a factual description may become mundane and boring.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

Factual Description Class 12 CBSE  Format, Topics Exercises and Examples PDF

While writing factual description, students must show:

  • an eye for detail
  • power of observation Points to remember
  • be objective
  • your presentation should be logical and systematic

The factors that are essential for effective paragraph writing are:

  • unity
  • cohesion
  • the logical development of thought

The entire piece should concern itself with a single controlling idea. Rambling or deviating from the task at hand should definitely be avoided. Connectives and linkers are essential to make the passage interesting and understandable. The thought should be built up by providing adequate details. The description must be sequential with important details listed first, followed by the not – so – important details. Important: Make careful use of tenses while giving a factual description.

Format:
The factual description is arranged as follows:

  1. Topic Sentence: It is the first sentence. It introduces the main idea of the paragraph.
  2. Supporting Details: These come after the topic sentence, making up the body of the description. They give details to develop and support the main idea.
  3. Closing Sentence: This is the last sentence(s). It restates the main idea and sums up the thoughts using different words.

While writing factual description, the following points must be kept in mind:
(a) Place

  • Name
  • Location
  • Dimensions — shape, colour, design, (material stored, if any)
  • Atmosphere
  • Sights, sounds, smell
  • Purpose/use
  • History
  • Importance
  • Summing up

(b) Person

  • Name
  • Relationship with writer
  • Social status/role/profession
  • Looks (features, clothes, height, health)
  • Characteristics of personality
  • Opinion of others about him
  • Any other relevant point (could be brought about by narrating an incident)

(c) Object

  • Name
  • Dimensions — shape, colour, design, (material stored, if any)
  • Make/model (year of manufacture)
  • Purpose/use
  • Operational details
  • Functions/importance
  • Price
  • Availability
  • Material
  • Use
  • Summing up

(d) Process

  • Name and title
  • Steps in sequential order
  • Observed facts and conclusions drawn
  • Present tense/passive voice
  • Use of objective language

Factual Description Sample Example for Class 12 CBSE

1. Write a brief description of travelling by a state-owned city bus.

2. Briefly describe your visit to a hospital.

Students of Tyndale Biscoe School, Srinagar, were taken to a career – counselling workshop organized by HT – PACE. Rahul Kaul, the Head Boy, was told to write a description of the process of choosing a career for the school newsletter. Complete the following report for Rahul.

How to Choose a Career
By Rahul Kaul

While planning a career it is essential (a) …………………………….. . Think about your strong points . and qualities. Prioritize them and (b) …………………………….. (c) as possible on the various career options available from (d) …………………………….. such as newspapers, magazines and the school counsellor. Meet successful people from (e) …………………………….. doctors, engineers, lawyers, journalists, etc. Attend (f) …………………………….. workshops and discuss the pros and cons of specific careers (g) …………………………….. . Then think of the requirements of available career options in relation to your abilities and aptitudes. Finally (h) …………………………….. and work hard to achieve your dream.

Answer:
(a) that you make a thorough analysis of your abilities and aptitude
(b) explore the various suitable career options.
(c) Collect as much information
(d) various sources
(e) different walks of life like
(f) career counseling
(g) with experts
(h) decide upon a career

Factual Description Practice Example for Class 12 CBSE

1. Write a factual description of a multiplex cinema in your locality in 100–125 words.

2. Write a factual description of a flea market in 100–125 words.

3. Describe a hovercraft in about 100–125 words.

4. Sheetal’s younger sister Seema is leaving for a boarding school. She wants to know the method of preparing tea. Sheetal decides to explain the process to her. Write the description of the process in not more than 125 words.

5. Describe a computer in about 125 words.

6. Your class will be going on a class picnic next week. Your teacher has written a set of directions and instructions and puts it on the class notice board. It includes dos and don’ts and directions about planning and organizing food and games. Write her directions in about 100–125 words.

7. Your younger brother has joined a boarding school. He wants to open a savings bank account. Write how to open a S.B. account in not more than 125 words.

8. Your younger brother, who is in a boarding school, wants to know how to prepare for the board exam. Give him a few tips in not more than 125 words.

9. You are going to the railway station for the first time to get your reservation, your father gives you detailed instructions. Write how to get your seat reserved in a train in not more than 125 words.

10. You recently visited Agra on an excursion organized by the school where you visited the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort and Sikandra. Write a brief description of the city and its architecture in not more than 125 words.

11. Porters (or, coolies as they are called in India) are a common sight at railway stations. Write a brief description of a coolie in not more than 125 words.

12. A penfriend in a foreign country has asked you what your home is like. He/she has never visited India and does not know what houses here are like. Describe your home for him/her in not more than 125 words.

13. Auto – rickshaws are a common sight on Delhi roads. In fact, they are becoming increasingly popular all over the globe. Describe to your penfriend what an auto-rickshaw looks like. Do not exceed 125 words.

14. Write a brief description of a microwave oven in not more than 125 words.

15. Write the description of your grandmother in not more than 125 words.

16. Your brother does not know what a first – aid box is. He is going alone on a school trip. Put together a first – aid box for him. Then describe the box and its contents to him.

17. Your school has recently shifted the school library to a spacious hall with many facilities and it draws more students, thus promoting reading habits among students. You are XYZ, the school pupil leader. Write a factual description of the library in not more than 125 words.

18. Write a brief review of the book that you enjoyed reading the most. Do not exceed 125 words.

19. The railway station is a bustling place. Describe the scene you witnessed at the railway station in not more than 125 words.

20. Life in a big city offers a number of facilities. At the same time it is quite challenging. Write a brief description of the challenges faced by the residents of a city..Do not exceed 125 words.

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Literary CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Literary

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Literary CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage Practice Examples for Class 12 Literary CBSE

1. Read the following passage carefully.

1. For four days, I walked through the narrow lanes of the old city, enjoying the romance of being in a city where history still lives in its cobblestone streets and in its people riding asses, carrying vine leaves and palm as they once did during the time of Christ.

2. This is Jerusalem, home to the sacred sites of Christianity, Islam and Judaism. This is the place that houses the church of the Holy Sepulchre, the place where Jesus was finally laid to rest. This is also the site of Christ’s crucifixion, burial and resurrection.

3. Built by the Roman Emperor Constantine at the site of an earlier temple to Aphrodite, it is the most venerated Christian shrine in the world, and justifiably so. Here, within the church, are the last five stations of the cross, the 10th station where Jesus was stripped of his clothes, the 11th where he was nailed to the cross, the 12th where he died on the cross, the 13th where the body was removed from the cross, and the 14th is his tomb.

4. For all this weighty tradition, the approach and entrance to the church, is nondescript. You have to ask for directions. Even to the devout Christian pilgrims, walking along the Via Dolorosa – the Way of Sorrows – first nine stations look clueless. Then a courtyard appears, hemmed in by other buildings and a doorway to one side. This leads to a vast area of huge stone architecture.

5. Immediately, inside the entrance is your first stop. It’s the stone of anointing: this is the place, according to Greek tradition, where Christ was removed from the cross. The Roman Catholics, however, believe it to be the spot where Jesus’ body was prepared for burial by Joseph.

6. What happened next? Jesus was buried. He was taken to a place outside the city of Jerusalem where other graves existed and there, he was buried in a cave. However, all that is long gone, destroyed by continued attacks and rebuilding; what remains is the massive and impressive Rotunda (a round building with a dome) that Emperor Constantine built. Under this, and right in the centre of the Rotunda, is the structure that contains the Holy Sepulchre.

7. “How do you know that this is Jesus’ tomb?” I asked one of the pilgrims standing next to me. He was clueless, more interested, like the rest of them, in the novelty of it all and in photographing it, than in its history or tradition.

8. At the start of the first century, the place was a disused quarry outside the city walls. According to the gospels, Jesus’ crucifixion occurred at a place outside the city walls with graves nearby. Archaeologists have discovered tombs from that era, so the site is compatible with the biblical period.

9. The structure at the site is a marble tomb built over the original burial chamber. It has two rooms, and you enter four at a time into the first of these, the Chapel of the Angel. Here, the angel is supposed to have sat on a stone to recount Christ’s resurrection. A low door made of white marble, partly worn away by pilgrims’ hands, leads to a smaller chamber inside. This is the ‘room of the tomb’, the place where Jesus was buried.

10. We entered in single file. On my right was a large marble slab that covered the original rock bench on which the body of Jesus was laid. A woman knelt and prayed. Her eyes were wet with tears. She pressed her face against the slab to hide them, but it only made it worse. [CBSE Delhi 2015]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
How does Jerusalem still retain the charm of the ancient era?
(a) There are narrow lanes.
(b) Roads are paved with cobblestones.
(c) People are riding asses.
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question (ii)
To which religion is Holy Sepulchre sacred?
(a) Christianity
(b) Islam
(c) Judaism
(d) Both (a) and (c)
Answer:
(a) Christianity

Question (iii)
Why does one have to constantly ask for directions to the church?
(a) Because its lanes are narrow
(b) Because the entrance to the church is nondescript
(c) Because people are not tourist-friendly
(d) Because everyone is lost in enjoying the romance of the place
Answer:
(a) Because its lanes are narrow

Question (iv)
What is the first step inside the entrance?
(a) A round building with a done
(b) The Stone of anointing
(c) Grave of Jesus
(d) A marble tomb
Answer:
(b) The Stone of anointing

Question (v)
Where was Jesus buried?
(a) In a cave
(b) At a place outside the city
(c) In the Holy Sepulchre
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer:
(d) Both (a) and (b)

B. Answer the following questions briefly.

Question (i)
What is the Greek belief about the ‘stone of anointing’?
Answer:
The Greek belief about the ‘stone of anointing’ is that this was the place where Christ was removed from the cross.

Question (ii)
Why did Emperor Constantine build the Rotunda?
Answer:
Emperor Constantine built the Rotunda to mark the place where Jesus Christ was laid to rest.

Question (iii)
What is the general attitude of the pilgrims?
Answer:
The general attitude of the pilgrims is out of respect and novelty of the place. They preserve the memory by photographing it. They are least interested in the history or tradition of the place.

Question (iv)
How is the site compatible with the biblical period?
Answer:
The site is compatible with the biblical period as according to gospels, Jesus’ crucifixion occurred at a place outside the city wall with graves nearby’. This is further known from the fact that archaeologists have discovered tombs from that era.

Question (v)
Why did the pilgrims enter the room of the tomb in a single file?
Answer:
The pilgrims entered the room of the tomb in a single file because the room was small with a low door. It led to a narrow, smaller chamber where only one person could enter at a time.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘the act of bringing back something that had disappeared or ended’.
Answer:
resurrection

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘having no interesting features or qualities’.
Answer:
resurrection

2. Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.

Work Is Worship
worship in this lonely dark corner of a
temple with doors all shut? Open
thine eyes and see thy God is not before thee!
He is there where the tiller is tilling
the hard ground and where the path-maker
is breaking stones. He is with them
in sun and shower, and his
garment is covered with dust. Put off
thy holy mantle and even like him come
down on the dusty soil!
Deliverance? Where is this deliverance
to be found? Our master himself
has joyfully taken upon him the bonds of
creation; he is bound with us all forever.
Come out of thy meditations and
leave aside thy flowers and incense!
What harm is there if thy clothes
become tattered and stained? Meet
him and stand by him in toil and in
sweat of thy brow.

– Rabindranath Tagore

2.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word …………………….., as used in stanza 1, is an archaic way of saying ‘your’.
i. thy
ii. thine
iii. both i. and ii.

(b) The word ‘deliverance’ means
i. the state of being rescued from danger, evil or pain
ii. the state of delivering a package
iii. deliberation

2.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following briefly.

(a) What does the poet want us to ‘leave’?
(b) The poet uses a number of archaic words in this poem. Give any four examples.
(c) Where, according to the poet, is God to be found?
(d) Does this poem have a fixed rhyming pattern?
(e) Who does the poet refer to as ‘our master’ in stanza 4?
(f) According to the poet, why must we “come down on the dusty soil??

2.3 Pick out the words from the poem which mean the same as the following.

(a) saying a prayer in a singing voice (stanza 1)
(b) a loose piece of clothing without sleeves (stanza 2)

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. All this time I was at the Lenin Barracks?, ostensibly in training for the front. When I joined the militia, I had been told that I would be sent to the front the next day, but in fact I had to wait while a fresh centuria’ was got ready. The workers’ militias, hurriedly raised by the trade unions at the beginning of the war, had not yet been organized on an ordinary army basis. The units of command were the ‘section’, of about thirty men, the centuria, of about a hundred men, and the ‘column’, which in practice meant any large number of men. The Lenin Barracks was a block of splendid stone buildings with a riding school and enormous cobbled courtyards; it had been a cavalry barracks and had been captured during the July. fighting.

My centuria slept in one of the stables, under the stone mangers where the names of the cavalry chargers4 were still inscribed. All the horses had been seized and sent to the front, but the whole place still smelt of horse – piss and rotten oats. I was at the barracks about a week. Chiefly I remember the horsy smells, the quavering bugle – calls (all our buglers were amateurs – I first learned the Spanish bugle – calls by listening to them outside the Fascist lines), the tramp – tramp of hobnailed boots in the barrack yard, the long morning parades in the wintry sunshine, the wild games of football, fifty a side, in the gravelled riding school.

There were perhaps a thousand men at the barracks, and a score or so of women, apart from the militiamen’s wives who did the cooking. There were still women serving in the militias, though not very many. In the early battles they had fought side by side with the men as a matter of course. It is a thing that seems natural in time of revolution. Ideas were changing already, however. The militiamen had to be kept out of the riding school while the women were drilling there because they laughed at the women and put them off. A few months earlier no one would have seen anything comic in a woman handling a gun.

2. The whole barracks were in the state of filth and chaos to which the militia reduced every building they occupied and which seems to be one of the by – products of revolution. In every corner you came upon piles of smashed furniture, broken saddles, brass cavalry – helmets, empty sabre – scabbards, and decaying food. There was frightful wastage of food, especially bread. From my barrack room alone a basketful of bread was thrown away at every meal – a disgraceful thing when the civilian population was short of it.

We ate at long trestle – tables out of permanently greasy tin pannikins, and drank out of a dreadful thing called a porron. A porron is a sort of glass bottle with a pointed spout from which a thin jet of wine spurts out whenever you tip it up; you can thus drink from a distance, without touching it with your lips, and it can be passed from hand to hand. I went on strike and demanded a drinking cup as soon as I saw a porron in use. To my eye the things were altogether too like bed – bottles, especially when they were filled with white wine.

3. By degrees, they were issuing the recruits with uniforms, and because this was Spain, everything was issued piecemeal, so that it was never quite certain who had received what, and various of the things we most needed, such as belts and cartridge – boxes, were not issued till the last moment, when the train was actually waiting to take us to the front. I have spoken of the militia ‘uniform’, which probably gives a wrong impression. It was not exactly a uniform. Perhaps a “multiform’ would be the proper name for it. Everyone’s clothes followed the same general plan, but they were never quite the same in any two cases. Practically everyone in the army wore corduroy knee-breeches, but there the uniformity ended. Some wore puttees, others corduroy gaiters, others leather leggings or high boots.

Everyone wore a zipper jacket, but some of the jackets were of leather, others of wool and of every conceivable colour. The kinds of cap were about as numerous as their wearers. It was usual to adorn the front of your cap with a party badge, and in addition, nearly every man wore a red or red and black handkerchief round his throat. A militia column at that time was an extraordinary-looking rabble. But the clothes had to be issued as this or that factory rushed them out, and they were not bad clothes considering the circumstances.

The shirts and socks were wretched cotton things, however, quite useless against cold. I hate to think of what the militiamen must have gone through in the earlier months before anything was organised. I remember coming upon a newspaper of only about two months earlier in which one of the P.O.U.M. leaders, after a visit to the front, said that he would try to see to it that every militiaman had a blanket’. A phrase to make you shudder if you have ever slept in a trench.

– Adapted from Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell

3.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) ‘Section’ was a military unit of about …………………….. men.
i. thirty
ii. hundred
iii. none of the above

(b) A …………………….. is a sort of glass bottle with a pointed spout.
i. trestle – table
ii. pannikin
iii. porron

3.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions.

(a) What was the writer’s profession? What was the writer’s training place like?
(b) What were the living conditions in the barracks?
(c) Who were the women at the barracks?
(d) ‘Ideas were changing already…’ What ideas are the author talking about?
(e) Why were the militiamen kept out of the riding school while the women were drilling?

3.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) seemingly (para 1)
(b) randomness (para 2)

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. As Andrea turned off the Highway onto the road to Brockbourne; the small village in which she lived,
it was four o’clock in the afternoon, but already the sun was falling behind the hills. At this time in December, it would be completely dark by five o’clock. Andrea shivered. The interior of the car was not cold, but the trees bending in the harsh wind and the patches of yesterday’s snow still heaped in the fields made her feel chilly inside. It was another ten miles to the cottage where she lived with her husband Michael. The dim light and wintry weather made her feel a little lonely. She would have liked to listen to the radio, but it had been stolen from her car when it was parked outside her office in London about two weeks ago, and she had not got around to replacing it yet.

2. She was just coming out of the little village of Mickley, when she saw the old lady, standing by the road, with a crude handwritten sign saying ‘Brockbourne’ in her hand. Andrea was surprised. She had never seen an old lady hitchhiking before. However, the weather and the coming darkness made her feel sorry for the lady, waiting hopefully on a country road like this with little traffic. Normally, Andrea would never pick up a hitchhiker when she was alone, thinking it was too dangerous, but what was the harm in doing a favour for a little old lady like this? Andrea pulled up a little way down the road, and the lady, holding a big shopping bag, hurried over to climb in the door which Andrea had opened for her.

3. When she did get in, Andrea could see that she was not, in fact, so little. Broad and fat, the old lady had some difficulty climbing in through the car door with her big bag, and when she had got in, she more than filled the seat next to Andrea. She wore a long, shabby old dress, and she had a yellow hat pulled down low over her eyes. Panting noisily from her effort, she pushed her big brown canvas shopping bag down onto the floor under her feet, and said in a voice which was almost a whisper, ‘Thank you dearie – I’m just going to Brockbourne.’

4. “Do you live there?’ asked Andrea, thinking that she had never seen the old lady in the village in the four years she had lived there herself.

5. “No, dearie,’ answered the passenger, in her soft voice, “I’m just going to visit a friend. He was supposed to meet me back there at Mickley, but his car won’t start, so I decided to hitchhike – there isn’t a bus until seven, and I didn’t want to wait. I knew some kind soul would give me a lift.?

6. Something in the way the lady spoke, and the way she never turned her head, but stared continuously into the darkness ahead from under her old yellow hat, made Andrea uneasy about this strange hitchhiker. She didn’t know why, but she felt instinctive that there was something wrong, something odd, and something… dangerous. But how could an old lady be dangerous, it was absurd.

7. Careful not to turn her head, Andrea looked sideways at her passenger. She studied the hat, the dirty collar of the dress, the shapeless body, the arms with their thick black hair…………..

Thick black hair?
Hairy arms? Andrea’s blood froze.
This wasn’t a woman. It was a man.

At first, she didn’t know what to do. Then suddenly, an idea came into her racing, terrified brain. Swinging the wheel suddenly, she threw the car into a skid, and brought it to a halt. ‘My God!’ she shouted, ‘A child! Did you see the child? I think I hit her!’ The ‘old lady’ was clearly shaken by the sudden skid. “I didn’t see anything dearie,’ she said. “I don’t think you hit anything.’
I’m sure it was a child!’ insisted Andrea. “Could you just get out and have a look? Just see if
there’s anything on the road?’ She held her breath. Would her plan work?

8. It did. The passenger slowly opened the car door, leaving her bag inside, and climbed out to investigate. As soon as she was out of the vehicle, Andrea gunned the engine and accelerated away madly. The car door swung shut as she rounded a bend, and soon she had put a good three miles between herself and the awful hitchhiker.

9. It was only then that she thought about the bag lying on the floor in front of her. Maybe the bag would provide some information about the real identity about the ‘old woman’. Pulling into the side of the road, Andrea lifted the heavy bag onto her lap and opened it curiously.

10. It contained only one item – a small hand axe, with a razor-sharp blade. The axe, and the inside of the bag, was covered with the dark red stains of dried blood. Andrea began to scream.

4.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) Andrea lived in ……………………..
i. Brockbourne
ii. London
iii. Mickley

(b) A hitchhiker is ……………………..
i. a person who walks long distances
ii. a person who climbs mountains
iii. a person who travels by asking for free rides in other people’s cars

4.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions.

(a) What were Andrea’s feelings as she drove home? Why?
(b) Why did Andrea stop to offer the old lady a lift?
(c) When did she realize that there was something wrong?

4.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) wheezing (para 3)
(b) intuitively (para 6)

5. Read the following passage carefully.

1. India has never subscribed to the doctrine of militarism and war in her history. Here, war was never treated as an ideal. It was only tolerated as unavoidable and inevitable, and all attempts were made to check it and bring it under control. In spite of the frequency of wars in ancient India, in spite of highly developed military organisation, techniques of war and imperialism, and in spite of the open justification of war as national policy, the heart of India loved pacifisms as an ideal capable of realisation. India’s symbolic role was that of a peace-maker and it sincerely pinned its faith on the principle of ‘Live and Let Live’. At least philosophically, India’s intelligence supported the cause of peace not only in national affairs but in international affairs also. All the great seers of the yore visualised the unity of life, permeating all beings, animate or inanimate, which ruled out killing and suicidal wars.

2. This doctrine of philosophical pacifisms, practiced by ancient Aryans, is no doubt a question of controversial nature. Certainly, the great Indian teachers and savants stuck to this doctrine tenaciously and in their personal life, they translated it into practice and preached it to masses and even to the princes of military classes.

3. Another culture of those times, the existence of which has been proved by the excavations of Mohenjo-Daro, also enunciated the doctrine of pacificism and friendship to all. Strangely enough, the Indus Valley Civilization has revealed no fortification and very few weapons.

4. Ahimsa or the doctrine of non-violence in thought, speech, and action assumed gigantic importance in the Buddhist and Jain period. By constant practice of this virtue, man becomes unassailable by even wild beasts, who forgets their ferocity the moment they enter the circumference of his magnetic influence. The monks and nuns of these churches were apostles of peace, who reached every nook and corner of the world and delivered the message of love to war-weary humanity. The greatest votary was the royal monk Ashoka, who in reality was responsible for transforming Ahimsa as an act of personal virtue, to Ahimsa as an act of national virtue.

5. Many historians recounting the causes of the downfall of the Mauryas, hold the pacific policy of Ashoka which had eschewed the aggressive militarism of his predecessors,, responsible for an early decay of the military strength of the state and its consequent disintegration, leading to the rise of Sungas, Kanvas, and Andhras. But in reality, the fault lies with the weak successors of Ashoka, who could not wield the weapon of non-violence with skill and efficiency which required the strength of a spiritual giant-like Ashoka. They failed due to their subjective weakness: Pacifism itself was no cause of their failure.

6. Besides the foregoing philosophical and religious school of thought, even many political authorities gave their unqualified support to the cause of pacifisms. They recognised the right of rivals to exist, not mainly as enemies, but as collaborators in the building of a civilisation operation. Thus, for centuries, in the pre-Mauryan India, scores of small independent republics existed and flourished without coming into the clash with each other.

7. With regard to Kautilya, the much-maligned militarist and the so-called Machiavelli of India, he thinks that the object of diplomacy is to avoid war.

8. The Mahabharata observes in the connection: “A wise man should be content with what can be obtained by the expedients of conciliation, gift, and dissension.” It denounces the warring world of men by comparing it to a dog-kennel. “First there comes the wagging of tails, then turning of one round to other, then the show of teeth, then the roaring and then comes the commencement of the fights. It is the same with men; there is no difference whatever.” Yajnavalkya adds: “War is the last expedient to be used when all others have failed.” Likewise, Sri Krishna who’s Bhagwad-Gita has been styled by some as ‘a song of the battle’, should not be considered militarist. When all the three expedients were exhausted, then alone the fourth resorted.

9. All possible avenues of peace, such as negotiation, conciliation through the conference, meditation, and so on, were explored before the war has resorted. This proves that the heart of ancient India was sound and it longed for peace, although war also was not treated as an anathema, which was to be avoided as far as possible. (Extract from ‘Culture India-Pacifism has been the Ideal’ by Sri [CBSE Sample Paper 2019]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What does the heart of India love?
(a) A highly developed military organisation
(b) Techniques of wars and imperialism
(c) Loans
(d) Pacifism
Answer:
(d) Pacifism

Question (ii)
What does the principle of‘Live and Let Live’ mean?
(a) Imperialism
(b) Militarism
(c) Frequency of wars among nations
(d) Role of peace-makers
Answer:
(d) Role of peace-makers

Question (iii)
What did Aryans preach and practice to the masses?
(a) Non-violence
(b) Freedom of speech and action
(c) Philosophical pacifisms
(d) Practice of military organisation
Answer:
(c) Philosophical pacifisms

Question (iv)
With what does Mahabharata compare the warring world?
(a) Wise men
(b) Dog kennel
(c) Song of the battle
(d) Militarist
Answer:
(b) Dog kennel

Question (v)
What message was delivered by the monks and nuns?
(a) Love to wear-weary humanity
(b) Live and let live
(c) Ahimsa is an act of national virtue
(d) The doctrine of non-violence
Answer:
(a) Love to wear-weary humanity

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
How was war treated in India?
Answer:
War was never treated as an ideal in India. It was only tolerated as unavoidable and inevitable. All attempts were made to check it and control it.

Question (ii)
Describe India’s preparedness for war in spite of their belief in Pacifism.
Answer:
Highly developed military organisation/techniques of war and imperialism/the open justification of war as national policy.

Question (iii)
How did the Aryans practice the Doctrine of Pacifism?
Answer:
The doctrine of philosophical Pacifism was practised by ancient Aryans. The great Indian teachers and savants stuck to this doctrine tenaciously, practiced, and preached it to the masses and royals.

Question (iv)
What is Ahimsa?
Answer:
Ahimsa is the doctrine of non-violence in thought, speech, and action. It is an act of personal virtue.

Question (v)
What is the meaning of co-existence with rivals?
Answer:
The right of the rivals to exist, not mainly as enemies but as collaborators in the building of a civilisation operation/co-existence without coming in a clash with each other.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘spreading through something and being presented in every part of it’.
Answer:
permeating

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to express in definite and clear terms’.
Answer:
enunciated

6. Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.

The Man He Killed
Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn,
We should have set us down to wet
Right many a nipperkin!
But ranged as infantry,
And staring face to face,
I shot at him as he at me,
And killed him in his place.
I shot him dead because
Because he was my foe,
Just so: my foe of course he was;
That’s clear enough; although
He thought he’d ‘list, perhaps,
Off-hand like -just as I —
Was out of work — had sold his traps —
No other reason why.
Yes; quaint and curious war is!
You shoot a fellow down
You’d treat, if met where any bar is,
Or help to haifa crown.

– Thomas Hardy

6.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ……………………… rhymes with the word “although’.
i. foe
ii. So
iii. both i. and ii.

(b) The word ‘crown’, as used in the last stanza, means ………………………
i. a unit of money
ii. the headdress was worn by a king
iii. the top part of the head or a hat

6.2 On the basis of your reading of the poem, answer the following questions briefly.

(a) What is the rhyming scheme of the first stanza?
(b) Why had the poet shot the man dead?
(c) Find the word in the poem which rhymes with the word ‘because’.
(d) He thought he’d ‘list, perhaps Here, the word “’list’ is a shortened form of which word?
(e) Why does the poet think that war is ‘quaint and curious’?)
(f) Why, according to the poet, had the other man joined the war?

6.3 Pick out the words from the poem which means the same as the following.

(a) tavern (stanza 1)
(b) enemy (stanza 3)

7. Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.

IF
1f you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
1f you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,
Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,
And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:
If you can dream and not make dreams your master;
If you can think, and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,
And stoop and build ‘em up with worn-out tools:
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hoLd on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: ‘Hold on!’
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings — nor lose the common touch,
if neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fiLl the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,
Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And — which is more — you’ll be a Man, my son!

– Rudyard Kipling

7.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The words ‘make allowance for’ means the same as ……………………………..
i. give money to
ii. take into consideration
iii. none of the above

(b) The word …………………………….. rhymes with the word ‘much’.
i. touch
ii. hurt
iii. virtue

7.2 On the basis of you reading the poem, answer these questions.

(a) What are the four qualities that are stressed in stanza 1?
(b) What does the poet say of dreaming?
(c) What does the poet say about Triumph and Disaster?
(d) What are the poet’s views on winning and losing?
(e) What does the poet say about walking with kings but not losing the ‘common touch’?
(f) What is the theme of the poem?

7.3 Pick out the words from the poem which means the same as the following.

(a) impersonators (stanza 2)
(b) a strong band of tissue in the body that joins a muscle to a bone (stanza 3)

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Some business had detained me in Chancery Lane, nine in the evening, and thereafter, having some inkling of a headache, I was disinclined either for entertainment or further work. So much of the sky as the high cliffs of that narrow canon of traffic left visible spoke of a serene night, and I determined to make my way down to the Embankment, and rest my eyes and cool my head by watching the variegated lights upon the river. Through the arches of Waterloo Bridge a hundred points of light mark the sweep of the Embankment, and above its parapet rise the towers of Westminster, warm grey against the starlight. ‘A warm night,’ said a voice at my side.

2. I turned my head and saw the profile of a man who was leaning over the parapet beside me. It was a refined face, not unhandsome, though pinched and pale enough, and the coat collar turned up and pinned round the throat marked his status in life as sharply as a uniform. I felt I was committed to the price of a bed and breakfast if I answered him.

3. I looked at him curiously. Would he have anything to tell me worth the money, or was he the common incapable – incapable even of telling his own story? There was a quality of intelligence in his forehead and eyes, and a certain tremulousness in his nether lip that decided me. ‘Very warm,’ said I; ‘but not too warm for us here.’ “No,’ he said, still looking across the water, “it is pleasant enough here…just now.’

4. ‘It is good,’ he continued after a pause, ‘to find anything so restful as this in London. After one has been fretting about business all day, about getting on, meeting obligations, and parrying dangers, I do not know what one would do if it were not for such pacific corners.’ He spoke with long pauses between the sentences. “You must know a little of the irksome labour of the world, or you would not be here. But I doubt if you can be so brain – weary and footsore as I am … Bah! Sometimes I doubt if the game is worth the candle. I feel inclined to throw the whole thing over – name, wealth, and position – and take to some modest trade. But I know if I abandoned my ambition – hardly as she uses me – I should have nothing but remorse left for the rest of my days.’

5. He became silent. I looked at him in astonishment. If ever I saw a man hopelessly hard – up it was the man in front of me. He was ragged and he was dirty, unshaven, and unkempt; he looked as though he had been left in a dust bin for a week. And he was talking to me of the irksome worries of a large business. I almost laughed outright. Either he was mad or playing a sorry jest on his own poverty.

6. ‘If high aims and high positions,’ said I, ‘have their drawbacks of hard work and anxiety, they have their compensations. Influence, the power of doing good, of assisting those weaker and poorer than ourselves; and there is even a certain gratification in-display …’

7. My banter under the circumstances was in the very vile taste. I spoke on the spur of the contrast of his appearance and speech. I was sorry even while I was speaking.

8. He turned a haggard but very composed face upon me. Said he, ‘I forgot myself. Of course, you would not understand.

9. He measured me for a moment. “No doubt it is very absurd. You will not believe me even when I tell you so that it is fairly safe to tell you. And it will be a comfort to tell someone. I really have sa big business in hand, a very big business. But there are troubles just now. The fact is…I make diamonds.’ “I suppose,’ said I, “you are out of work just at present?’

10. “I am sick of being disbelieved,’ he said impatiently, and suddenly unbuttoning his wretched coat he pulled out a little canvas bag that was hanging by a cord round his neck. From this, he produced a brown pebble. ‘I wonder if you know enough to know what that is?’ He handed it to me. I looked at my interlocutor with rising curiosity. “It certainly is rather like a diamond. But, if so, it is a Behemoth of diamonds. Where did you get it?’ “I tell you I made it,’ he said. ‘Give it back to me.’

11. He replaced it hastily and buttoned his jacket. ‘I will sell it to you for one hundred pounds,’ he suddenly whispered eagerly. With that, my suspicions returned. The thing might, after all, be merely a lump of that almost equally hard substance, corundum, with an accidental resemblance in shape to the diamond. Or if it was a diamond, how came he by it, and why should he offer it at a hundred pounds?

12. We looked into one another’s eyes. He seemed eager but honestly eager. At that moment I believed it was a diamond he was trying to sell. Yet I am a poor man, a hundred pounds would leave a visible gap in my fortunes and no sane man would buy a diamond by gaslight from a ragged tramp on his personal warranty only. Still, a diamond that size conjured up a vision of many thousands of pounds. Then, thought I, such a stone could scarcely exist without being mentioned in every book on gems, and again I called to mind the stories of contraband and light-fingered Kaffirs at the Cape. I put the question of purchase on one side.

“How did you get it?’
said I. “I made it.’

Adapted from The Diamond Maker by H.G. Wells

8.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ‘disinclined’ is synonymous to the word ……………………………..
i. unenthusiastic
ii. straight
iii. none of the above

(b) The word ……………………………., in paragraph 12, is used to refer to smuggled items.
i. contraband
ii. purchase
iii. tramp

8.2 On the basis of your reading the passage, answer the questions.

(a) Where did the narrator meet the stranger? Why was he there?
(b) What did the intruder say that startled the narrator?
(c) How did the narrator respond to the impoverished looking intruder’s remark on wealth and position?
(d) What work did the intruder do?
(e) What was the intruder’s offer to the narrator?

8.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) multi-colored (para 1)
(b) fatigued (para 8)

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

MT VESUVIUS ERUPTION 79 AD BY PLINY THE YOUNGER (AD 61–113)

My dear Tacitus,

1. You ask me to write you something about the death of my uncle so that the account you transmit to posterity is as reliable as possible. I am grateful to you. He perished in a devastation of the loveliest of lands, in a memorable disaster shared by peoples and cities, but this will be a kind of eternal life for him. Although he wrote a great number of enduring works himself, the imperishable nature of your writings will add a great deal to his survival. It is therefore with great pleasure that I take up, or rather take upon myself the task you have set me.

2. He was at Misenum in his capacity as commander of the fleet on the 24th of August, when in the afternoon my mother drew his attention to a cloud of unusual size and appearance. He was reclining after dinner with his books. He climbed up to where he could get the best view of the phenomenon. The cloud was rising from a mountain – at such a distance we couldn’t tell which I afterward learned that it was Vesuvius. I can best describe its shape by likening it to a pine tree. It rose into the sky on a very long ‘trunk’ from which spread some “branches’. It had been raised by a sudden blast, which then weakened, leaving the cloud unsupported so that its own weight caused it to spread sideways. Some of the clouds was white, in other parts, there were dark patches of dirt and ash. The sight of it made the scientist in my uncle determined to see it from closer at hand.

3. He ordered a boat made ready. He offered me the opportunity of going along, but I preferred to study. As he was leaving the house, he was brought a letter from Tascius’ wife Retina, who was terrified by the looming danger. Her villa lay at the foot of Vesuvius, and there was no way out except by boat. She begged him to get her away. He changed his plans. The expedition that started out as a quest for knowledge now called for courage. He launched the quadriremes and embarked himself, a source of aid for more people than just Rectina, for that delightful shore was a populous one. He hurried to a place from which others were fleeing and held his course directly into danger. Was he afraid? It seems not, as he kept up a continuous observation of the various movements and shapes of that evil cloud, dictating what he saw.

4. Ash was falling onto the ships now, darker and denser the closer they went. Now it was bits of pumice, and rocks that were blackened and burned and shattered by the fire. Now the sea is shoal; debris from the mountain blocks the shore. He paused for a moment wondering whether to turn back as the helmsman urged him. ‘Fortune helps the brave,’ he said, ‘Head for Pomponianus.’

5. At Stabiae, on the other side of the bay formed by the gradually curving shore, Pomponianus had loaded up his ships even before the danger arrived, though it was visible and indeed extremely close, once it intensified. He planned to put out as soon as the contrary wind let up. That very wind carried my uncle right in, and he embraced the frightened man and gave him comfort and courage. In order to lessen the other’s fear by showing his own unconcern, he asked to be taken to the baths. He bathed and dined, carefree or at least appearing so (which is equally impressive). Meanwhile, broad sheets of flame were lighting up many parts of Vesuvius; their light and brightness were more vivid for the darkness of the night.

To alleviate people’s fears my uncle claimed that the flames came from the deserted homes of farmers who had left in a panic with the hearth fires still alight. Then he rested, and gave every indication of actually sleeping; people who passed by his door heard his snores, which were rather resonant since he was a heavy man. The ground outside his room rose so high with the mixture of ash and stones that if he had spent any more time there escape would have been impossible. He got up and came out, restoring himself to Pomponianus and the others who had been unable to sleep.

They discussed what to do, whether to remain undercover or to try the open air. The buildings were being rocked by a series of strong tremors and appeared to have come loose from their foundations and to be sliding this way and that. Outside, however, there was danger from the rocks that were coming down, light and fire – consumed as these bits of pumice were. Weighing the relative dangers they chose the outdoors.

6. They tied pillows on top of their heads as protection against the shower of rock. It was daylight now elsewhere in the world, but there the darkness was darker and thicker than any night. But they had torches and other lights. They decided to go down to the shore, to see from close up if anything was possible by sea. But it remained as rough and uncooperative as before. Resting in the shade of a sail he drank once or twice from the cold water he had asked for. Then came the smell of sulphur, announcing the flames, and the flames themselves, sending others into flight but reviving him. Supported by two small slaves he stood up and immediately collapsed. As I understand it, his breathing was obstructed by the dust-laden air, simply shut down. When daylight came again 2 days after he died, his body was found; he looked more asleep than dead.

7. You will use the important bits, for it is one thing to write a letter, another to write history, one thing to write to a friend, another to write for the public.

Farewell.
Pliny the Younger (AD 61–113)

9.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ‘imperishable’ is the antonym of the word ……………………………..
i. fragile
ii. transient
iii. durable.

(b) …………………………….. was at Misenum in his capacity as commander of the fleet.
i. Pliny the Younger
ii. Tacitus
iii. none of the above

9.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the questions.

(a) Who has written this letter? What is the purpose of writing?
(b) What was the tragedy? Where did it occur?
(c) What was the first indication of the disaster?
(d) What made the narrator’s uncle change his plans?
(e) ‘Fortune helps the brave,’ why did he say so?
(f) How did the uncle try to allay the fears of the other people? What did the uncle die of?

9.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) everlasting (para 1)
(b) assuage (para 5)

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. I was born in the Rotunda Hospital, on June 5th, 1932. There were nine children before me and twelve after me, so I myself belong to the middle group. Out of this total of twenty – two, seventeen lived, but four died in infancy, leaving thirteen still to hold the family fort.

2. Mine was a difficult birth, I am told. Both mother and son almost died. A whole army of relations queued up outside the hospital until the small hours of the morning waiting for news and praying furiously that it would be good.

3. After my birth Mother was sent to recuperate for some weeks and I was kept in the hospital while she was away. I remained there for some time, without a name, for I wasn’t baptised until my mother was well enough to bring me to church.

4. It was Mother who first saw that there was something wrong with me. I was about four months old at the time. She noticed that my head had a habit of falling backward whenever she tried to feed me. She attempted to correct this by placing her hand on the back of my neck to keep it steady. But when she took it away, back it would drop again. That was the first warning sign. Then she became aware of other defects as I got older.

She saw that my hands were clenched nearly all of the time and were inclined to twine behind my back; my mouth couldn’t grasp the teat of the bottle because even at that early age my jaws would either lock together tightly, so that it was impossible for her to open them, or they would suddenly become limp and fall loose, dragging my whole mouth to one side. At six months I could not sit up without having a mountain of pillows around me. At twelve months it was the same.

5. Very worried by this, Mother told my father her fears, and they decided to seek medical advice without any further delay. I was a little over a year old when they began to take me to hospitals and clinics, convinced that there was something definitely wrong with me, something which they could not understand or name, but which was very real and disturbing.

6. Almost every doctor who saw and examined me labelled me a very interesting but also a hopeless case. Many told Mother very gently that I was mentally defective and would remain so. That was a hard blow to a young mother who had already reared five healthy children. The doctors were so very sure of themselves that Mother’s faith in me seemed almost an impertinence. They assured her that nothing could be done for me.

She refused to accept this truth, the inevitable truth – as it then seemed – that I was beyond cure, beyond saving, even beyond hope. She could not and would not believe that I was an imbecile, as the doctors told her. She had nothing in the world to go by, not a scrap of evidence to support her conviction that, though my body was crippled, my mind was not. In spite of all the doctors and specialists told her, she would not agree. I don’t believe she knew why – she just knew, without feeling the smallest shade of doubt.

8. Finding that the doctors could not help in any way beyond telling her not to place her trust in me, or, in other words, to forget I was a human creature, rather to regard me as just something to be fed and washed and then put away again, Mother decided there and then to take matters into her own hands. I was her child, and therefore part of the family. No matter how dull and incapable I might grow up to be, she was determined to treat me on the same plane as the others, and not as the ‘queer one’ in the back room who was never spoken of when there were visitors present.

9. . That was a momentous decision as far as my future life was concerned. It meant that I would always have my mother on my side to help me fight all the battles that were to come and to inspire me with new strength when I was almost beaten. But it wasn’t easy for her because now the relatives and friends had decided otherwise. They contended that I should be taken kindly, sympathetically, but not seriously. That would be a mistake.

“For your own sake,’ they told her, ‘don’t look to this boy as you would to the others; it would only break your heart in the end.’ Luckily for me, Mother and Father held out against the lot of them. But Mother wasn’t content just to say that I was not an idiot: she set out to prove it, not because of any rigid sense of duty, but out of love. That is why she was so successful.

Adapted from My Left Foot by Christy Brown

10.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) ……………………………. was born in 1932.
i. The narrator’s mother
ii. The narrator’s father
iii. The narrator

(b) A momentous decision is one which is ……………………………..
i. important and crucial
ii. made on the spur of a moment
iii. none of the above

10.2 Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) How did Christy’s mother know that her son was physically impaired?
(b) What diagnosis did the doctors offer to Christy’s mother?
(c) Why did Christy’s mother believe her son was not an idiot?
(d) ‘That was a momentous decision.’ What decision did his mother take about bringing him up?

10.3 Find words from the passage that mean the same as the following.

(a) recover (para 3)
(b) brought up (para 6)

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Descriptive CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Descriptive

Descriptive writing: expresses opinions. It can be argumentative, i.e. may give reasons, explanations, or explore cause and effect relationship. Passages of this kind are analytical. Sometimes the author presents his views with great depth of reasoning or force of argument with the intention of convincing the reader to his point of view. Such texts have great persuasive power.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Descriptive CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage Practice Examples for Class 12 Descriptive CBSE

1. Read the following passage carefully.

1. New Year is the time for resolution. Mentally, at least most of us could compile formidable lists of ‘dos and don’ts’. The same old favourites recur year in and year out with monotonous regularity. We resolve to get up early each morning, eat healthy food, exercise, be nice to people whom we don’t like, and find more time for our parents. Past experience has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. If we remain deep-rooted liars, it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure.

2. Most of us fail in our efforts at self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody, so that we look even more foolish when we slip back into our bad old ways. Aware of these pitfalls, this year I attempted to keep my resolutions to myself. I limited myself to two modest ambitions, to do physical exercise every morning and to read more in the evening. An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year, but on the second, I applied myself diligently to the task.

3. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. The self-discipline required to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Nevertheless, I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. After jumping about in the carpet and twisting the human frame into uncomfortable positions, I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. It was this that betrayed me.

The next morning, the whole family trooped in to watch the performance. That was really unsettling, but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the whole family good-humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea. However, my enthusiasm waned. The time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. Little by little, the eleven minutes fell to zero. By January 10, I was back to where I had started. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning, I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. Resisting the hypnotizing effect of television, I sat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book.

One night, however, feeling cold and lonely, I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. That proved to be my undoing, for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. In fact, I have just bought a book entitled ‘How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute’. Perhaps, it will solve my problem, but I just have not had time to read it.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What were the writer’s resolutions?
(a) Physical exercise in the morning
(b) Read more in the evening
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Not to make more resolutions
Answer:
(c) Both (a) and (b)

Question (ii)
How much time did the daily exercise last initially?
(a) 10 minutes
(b) 11 minutes
(c) 5 minutes
(d) 8 minutes
Answer:
(b) 11 minutes

Question (iii)
How many days did the writer continue his resolution?
(a) 8 days
(b) 9 days
(c) 10 days
(d) 7 days
Answer:
(b) 9 days

Question (iv)
What did the writer do one night, when he was feeling cold and lonely?
(a) Sat in front of TV pretending to read
(b) Completed an entire book
(c) Went for a walk
(d) Gave up the idea of reading
Answer:
(a) Sat in front of TV pretending to read

Question (v)
Which book did the writer buy?
(a) How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute
(b) How to be a Good Reader
(c) How to be Firm on your Resolutions
(d) The Importance of Exercising
Answer:
(a) How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
According to the writer, what has past experience of New Year’s resolutions taught us?
Answer:
The past experience of New Year’s resolutions has taught us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment.

Question (ii)
According to the writer, why do most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement?
Answer:
Most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out.

Question (iii)
Why is it a big mistake to announce our resolution to everybody?
Answer:
It is a big mistake to announce our resolution to everybody because when we do not accomplish what we had resolved, we look even more foolish.

Question (iv)
Why did the writer not carry out his resolution on New Year’s Day?
Answer:
An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided the writer with a good excuse for not carrying out either of his new resolutions on the first day of the year.

Question (v)
“I fended off the taunts and jibes…”. Whose taunts and jibes is the writer talking about? Why was he being taunted?
Answer:
(a) The same old favourites occur with monotonous regularity.
(b) We never have time to carry them out.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘not changing and therefore boring’.
Answer:
monotonous

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to become weaker in strength or influence’.
A

2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Medical tourism may be defined as ‘travel from a normal place of residence to a destination at which medical or surgical treatment is provided or performed, and which involves more than one night away from the country of residence’. Medical tourism is a rapidly growing global market. It is now being actively developed by both public and private sector tourism and health – care organizations.

2. eld, there are a growing number of specialized sectors of medical tourism, including surgical tourism, wellness and spa tourism, dental tourism, and reproductive tourism.

3. The worldwide medical tourism market is currently valued at $20 billion annually. These numbers are expected to double in the future. During the past decade, many hospitals in Asia have offered cosmetic surgery to the American public for a fraction of the cost in the United States of America (USA). Because cosmetic surgery is not covered under most insurance plans, individuals were enticed to travel abroad for the procedure to avoid high out – of – pocket expenses. These surgeries were often coupled with inexpensive vacations in India or Thailand at five–star resorts.

4. Today, a handful of hospitals in Asia have expanded their service offerings to include complex procedures such as coronary artery bypass surgery, mitral valve replacement, joint replacement, and herniated disc surgery. These institutions also provide services to simplify the workflow by transferring medical records for patients across the Pacific, making air and hotel reservations, and hosting patients when they arrive at the destination airport.

5. More than 1,50,000 North Americans travel abroad for health care annually. Patients can expect rates which are 25–75 percent less than those in the United States of America. Medical tourism is particularly attractive in the United States of America, where an estimated 43 million people are without health insurance and 120 million without dental coverage – numbers that are both likely to grow. Patients in Britain, Canada, and other countries with long waiting lists for a major surgery will be just as eager to take advantage of foreign health care options.

6. Patients are discovering high quality, low-cost care, and excellent customer service in overseas locations. Patients are travelling for complicated’ surgeries, including cardiac and orthopedic procedures. This builds on the established phenomenon of medical tourism for cosmetic and dental surgery. Employers, health plans and benefits consultants are taking notice and in some cases are launching pilot programmes. Media coverage has attracted attention to medical tourism, while. medical travel facilitators have sprung up to help patients and companies go abroad. Thailand, Singapore, Dubai, India, the Philippines, Malaysia and others are incorporating medical tourism into their economic development strategies.

7. Hospitals in the Middle East and the Asian markets can reap huge benefits with the current trend in medical tourism. With the price of health care in the United States of America skyrocketing, many people are approaching these hospitals for better care and easy access at a lower cost. Hospitals and brokers can engage patients directly to increase revenues. By being part of this phenomenon, they can build a distinct brand identity in this industry.

8. They can also benefit from obtaining critical and immediate feedback on their services from patients around the world so that they can further improve their services.

9. Medical tourism will also help achieve broader benefits for the health – care industry in the United States of America as a whole. When overseas providers begin to present a credible alternative to their US counterparts, it may spur domestic providers to re-engineer their clinical and administrative processes and to challenge inefficient, outdated work practices. Thinking of health care in terms of discrete, albeit often complex services with measurable inputs and outputs will advance the field. Customer service levels can be expected to rise, and not just in services that face direct competition. Advanced, inexpensive communications technology will enable the broader application of ‘virtual medical tourism,’ through increased use of new forms of telemedicine.

10. The direct impact of medical tourism will be modest at first because only certain procedures and treatments lend themselves to medical travel and only a small percentage of patients will travel over the next few years. However, the impact is likely to increase over time as medical tourism becomes an accepted part of the solution to high health care costs as the industry evolves.

2.1. Choose the correct option.

(a) The worldwide medical tourism market is currently valued at ………………………….. annually.
i. $20 billion
ii. $30 billion
iii. $40 billion

(b) The word ………………………….., as used in paragraph 9, is synonymous to the word ‘dependable’.
i. discrete
ii. credible
iii. complex

2.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) What is medical tourism?
(b) Give examples of some specialized sectors of medical tourism.
(c) Why are individuals enticed to travel outside the USA for cosmetic surgery?
(d) What is the estimated number of North Americans travelling abroad for health care every year?
(e) Mention any one reason why medical tourism is becoming popular in the USA.
(f) Why will the direct impact of medical tourism be modest at first?

2.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) tempted (para 3)
(b) believable (para 9)

3. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The invention of the computer has been one of the greatest advances in technology. They are already widely used in industries and universities. Computers are mandatory in almost all spheres of human life.

2. Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of apparently unrelated facts in order. These machines can be put to varied uses. For instance, they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic accidents, or they can count the number of times the word “and’ has been used in the Bible. They work accurately and at high speeds; they save research workers years of hard work. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for human beings has been called ‘automation’. In the future, automation may enable human beings to have far more leisure hours than they do today. The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences.

3. Some years ago an expert on automation, Sir Leon Bagrit, pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could think’. There is no possibility that human beings will be ‘controlled by machines’. Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving their performance, they need detailed instructions from human beings to be able to operate. They can never, as it were, lead independent lives or ‘rule the world’ by making decisions of their own.

4. Nowadays, computers are small enough to fit into pockets. Computers can be used like radios. For instance, people going on holiday can stay informed about weather conditions. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publications.

5. It is impossible to assess the importance of a machine of this magnitude. Computers are also used in ordinary public hospitals. By providing a machine with a patient’s systems, a doctor will be able to diagnose the nature of his illness. Similarly, machines could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and update it. Doctors will, therefore, have immediate access to a great many facts which will help them in their work. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work; the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. Computers are the most efficient aids human beings have ever had. There is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our lives.

3.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The whole process by which machines can be used to work for human beings has been called ……………………………
i. computers
ii. automation
iii. both i. and ii.

(b) According to Sir Leon Bagrit, there is ………………………….. possibility that human beings will be controlled by machines.
i. every
ii. some
iii. no

3.2 Answer the following questions briefly.

(a) Why does the writer refer to the computer as one of the greatest advances in modern technology?
(b) What is automation?
(c) How does automation help human beings?
(d) Mention two areas wherein computers can be effectively used, according to the writer.
(e) Though computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance they will never be able to replace human beings. Why?

3.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) complex (para 2)
(b) estimate (para 5)

4. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. “We become brave by doing brave acts,’ observed Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics. Dispositions of character, virtues and vices, are progressively fixed in us through practice. Thus, ‘by being habituated to despise things that are terrible and to stand our ground against them we become brave and it is when we have become so that we shall be most able to stand our ground against them.’

2. Being able to resist threats is not to be confused with fearlessness. However, being afraid is a perfectly appropriate emotion when confronted with fearful things. The great American novelist Herman Melville makes the Aristotelian point beautifully in a telling passage in Moby Dick, where Starbuck, the chief mate of the Pequod, first addresses the crew. ‘I will have no man in my boat’, said Starbuck, ‘who is not afraid of a whale.’ By this, he seemed to mean that the most reliable and useful courage was that which arose from the fair estimation of the encountered peril. An utterly fearless person is a far more dangerous comrade than a coward.

3. A brave person is not one who is never afraid, such a person is more reckless than brave. A rash or reckless person is more of an impediment than a help in an emergency. It is hard to educate’ such a person on the spot. The coward, on the other hand, lacks confidence and is disposed to be overly fearful; he or she might be induced to follow in the footsteps of his or her braver counterpart.

4. The infectious nature of courageous behaviour on the part of one person can inspire or shame a whole group. The courage inspired by Horatius at the bridge in ancient Rome and by Henry V at Agincourt was similar to the kind of courage displayed by those who silently suffered abuse when they joined ranks with Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. in acts of non – violent protest, directed at rousing the public conscience against injustice.

5. Another key to their success was the reason: practical reason delivered with the kind of eloquence supported by an understanding of one’s cultural heritage that steels the will to take intelligent action. The mere inclination to do the right thing is not sufficient. It is important to know what the right thing to do is. We need wisdom – the wisdom of a wise leader – to give our courage an intelligent direction. And we need the will, the motivating power that inspiring leaders help us discover within ourselves, even when we fail to discover it on our own.

6. If Aristotle is right, then courage is a settled disposition to feel appropriate degrees of fear and confidence in challenging situations (what is ‘appropriate’ varies a good deal with the particular circumstances). It is also a settled disposition to stand one’s ground, to advance or to retreat as wisdom dictates. Before such dispositions become settled, however, they need to be established in the first place. Practice enables us to do so, which in turn means facing fears and taking stands – acting bravely in spite of what one truly feels.

7. Fear of the dark is almost universal among young children, and it provides relatively safe opportunities for the first lessons in courage. In families, older siblings are greatly assisted in cultivating their own dispositions in this respect by putting up a brave front before their younger brothers or sisters. “You see? There’s really nothing to be afraid of.’ This is excellent practice, and a fine place to begin. Occasions for displaying bravery – for standing by them in challenging circumstances – are occasions for becoming brave ourselves; that is, for learning how to handle our own confidence and fear, for figuring out the right thing to do, and for mustering the will to do it.

8. Bravery, well nurtured and backed by moral courage is exemplary, and hence, should be promoted.

4.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) Nicomachean Ethics is written by …………………………..
i. Horatius
ii. Aristotle
iii. none of the above

(b) Starbuck is a character in the book …………………………. .
i. Moby Dick
ii. Pequod
iii. Herman Melville

4.2 Based on your understanding of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) Explain: ‘We become brave by doing brave acts’.
(b) When is ‘being afraid’ an appropriate emotion?
(c) How is a brave person different from:
(i) a reckless person?
(ii) a coward?
(d) How does the fear of the dark in children provide opportunities for lessons in courage for elders?

4.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.

(a) unaccustomed (para 1)
(b) justice (para 4)

5. Read the following passage carefully.

1. I was in Hyderabad, giving a lecture when a 14-year-old girl asked me for my autograph. I asked her what her goal in life was. She replied, “I want to live in a developed India.” For her, you and I will have to build this developed India. You must proclaim: India is not an underdeveloped nation; it is a highly-developed nation.

2. Allow me to come back with vengeance. Got ten minutes for your country? YOU say that our government is inefficient. YOU say that our laws are too old. YOU say that the municipality does not pick up the garbage. YOU say that the phones don’t work, the railways are a joke, the airline is the worst in the world and mails never reach their destinations. YOU say that our country has been fed to the dogs and is the absolute pit. YOU say, say and say.

3. What do YOU do about it? Take a person on his way to Singapore. Give him a name – YOURS. Give him a face – YOURS. YOU walk out of the airport and you are at your international best. In Singapore, you don’t throw cigarette butts on the roads or eat in the stores. YOU are as proud of their Underground Links as they are. You pay $ 5 (approx. ? 60) to drive through Orchard Road (the equivalent of Mahim Causeway or Pedder Road) between 5 p.m. and 8 p.m.

4. YOU come back to the parking lot to punch your parking ticket, if you have overstayed in a restaurant or a shopping mall, irrespective of your status or identity. In Singapore, you don’t say anything, DO YOU? YOU wouldn’t dare to eat in public during Ramadan in Dubai. YOU would not dare to go out without your head covered in Jeddah. YOU would not dare to buy an employee of the telephone exchange in London at 10 pounds (? 650) a month to “see to it that my STD and ISD calls are billed to someone else.” YOU would not dare to speed beyond 55 mph (88 kph) in Washington and then tell the traffic cop, “Do you know who I am? I am so and so’s son. Take your two bucks and get lost.” YOU wouldn’t chuck an empty coconut shell anywhere other than the garbage pail on the beaches in Australia and New Zealand. Why don’t YOU spit paan on the streets of Tokyo? Why don’t YOU use examination jockeys or buy fake certificates in Boston? We are still talking of the same YOU.

5. YOU, who can respect and conform to a foreign system in other countries but cannot in your own. YOU, who will throw papers and cigarettes on the road, the moment you touch Indian ground. If you can be an involved and appreciative citizen in an alien country, why cannot you be the same here in India? Once in an interview, the famous ex-municipal commissioner of Bombay Mr. Tinaikar had a point to make, “Rich people’s dogs are walked on the streets to leave their affluent droppings all over the place,” he said. “And then the same people turn around to criticise and blame the authorities for inefficiency and dirty pavements. What do they expect the officers to do? Go down with a broom every time their dog feels the pressure in his bowels? In America, every dog owner has to clean up after his pet has done the job. The same is in Japan. Will Indian citizens do that here?” He’s right.

6. We go to the polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibility. We sit back wanting to be pampered and expect the government to do everything for us whilst our contribution is totally negative. We expect the government to clean up, but we are not going to stop chucking garbage all over the place nor are we going to stop to pick up a stray piece of paper and throw it in the bin. We expect the railways to provide clean bathrooms, but we are not going to learn the proper use of bathrooms. We want Indian Airlines and Air India to provide the best of food and toiletries, but we are not going to stop pilfering at the least opportunity. This applies even to the staff, who is known not to pass on the service to the public.

When it comes to burning social issues like those related to women, dowry, girl- child, and others, we make loud protests and continue to do the reverse at home. Our excuse? “It’s the whole system which has to change, how will it matter if I alone forego my son’s rights to a dowry.” So who’s going to change the system? What does a system consist of? Very conveniently for us, it consists of our neighbours, other households, other cities, other communities, and the government. But definitely not me and YOU.

7. When it comes to us, in making a positive contribution to the system, we lock ourselves along with our families into a safe cocoon and look into the distance at countries far away and wait for a Mr. Clean to come along and work miracles for us with a majestic sweep of his hand, or we leave the country and run away. Like lazy cowards, hounded by our fears, we run to America to bask in their glory and praise their system. When New York becomes insecure, we run to England. When England experiences unemployment, we take the next flight out to the Gulf. When the Gulf is war struck, we demand to be rescued and brought home by the Indian government. Everybody is out to abuse and rape the country. Nobody thinks of feeding the system. Our conscience is mortgaged to money.

8. Dear Indians, the article is highly thought inductive, calls for a great deal of introspection, and pricks one’s conscience too….I am echoing J. F. Kennedy’s words to his fellow Americans to relate to Indians.

9. “Ask What We Can Do for India and Do What has to be Done to Make India What America and Other Western Countries a Today”.

10. Let’s do what India needs from us.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by
choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What was the writer doing in Hyderabad?
(a) Touring with friends
(b) Giving a lecture
(c) Attending a function
(d) Organising an event
Answer:
(b) Giving a lecture

Question (ii)
What was the 14-year-old girl’s goal in life?
(a) To live in a developed India
(b) To become an astronaut
(c) To become a scientist
(d) To make her country proud of her
Answer:
(a) To live in a developed India

Question (iii)
What happens after choosing a government?
(a) We expect the government to do everything
(b) We forfeit all responsibilities
(c) We want to be pampered
(d) All of these
Answer:
(d) All of these

Question (iv)
What does a system consist of?
(a) Our neighbours and other households
(b) The government
(c) Other cities and other communities
(d) All of us
Answer:
(d) All of us

Question (v)
Where do Indians run when New York becomes insecure?
(a) England
(b) Gulf
(c) India
(d) Japan
Answer:
(a) England

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
What are the negative remarks we make about our country?
Answer:
Government is inefficient; laws too old; municipality does not pick up garbage; phones don’t work; railways a joke; the airline is the worst in the world; mails don’t reach their destinations.

Question (ii)
How does an Indian behave in Singapore?
Answer:
In Singapore, an Indian is at his international best; doesn’t throw cigarette butts on roads; eat-in stores; pays 5 dollars to drive through Orchard Road.

Question (iii)
List two deeds an Indian would not dare to do while traveling abroad.
Answer:
Indians do not dare to eat in public during Ramadan in Dubai; go out in Jeddah without covering their heads; do not dare to bribe an employee of the telephone exchange in London; do not dare to speed beyond 55 mph in Washington; do not chuck empty coconut shell anywhere; do not spit paan on streets.

Question (iv)
What is our attitude towards elections and social issues?
Answer:
We go to the polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibilities expecting the government to do everything for us. For social issues, make loud protestations and continue to do the reverse at home.

Question (v)
What do you understand by the statement, “Our conscience is mortgaged to money”?
Answer:
It means that we leave the country and run away to make more money; we don’t do anything to improve our country.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘to steal things of small value’.
Answer:
pilfering

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-8) which means ‘the examination or observation’.
Answer:
introspection

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Children love computer games and actually, there are a number of benefits to this form of entertainment. Whether played on a handheld device, a computer, or a television set, these provide hours of quiet fun. The games can boost computer skills and improve hand-eye coordination. A 2004 study showed that surgeons who play computer games commit fewer surgical errors than their nongame – playing counterparts.

2. It is not difficult to understand the appeal of video games. Most children and teenagers feel the repression of adults where they are generally told what to wear and eat when to go to sleep, how to spend most of their day, and even who to befriend. In a video game, the child feels in control, whatever the circumstances around him or her maybe, whether they are driving a race car or battling with an enemy.

3. A video game promotes great excitement. A good game sets the pulses racing and the adrenaline pumping; even if someone is merely on the couch holding a controller. Games with a time component amplify this excitement.

4. Video games have different skill levels. The challenge they offer forms another lure. They start at a basic level and increase in difficulty as the player improves his or her game by crossing hurdles. This draws the player into the game and gives him or her a sense of accomplishment, making it hard to stop playing.

5. Many parents view video gaming as a relatively harmless addiction when compared to the dangers of the real world. The lure of video games ensures that the children are at home, adding to the parents’ sense of security. But video game addiction can ruin lives. Children who play for about four to five hours per day have little time for socializing, homework or outdoor sports.

6. Not surprisingly, spending time on a gaming machine is much more exciting than doing homework. A further concern is that the child addicted to video games becomes less active and falls prey to health problems such as obesity and other related illnesses. If a child prefers to get his or her fix of sports activities through a gaming console instead of physical sports, he or she is likely to be affected by the long term damages this will have on health and fitness.

7. Saying no to a habit is tough, too. Video games and computer addicts find it difficult to give up the addiction. They need to use computers for homework and to communicate with friends. Parents need to set strict limits and monitor computer usage.

8. Most importantly, parents should help their children find alternative sources of entertainment. They should be encouraged to participate in sports or in other extracurricular activities in school or just play outdoors with the neighborhood children. Parents should not be afraid of the words ‘I am bored’. The truth is, if children get bored enough, they will find something to do. They can also be encouraged to help around the house and pitch in with some of the household chores.

6.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ‘counterparts’, in paragraph 1, means
i. persons who have the same position or function as somebody else in a different place or situation
ii. different parts of a sales counter
iii. none of the above

(b) The word ………………………….., in paragraph 2, is synonymous to the word “subjugation’.
i. appeal
ii. circumstances
iii. repression

6.2 Based on your understanding of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) Computer games have numerous positive effects. Give any one example from the passage to support this statement.
(b) Name three devices on which video games can be played.
(c) How can doctors benefit from video games?
(d) Why do most children and teenagers feel the repression of adults?
(e) Why do many parents view video gaming as a relatively harmless addiction?
(f) Why should parents not be afraid of the words ‘I am bored’?

6.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.

(a) absolutely (para 5)
(b) entertained (para 8)

7 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. I got up at 4 in the morning, melted snow, and brewed tea. After a light breakfast of a few biscuits and half a slab of Chocolate, I left my tent at around 5.30 a.m.

2. Ang Dorjee was standing outside. No one else was about. Ang Dorjee was going to climb without oxygen. But because of this, his feet would get very cold. He, thus, wanted to avoid long exposure at heights and a night at the Summit Camp. He had, therefore, to either get to the peak and back to the South Col the same day or abandon the attempt.

3. He was keen to start immediately and asked if I would like to go with him. Going to the top from the South Col and back in a day would be strenuous and tough and there was the risk of Ang Dorjee turning back if his feet got too cold. I, however, had full confidence in Ang Dorjee as well as in my stamina and climbing capability. Besides no one else was ready to move at that time.

4. At 6.20, when Ang Dorjee and I stepped out from the South Col, it was a perfect day. There was a gentle breeze but the cold was intense. I was, however, warm in my well-insulated climbing gear. We climbed unroped. Ang Dorjee set a steady pace but I had no difficulty keeping up with him.

5. The steep frozen slopes were as hard and brittle as sheets of glass. We had to use the ice – axe and I had to kick really hard to get the front teeth of the crampons to bite into the frozen surface. I took every step very deliberately on the dangerous stretches. In less than two hours, we reached the Summit Camp.

6. Ang Dorjee looked back and asked if I was tired. I replied, “No,’ to his surprise and delight. He told me that the earlier summit party had taken four hours to reach the Summit Camp and added that if we could keep our present pace, we would be on the summit by 1 p.m.

7. Lhatoo was following us and caught up with us when we rested below the South Summit. After drinking some tea, we moved on. Lhatoo had brought a nylon rope so Ang Dorjee and I roped up while Lhatoo walked in the middle, holding the rope with one hand, more for balance than security.

8. Lhatoo noticed that I had been climbing with oxygen at about two and a half litres per minute against the normal four for these heights. After he increased the oxygen flow on my regulator, I found even the steeper stretches comparatively easy.

9. Beyond the South Summit the breeze increased. At that height the eddies of strong winds whipped up the powder snow, reducing visibility to nil. On many occasions, I had to get into a crouching position with my back to the onslaught of the icy wind saturated with fine particles of bone dry powder snow.

10. It was terrifying to stand erect on a knife-edge ridge, with a sheer drop on either side. I had to dig my ice – axe deep and secure myself by attaching the waist – strap to the ice – axe head. There was some tricky climbing between the South Summit and what is popularly known as Hillary’s Step. Ang Dorjee and Lhatoo were already over it, but I was still negotiating its vertical face when Ang Dorjee gesticulated towards the top. I was thrilled. The goal was near.

11. With renewed vigour, I was on top of the step in seconds. The sun had made the snow soft and climbing was easier here than it had been earlier.

12. We trudged in the heavy powder snow for some time. Then the gradient started easing off noticeably. A few steps later, I saw that after only a couple of meters there was no upward climb. The slope plunged steeply down.

13. My heart stood still. It dawned on me that success was within reach. And at 1.07 p.m. on 23 May 1984, I stood on top of Everest, the first Indian woman to have done so. Extract from Everest: My Journey to the Top by Bachendri Pal

7.1 Choose the correct option to complete the following sentences.

(a) The first obstacle that Ang Dorjee faced was that ………………………………
i. it was cold and dark
ii. there was no one with him
iii. there was a lack of oxygen
iv. the region was unknown

(b) The narrator chose Ang Dorjee because
i. he was used to the region
ii. his energy levels were high
iii. he could take risks
iv. he did not complain

7.2 Based on your understanding of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) What were the preparations that the duo had made for the climb?
(b) How did snow prove to be one of the biggest hurdles?
(c) What is Hillary’s Step? How is it viewed by the climbers?

7.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) fluffed up(para 8)
(b) signaled (para 10)

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Factual CBSE With Answers

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Factual

Factual passages: convey information in a straightforward and direct manner about a particular subject. Usually, the language and style are simple and clear. Factual passages may give instructions or descriptions or report of an event or a new finding.

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

Unseen Passage for Class 12 Factual CBSE With Answers

I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. From the moment a baby first opens its eyes, it is learning. Sight and sensation spark off a learning process which will determine in large measure, the sort of person it will become. Language stands head and shoulders over all other tools as an instrument of learning. It is the language that gives man his lead in intelligence over all the other creatures. No other creature can assemble a list of ideas, consider them, draw conclusions and then explain his reasoning. Man can do all this because he possesses language. And if thought depends on language, the quality of an individual’s thought will depend on that person’s language-rudimentary or sophisticated, precise or approximate, stereotyped or original.

2. Very young babies are soothed bv human voice uttering comforting words close to them. This essentially-emotional response provides early evidence that feeling is an important component of language learning. Children learn to use language in interaction with other human beings and this learning proceeds best against a background of affectionate feedback from the person who is closest to them. This is seen to perfection in the interaction between parent and a baby: eyes locked together, the adult almost physically drawing ‘verbal’ response from the baby, both engulfed by that unique experience of intimate and joyful ‘connecting’, which sets the pattern of the relationship between two people.

3. Thus, long before they can speak, children are involved in a two-way process of communication, which is steadily building a foundation on which their later use of language will be based. Constantly surrounded by language, they are unconsciously building structures in their minds into which their speech and reading will later fit grammatical constructions, tense sequences and so on. The forms of these structures will depend on the amount and complexity of speech they hear. Fortunate are those children who listen to articulate adults, expressing ideas and defending opinions. They will know, long before they can contribute themselves and understand, that relationships are forged through this process of speaking and listening; that warmth and humour have a place in the process, as have all other human emotions.

4. Using books is the most important means of ensuring a child’s adequate language development. None of us can endlessly initiate and maintain speech with very small children; we run out of ideas or just get plain sick of it. Their lives are confined to a limited circle and they do not have enough experience to provide raw material for constant verbal interaction.

5. Parents and children who share books share the same frame of reference. Incidents in everyday life constantly remind one or the other of a situation, a character, an action, from a jointly enjoyed book, with all the generation of warmth and well-being that is attendant upon such sharing. All too often, there is a breakdown of communication between parents and children when the problems of adolescence arise. In most cases, this is most acute when the give-and-take of shared opinions and ideas have not been constantly practised throughout childhood. Books can play a major role in the establishment of this verbal give-and-take because they are rooted in language.

6. Young children’s understanding greatly outruns their capacity for expression as their speech strains to encompass their awareness, to represent reality as they see it. Shades of meaning which may be quite unavailable to the child of limited verbal experience are startlingly talked to toddler. All the wonderful modifying words-later, nearly, tomorrow, almost, wait, half, lend, etc. begin to steer the child away from the simple extremes of “Yes” and “No” towards the adult word of compromise from the child’s black and white world to the subtle shades and tints of the real world. The range of imaginative experience opened up by books expands the inevitably limited horizons of children’s surroundings and allows them to make joyful, intrigued, awestruck acquaintance with countless people, animals, objects and ideas in their first years of life.

7. Books also open children to new points of view, besides their own as they unconsciously put themselves into other people’s places-‘if that could happen to him, it could happen to me’. This imaginative self-awareness brings apprehensions and fears as well as heightened hopes and joys.

8. In books, children can experience language which is subtle, resourceful, exhilarating and harmonious; languages that provide the human ear (and understanding) with a pointed and precise pleasure, the searing illuminating impact of good and true words.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What is an important component of language learning?
(a) Feeling
(b) Linguistics
(c) Emotions
(d) Environment
Answer:
(a) Feeling

Question (ii)
What are the things that enable a baby to learn about the world around it?
(a) See and hear
(b) Sense and analyse
(c) Understand and use language
(d) See, hear and sense
Answer:
(b) Sense and analyse

Question (iii)
What are the most important means of ensuring a child’s adequate language development?
(a) Using books
(b) Two-way process of communication
(c) Uttering comforting words
(d) Drawing verbal response
Answer:
(a) Using books

Question (iv)
Why do books help in the establishment of verbal give-and-take?
(a) Because they help in interaction with others
(b) Because they are rooted in language
(c) Because they are beautiful to look at
(d) Because they have varied topics
Answer:
(b) Because they are rooted in language

Question (v)
How do books help children see things from other’s points of view?
(a) Books help in imaginative self-awareness
(b) Books have a beautiful cover
(c) Books generate a lot of discussions
(d) Books create awareness about various topics
Answer:
(a) Books help in imaginative self-awareness

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
How does the range of language affect a person’s thinking?
Answer:
The range of language helps assemble a list of ideas, consider these ideas, draw conclusions based on these ideas and explain his/her reasoning.

Question (ii)
What advantages do children, who listen to articulate adults, enjoy in comparison to others?
Answer:
They learn how to use language for interaction with other human beings; language becomes a unique experience of joy. It also helps build relationships with other people.

Question (iii)
Why, according to the writer, is ‘talking alone’ an inadequate base for language development?
Answer:
Talking alone is inadequate because a child is not always exposed to the complexity of speech if the adult is not articulate.

Question (iv)
What is the role of books in maintaining a good relationship? Explain.
Answer:
Parents and children who share books share situations, share characters, and share action. This fosters a good relationship that will grow into adolescence.

Question (v)
Pick out two advantages of the books mentioned in the passage.
Answer:
Children are exposed to a range of vocabulary; imaginative experience expanded; see things from other’s points of view; creates self-awareness.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘pronounce distinctly’.
Answer:
articulate

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘give-and-take’.
Answer:
compromise

Unseen Passage Practice Examples for Class 12 Factual CBSE

1 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. On 14 April 1912, the Titanic received warnings all day about the floating icebergs. The first message was received at 9 a.m. Similar messages followed. Around 9 p.m., Captain Smith conferred with his second officer, Charles H. Lightoller before retiring for the night. They knew that on such a clear, moonless night it would be extremely difficult to spot icebergs. Why did they not change the course of the ship and take the ice–free southern route? It remains one of the unsolved mysteries surrounding the Titanic.

2. At 11:40 p.m., the two lookouts startled the officers: “Iceberg right ahead!”. First Officer Murdoch had less than a minute to react and arrive at a decision. He ordered the ship to stop immediately and reverse at full power. A frontal collision was just about prevented. However, it was not possible to halt the ship entirely and the bow collided with the iceberg. Later, Murdoch, who did not survive the tragedy, was severely criticized for his decision. According to the analysts, it would have been better to steer directly into the iceberg which would have damaged the bow, but the steamer would probably not have sunk.

3. Only a few people went out on deck to see what had happened. But when they heard that the ship had ‘just scraped past an iceberg, they went back to their cabins. Down in the bowels of the ship, the collision was more apparent. The firemen and engineers heard a loud bang and saw water gushing in. They ordered to seal the hatches to cut off the airflow to the furnaces. But the mailroom was flooded barely twenty minutes after the collision.

4. It was surmised that the hull of the ship would soon be filled with water; this meant the Titanic was destined to sink. The ship had to be evacuated in an hour. Around a thousand people were fated to be left behind as there were not enough lifeboats for everyone. Around 12:25 a.m., the first boat was launched. While Lightoller had to insist on letting only women onto the lifeboats, Murdoch was having trouble persuading people to get into the lifeboats in the first place as many believed the Titanic to be safer than the little boats. Meanwhile, dramatic scenes were taking place on deck. The millionaire’s wife, Ida Straus, refused to be separated from her husband. Other men bravely bade their families farewell.

5. The third – class passengers were the last to know. Some became aware of the catastrophe only when their cabins were flooded. Soon there was total chaos. Within an hour, the bow of the ship was already underwater. The music band continued to play lively ragtimes to boost the morale of those who were doomed to die. There were some who seemed to ignore what was happening; the first-class men sat peacefully playing cards. The Guggenheim heir insisted on getting dressed as he wanted to “die like a gentleman”. At around 1:30 a.m., the bow was already so deep in the water, that people could hardly keep upright on the steeply inclined deck. At around 1.55 a.m., the richest man on board, John Jacob Astor, found out that his money was worth little. He demanded to join his pregnant wife in a lifeboat but was forbidden by Officer Lightoller, who remained adamant: women and children only. According to the survivors, once all the boats had been lowered, a strange calm spread over the decks.

6. At 2:15 a.m., the water reached the first funnel. Rumbling, crackling and roaring noises followed. The lighting went out. The stern tilted up to a 45-degree angle. The ship split apart. The ship, which was considered unsinkable, went down. The people in the lifeboats rowed away from those in the water, crying for help, for fear that their boat would capsize if too many people tried to climb on board.

7. Less than a third of those aboard the Titanic survived the disaster. It took the Carpathia, a passenger steamship, four hours to reach the Titanic in response to the distress call sent out earlier. The Titanic sank before the Carpathia arrived. The ship rescued around 710 survivors afloat the Titanic’s lifeboats between 4.14 a.m. to 8.30 a.m.

1.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) The word ……………………. in paragraph 2, means the opposite of the word “posterior’.
i. frontal
ii. anterior
iii. forward

(b) The word ‘hull’ means …………………….
i. a heavy metal object that is attached to a rope or chain and dropped over the side of a ship to keep it in one place.
ii. a piece of wood or metal at the back of a ship that is used for controlling its direction
iii. the main, bottom part of a ship, that goes in the water

(c) The words ‘rumbling’ and ‘crackling’, in paragraph 6, describe …………………….
i. visions
ii. sounds
iii. none of the above

(d) About ……………………. of the people aboard the Titanic died in the tragedy.
i. one-third
ii. two-third
iii. none of the above

1.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) The weather abetted the accident. How?
(b) The officers had spotted the iceberg, yet they collided. Why?
(c) Why was Murdoch criticized?
(d) Why did people not consider the collision with the iceberg to be serious?
(e) What were the two things that people did on the ship to shut out reality?
(f) Apart from the imminent sinking of the Titanic, what was the other inexcusable fact that came into the light?

1.3 Pick out the words/phrases from the passage which mean the opposite of:

(a) approbated (para 2)
(b) unclear (para 3)

2 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Mithila painting, as a domestic ritual activity, was unknown to the outside world until the massive Bihar earthquake of 1934. The devastation caused the house walls to tumble down, and the British colonial officer in Madhubani District, William G. Archer, inspecting the damage discovered the paintings on the newly exposed interior walls of the houses. Archer – later to become the South Asia Curator at London’s Victoria and Albert Museum – was stunned by the beauty of the paintings and similarities to the work of modern Western artists like Klee, Miro, and Picasso. During the 1930s, he took black and white photos of some of these paintings; the earliest images we have of them. Few years later, in 1949, an article in the Indian art journal, Marg, brought the wall paintings to public attention.

2. A second natural disaster, the drought of the 1960s, prompted the All India Handicrafts Board to encourage a few upper caste women in villages around Madhubani town to transfer their ritual wall paintings onto paper as an income-generating project. Drawing on the region’s rich visual culture of contrasting ‘line painting’ and ‘colour painting’ traditions, and their individual talents, several of these women turned out to be superb artists. Four of them went on to represent India in cultural fairs in Europe, Russia, and the USA. Their national and international recognition prompted many other women from marginalized castes to begin painting on paper.

3. By the late 1970s, the popular success of the paintings – aesthetically distinct from other Indian painting traditions – drew dealers from New Delhi offering minimal prices for mass-produced paintings of the most popular divinities and three familiar scenes from the Ramayana. Out of poverty, many painters complied with the dealers’ demands, and produced the rapid and repetitious images known as “Madhubani paintings’. Nevertheless, with the encouragement of a number of Indian and foreign patrons, other artists working within the same aesthetic traditions continued to produce the highly crafted, deeply individualistic and increasingly diverse work, now known as ‘Mithila Painting’.

4. Mithila had long been famed for its rich culture and numerous poets, scholars, and theologians. As the males of the society were lauded for their intellectual contributions, it was quite some time before the talent of the women folk received its due. They were mostly confined to their homes, managing their family, raising children and engaging in ritualistic wall painting. It was only after they started painting on paper, some fifty years earlier, that recognition started pouring in.

5. The position of women in Mithila society has dramatically altered. Apart from contributing to the family income, individual women have gained local, national, and even international recognition. Artists are being invited to exhibitions across India, Europe, the USA, and Japan as ‘contemporary artists’ rather than folk artists. Along with economic success, opportunities to travel, gain an education, the radio, and now television is expanding the women’s consciousness and engagement with the multiple worlds around them. Gender relations have considerably shifted. A few men continue to paint within what is still defined as “a women’s tradition’, but their work tends to be personal and soothing. In contrast, women’s paintings are comparatively socially charged, critical, and edgy.

6. These changes have provoked an argument in Mithila and beyond, between those who claim that commercialization and the loss of its ritual functions have debased Mithila paintings, versus those who see Mithila paintings as a contemporary art form rooted in the expanding experience, concerns, and freedom of the women of Mithila.

2.1. Choose the correct option.

(a) The massive earthquake in Bihar occurred in
i. 1933
ii. 1934
iii. 1935

(b) The word ……………………., in paragraph 1, means ‘astonished’.
i. stunned
ii. amazed
iii. horrified

(c) The word ‘contemporary’ in paragraph 5 means …………………….
i. belonging to the same time
ii. modern
iii. historical

(d) The word ‘provoked’, in paragraph 6, means …………………….
i. wanton
ii. goaded
iii. malicious

2.2. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) How was the earthquake in Bihar a blessing in disguise?
(b) Who was William G.Archer?
(c) When did the women of Mithila get their due recognition?
(d) Name the two different painting traditions adopted by the women of Mithila.
(e) Which was the second natural disaster the region experienced?
(f) How has the position of women in the Mithila society changed dramatically?

2.3 Pick out the words/phrases from the passage which mean the same as:

(a) artistically (para 3)
(b) awareness (para 5)

3 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The Hum is a generic name for a series of a phenomenon involving a persistent and invasive low frequency humming noise not audible to all people. Hums have been reported in various geographical locations. In some cases, a source has been located. A well – known case was reported in Taos, New Mexico, and thus the Hum is sometimes called the Taos Hum. Hums have been reported all over the world, especially in Europe. A Hum on the Big Island of Hawaii, typically related to volcanic action, is heard in locations dozens of kilometres apart. The local Hawaiians also say the Hum is most often heard by men. Typically, the Hum is difficult to detect with microphones, and its source is hard to localize.

2. The Hum is sometimes prefixed with the name of a locality where the phenomenon has been particularly publicized: for example, the ‘Bristol Hum’ or the ‘Taos Hum’.

3. The essential element that defines the Hum is what is perceived as a persistent low – frequency sound, often described as being comparable to that of a distant diesel engine idling, or to some similar low pitched sound for which obvious sources (for example, household appliances, traffic noise, etc.) have been ruled out.

4. Some people hear the Hum continuously, but others hear it only during certain periods. For some people, the perceived Hum can represent a faint sound and a mild annoyance while for others who notice the Hum’s sound or its vibrations more intensely, it can be a nuisance that can seriously interfere with daily activities. Common consequences include lack of sleep. Such cases have given rise to the expression ‘Hum sufferers’.

5. It is during the 1990s that the Hum phenomenon began to be reported in North America and to be known to the American public, when a study by the University of New Mexico and the complaints from many citizens living near the town of Taos, New Mexico, caught the attention of the media. However, in the 1970s and 1980s, a similar phenomenon had been the object of complaints from citizens, media reports, and of studies, mostly in the United Kingdom, and also in other countries such as New Zealand. The Taos Hum was featured on the television show, Unsolved Mysteries, where recorded footage of the Hum was aired for the benefit of the viewers. On 15 November 2006, Dr. Tom Moir of the University of Massey, New Zealand, made a recording of the Auckland Hum and published it on the University’s website. The captured Hum’s power spectral density peaks at a frequency of 56 Hertz.

6. It is difficult to tell if the Hum reported in those earlier cases and the Hum that began to be increasingly reported in North America in the 1990s should be considered identical or of different natures. During the last decade, the Hum phenomenon has been reported in many other cities and regions in North America and Europe and in some other regions of the world.

7. In the case of Kokomo, Indiana, a city with heavy industries, the source of the Hum was thought to have been traced to two sources. The first was a pair of fans in a cooling tower at the local Daimler Chrysler casting plant emitting a 36 Hertz tone. The second was an air compressor intake at the Haynes International plant emitting a 10 Hertz tone.

3.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) Taos is in …………………..
i. New York
ii. New Jersey
iii. New Mexico

(b) The word “perceived’ in paragraph 5 means …………………..
i. experimental
ii. calculated
iii. observed

(c) The meaning of the word ………………….., in paragraph 5, is the opposite of the word ‘pleasure’.
i. bliss
ii. delight
iii. annoyance

(d) “Decade’ represents a period of ………………….. years.
i. 5
ii. 10
iii. 15

3.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) What were the two characteristics of a Hum?
(b) How did Taos Hum get its name?
(c) What is the cause behind the Hum on the Big Island of Hawaii?
(d) What are the adverse effects of the Hum?
(e) Which television show featured the Taos Hum?
(f) Who made a recording of the Auckland Hum?

3.2 Find words in the passage which convey the opposite meaning as the following:

(a) insignificantly (para 4)
(b) pleasure (para 5)

4 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The World Cup is considered the apex of soccer competition. Held once every four years, it brings together some of the best footballers of the world. All of whom attempt to do their respective nations proud by winning the coveted trophy.

2. The 1994 World Cup, held in the United States of America, was no different from its predecessors. Traditional favourites, like Brazil and Italy produced moments of sheer poetry on the pitch while newcomers like Nigeria and Saudi Arabia put up gallant performances. However, the event will be remembered with a touch of sadness. The otherwise spectacular competition was marred by the murder of Colombian defender, Andres Escobar.

3. The Colombian team had entered the World Cup in a blaze of glory. Undefeated in the qualifying rounds, they had even trounced the 1986 champions, Argentina, with a five-goal win. Soccer is known to evoke high passions amongst fans, but in Colombia, where soccer is said to be bigger than religion’, expectations soared to a fever pitch.

4. The team was captained by Carlos Valderrama, a two – time winner of the South America Player of the Year Award. With brilliant attackers, Freddy Fincon and Faustino Asprilla, Colombia seemed indomitable and were even touted to be the next champions.

5. However, the Colombians lost their opening match to Romania. After witnessing such a dismal performance by their favoured team, the press and fans began to wonder if the accolades heaped upon Colombia had been premature.

6. Following their loss, the Colombian squad began to receive death threats. Coach Francisco Maturana was coerced into removing a player – Gabriel Jaime Gomez, whose family had been similarly threatened. Demoralized and now petrified, Colombia performed badly in their match against the Americans. It was in the thirty-fourth minute of the match that Andres Escobar made a dreadful mistake. He slid on his right foot to cut off an attack by American John Harkes, and inadvertently directed the ball past goalkeeper Oscar Cordoba, into his own net. America’s second goal, via Ernie Stewart, sealed Colombia’s fate. Colombia managed a last-minute goal but it was too late. After two defeats, the team was eliminated from the competition.

7. Following the defeat, in a letter to a Colombian newspaper, Escobar tried to placate fans. He reasoned, “Life does not end here.” He was however brutally shot barely forty – eight hours after returning to his beloved hometown of Medellin. The drug mafia, who had lost millions of dollars in the bet favouring Columbia, was believed to be responsible.

8. Andres Escobar, who represented Colombia in fifty – eight games and two World Cups, was considered one of their finest central defenders. A humble and friendly man, he was called ‘the gentleman of Colombian soccer? and admired by many. Thousands of fans, including Colombian President Cesar Gaviria and Medellin Mayor, Luis Alfredo Ramos, paid their last respect to the slain hero. Sickened by the violence plaguing their country, they chanted protests against the drug lords as they escorted the body to its final place of rest.

9. In spite of glorious football history, the Colombian nation has the dubious reputation of having the highest rate of violence in the world for a country not at war. Since the 1970s Colombia has been home to some of the most violent and sophisticated drug trafficking organizations in the world. Home to the rival drug empires, Medellin and Cali cartels, the country is notorious for being the drug capital of the world. Drug lords are responsible for tainting Colombia’s soccer league. Exorbitant sums of drug money are betted on matches. Corruption is rampant as players and officials are often bribed.

10. The violent history records the crime scene of the country. In 1983, Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla was slain, months after he had alleged that several football clubs were run by drug traffickers. In 1989, referee Alvaro Oriega was killed after a match. He had disallowed a goal by Deportivo Independiente and had sent off one of its players. Apparently, the team’s defeat caused the drug lords to lose huge sums of money which caused the referee to be murdered.

4.1 Choose the correct option

(a) ………………………. are traditional favourites to win the World Cup.
i. Brazil and Italy
ii. Italy and Columbia
iii. Brazil and Columbia

(b) ………………………. was the Columbian goalkeeper in the fateful match.
i. Oscar Cordoba
ii. John Harkes
iii. none of the above

(c) The word “rampant’ means ……………………….
i. contained
ii. unbridled
iii. in control

(d) The 1994 World Cup was held in ……………………….
i. Asia
ii. Australia
iii. the USA

4.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) Why is the World Cup considered the pinnacle of soccer competition?
(b) What does the writer imply when he says that Brazilians and Italians produced sheer poetry’ on the pitch?
(c) Give an example from the passage to suggest that Colombians are ardent fans of soccer?
(d) Why is the Colombian team described as entering the tournament in ‘a blaze of glory”?
(e) Andres Escobar made a dreadful mistake. What was it?

4.3 Pick out the words/phrases from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) unconquerable (para 4)
(b) pacify (para 7)

5 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. During the end of the eighth century AD, a fierce, bold race of pirates periodically left their homelands to raid the coasts of Europe. Easily recognizable with their tall, muscular figures, blue eyes, and flaxen or red hair, they hailed from Scandinavia, or present-day Norway, Denmark, and Sweden. They were called the Norsemen, and those who participated in the raids were known as the Vikings.

2. At home, the Vikings were mainly farmers or stockmen. Hence, their expeditions were timed to coincide with the lull periods which were during spring, after the seeds were sown, and in autumn, after the crops were harvested.

3. Their large oak ships were rowed by forty to sixty oarsmen. They were decorated with colourful sails and burnished shields. The arched bows, carved into shapes of dragons, earned the vessels the label, ‘dragon ships’.

4. “The Vikings would attack unsuspecting villages at dawn. Christian monasteries were popular targets as they possessed many treasures, and were defenceless. Armed with swords and battle-axes, the Vikings killed those who came in their way and departed with as much loot as possible. Young men and women, who were spared, served the Vikings as slaves. Later, with the advent of intermarriages, many were voluntarily freed, and many others were released after the advent of Christianity.

5. Between 740 and 1050 AD, the Vikings grew in strength. At the pinnacle of their supremacy, they colonized Iceland, Northern France, and large parts of Britain and Ireland. They had also attacked the Lapps, Finns, Russians, North Africans, and parts of the Roman Empire. In time, the Vikings developed trade with the Europeans in place of piracy.

6. Till today, their legacy is evident in Britain and Ireland. For instance, many countries have places whose names end with by’, like Derby, Rugby, and Kirby. In Danish, oby’ means home or village. Conversely, most of the Norsemen became Christians by 1000 AD, primarily due to Irish influence. Christianity also thrived because the Norwegian king, Olaf Tryggvason, a devout Christian, threatened those who refused conversion with military action.

7. The success of the Vikings can be attributed to their culture, which placed great emphasis on courage and might. Norsemen were trained in self – defence and encouraged to partake in sports such as swimming, rowing, and riding. Hence, the Vikings became tough and highly adaptable warriors. Young Norsemen were eager to participate in these expeditions as they held promise of fortune, glory and even noble rank. However, they were required to prove their worth since only the elite would be selected. Religion was also a motivating factor. Much of the Viking mythology was inspired by warrior gods, who battled for noble causes. Valhalla, their heaven, was not an eternal abode for all good souls. Only those who had died an honourable death in battle were believed to gain entry. Believing that heroic action was the highest possible good, the Vikings were willing to take up challenges and risks, which undoubtedly led them to a great many discoveries. Their superior navigational skills also distinguished them as intrepid travellers.

8. Much of the Vikings’ history has been gleaned from their legendary tales, called sagas, a word which comes from the Norse verb meaning ‘say’ or ‘tell’. Sagas began as a form of entertainment during feasts, and related the Vikings’ mythical past, discoveries, feuds and their eventual conversion to Christianity.

9. The European clergy disapproved of these fables and considered them sacrilegious. However, the Vikings were determined to preserve their heritage. Their culture endured because of their distance from Europe. Moreover, their Christian leaders did not object to their tradition of storytelling.

10. It was customary for Viking warriors to be buried in longships with valuables, clothes, and chariots, which were believed to be useful in the afterlife. These ships, excavated in Scandinavia and former colonies, were retrieved in good condition. They had been embedded in clay or ice, which preserved them over centuries. The treasures remained intact as they were made of durable materials such as gold, silver, and stone. These graves have revealed to the later generations the past glory of the Viking race.

5.1. Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ‘flaxen’ in paragraph 1, means ……………………….
i. red
ii. pale yellow
iii. black

(b) The word ………………………., in paragraph 3, means ‘adorned’.
i. burnished
ii. decorated
iii. carved

(c) The word “sacrilegious’, in paragraph 9, means
i. blasphemous
ii. pious
iii. virtuous

(d) The word ………………………, in paragraph 7, means ‘dwelling’.
i. heaven
ii. abode
iii. hell

5.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions.

(a) What set the Vikings apart from other races?
(b) Why did the Vikings undertake their expeditions?
(c) Why did the Vikings attack Christian monasteries?
(d) How did the Vikings preserve their heritage?
(e) How did religion inspire the Vikings to attain greater heights?

5.3 Pick out the words/phrases from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) unwary (para 4)
(b) peak (para 5)

6 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Smoking is the major cause of mortality with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and is one of the factors causing death due to malignancies of the larynx, oral cavity, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach, and uterine cervix, and coronary heart diseases.

2. Nicotine is the major substance present in the smoke that causes addiction. The additives can cause damage to the body – for example, ammonia can result in a 100 – fold increase in the ability of nicotine to enter into the smoke.

3. Levulinic acid, added to cigarettes to mask the harsh taste of the nicotine, can increase the binding of nicotine to brain receptors, which increases the ‘kick’ of nicotine.

4. Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette contains over 4000 chemicals and 40 carcinogens. It has long been known that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic or cancer-causing.

5. The lungs of smokers collect an annual deposit of 1 to 1/2 pounds of the gooey black material. The invisible gas phase of cigarette smoke contains nitrogen, oxygen, and toxic gases like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, and nitrogen oxides. These gases are poisonous and in many cases interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen.

6. Like many carcinogenic compounds, they can act as tumour promoters or tumour initiators by acting directly on the genetic make – up of cells of the body leading to the development of cancer.

7. During smoking, within the first 8–10 seconds, nicotine is absorbed through the lungs and quickly ‘moved’ into the bloodstream and circulated throughout the brain. Nicotine can also enter the bloodstream through the mucous membranes that line the mouth (if tobacco is chewed) or nose (if snuff is used) and even through the skin.

8. Our brain is made up of billions of nerve cells. They communicate with each other by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Nicotine is one of the most powerful nerve poisons and binds stereoselectively to nicotinic receptors located in the brain, autonomic ganglia, the medulla and the neuromuscular junctions. Located throughout the brain, they play a critical role in cognitive processes and memory.

9. The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which is involved in many functions including muscle movement, breathing, heart – rate, learning and memory. Nicotine, because of the similar structure with acetylcholine when it gets into the brain, attaches itself to acetylcholine sites and produces a toxic effect.

10. In high concentrations, nicotine is more deadly. In fact, one drop of purified nicotine on the tongue will kill a person. It has been used as a pesticide for centuries.

11. Recent research studies suggest that acute nicotine administration would result in increased dopamine release from the brain, producing perceptions of pleasure and happiness, increased energy and motivation, increased alertness, increased feeling of vigour during the early phase of smoking.

12. However, notwithstanding these superficial effects, research shows that the relationship between smoking and memory loss is strongest in people who smoke more than 20 cigarettes each day and this is not specific to the socio-economic status, gender, and a range of associated medical conditions of the – smoker. Smoking may speed up age-related memory loss, the details of which are however not yet clear. Some studies suggest that repeated exposure to high nicotine smoke related to ‘brain – wiring’ is nothing but neuro – biochemistry that deals with complex interaction among genetic experience and biochemistry of the brain – cells.

13. ‘NO’ is a unique molecule which plays a role in a number of beneficial and some of the harmful brain and body mechanisms, for example, synapse formation, drug tolerance, and local regulation of cerebral blood flow, Parkinson’s disease etc. It is also found that people who smoke more cigarettes a day have poorer memories in middle age than non – smokers.

14. Some experts say that smoking is linked to memory problems because it contributes to narrowed arteries that restrict blood – flow to the brain. One of the causes of memory decline in relation to brain function could be nerve cell death or decreased density of interconnected neuronal network due to loss of dendrites, the tiny filaments that connect one nerve cell to another. Self – restraint from smoking is essential, not only to avoid this systemic damage but also to cut down on the pollutants affecting the environment.

6.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ………………………….., in paragraph 4, means ‘cancer-causing compounds’.
i. carcinogenic
ii. carcinogens
iii. tobacco

(b) The word ‘ganglia’, in paragraph 8, is the plural for the word …………………………..
i. ganglion
ii. gangly
iii. none of the above

(c) ………………………….. is not a toxic gas.
i. carbon monoxide
ii. acrolein
iii. acetylcholine

(d) ………………………….. are tiny filaments that connect one nerve cell to another.
i. dendrites
ii. mucous membranes
iii. brain – cells

6.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions briefly.

(a) What is a cigarette makes people addicted to it?
(b) What are neurotransmitters?
(c) How is smoking a major cause of mortality?
(d) How does nicotine produce a toxic effect?
(e) According to experts, how is smoking linked to memory?

6.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) vigour (para 11)
(b) helpful (para 13)

7 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The rock-cut caves of Ajanta are world-famous for their murals that demonstrate the degree of skill and artistry that Indian craftsmen had achieved several hundred years ago. The site of the caves, situated at a distance of 107 kilometres north of Aurangabad, is an important tourist destination in the world. The caves get their name from a nearby village called Ajanta.

2. These caves are excavated in a horseshoe-shaped bend of rock surface almost 76 metres in height, overlooking a narrow stream known as Waghorn. The site of this valley once provided a calm and serene environment for the Buddhist monks who retreated there during the rainy season. This retreat also provided them with enough time for furthering their religious pursuits through intellectual discourses for a considerably longer period.

3. The site consists of many excavations. A total of thirty excavations were hewn out of rock including an unfinished one. Many of the caves can be dated to the pre – Christian era, the earliest among them being from the second century BC. It is understood that the art was financed by royal patronage of that time. Professional artists carried out much of the work and each contributed his own individual skill and devotion to this monumental work. The stupa formed the object of worship here and these caves exhibit the imitation of wooden construction to the extent that the rafters and beams are also sculpted even though they are non – functional.

4. New excavations were made again during the period of Vakatakas, the contemporaries of the imperial Guptas. The caves were made to be excavated by royal benefaction and the feudatories under the Vakatakas as illustrated by the inscriptions found in the caves. The boom in activities at Ajanta was between the mid-fifth century AD and the mid-sixth century AD. However, Hiuen Tsang, the famous Chinese traveller who visited India during the first half of the seventh century AD has left a vivid and graphic description of the flourishing Buddhist establishment here, even though he did not visit the caves. A solitary Rashtrakuta inscription in one of the caves indicates its use during the eighth – ninth centuries AD.

5. The second phase departs from the earlier one with the introduction of new patterns in the layout as well as the centrality of the Buddha image, both in sculpture as well as in paintings.

6. The world-famous paintings at Ajanta can be classified into two broad phases. The first phase is noticed in the form of fragmentary specimens which can be dated to the second century BC. The headgear and other ornaments of the images in these paintings resemble the bas – relief sculpture of Sanchi and Bharhut.

7. The second phase of paintings started around the fifth-sixth century AD and continued for the next two centuries. The variations in style and execution in these paintings are mainly due to the different artists who made them. The main themes of the centre of the painting around Jataka stories, different incidents associated with the life of Buddha, and also contemporary events and social life. The ceiling decoration invariably consists of geometrical as well as floral patterns.

7.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ………………………….., in paragraph 2, means “tranquil’.
i. calm
ii. serene
iii. both i. and ii.

(b) The word “hewn’, in paragraph 3, is the past participle form of the verb …………………………..
i. how
ii. hew
iii. hone

(c) The word ………………………….., in paragraph 4, means ‘charitable donation’.
i. contemporaries
ii. feudatories
iii. benefaction

(d) ………………………….. is a form of sculpture.
i. bas – relief
ii. Jataka
iii. monumental

7.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions briefly.

(a) Where are the Ajanta caves situated?
(b) How do the Ajanta caves get their name?
(c) Who was Hiuen Tsang?
(d) When was the boom in activities at Ajanta?
(e) The Vakatakas were the contemporaries of which famous Indian imperial dynasty?
(f) What are the characteristics of the first phase of Ajanta paintings?

7.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) scholarly (para 2)
(1) (b) detailed (para 4)

8 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. Referred to as ‘nature’s theatre’, auroras have long fascinated the human race. During medieval times, the occurrences of auroral displays were seen as harbingers of war or famine. The Menominee Indians of North America believed that the lights indicated the location of giants who were the spirits of great hunters and fishermen. The Inuit community of Alaska believed that the lights were the spirits of the animals they hunted: the seals, salmon, deer, and beluga whales. Other aboriginal peoples believed that the lights were the spirits of their ancestors.

2. The bright dancing lights of the aurora are actually collisions between electrically charged particles from the sun that enter the earth’s atmosphere. The lights are seen above the magnetic poles of the northern and southern hemispheres. They are known as “aurora borealis’ in the North Pole and ‘aurora australis’ in the South Pole. Scientists have learned that, in most instances, northern and southern auroras are mirror-like images that occur at the same time, with similar shapes and colours.

3. Auroral displays can also be seen over the southern tip of Greenland and Iceland, the northern coast of Norway, and over the coastal waters north of Siberia. Southern auroras are not often seen as they are concentrated in a ring around Antarctica and the southern Indian Ocean.

4. Auroral displays appear in many colours, although pale green and pink are the most common. Common sightings of the same in shades of red, yellow, green, blue, and violet have been reported. Variations in colour are due to the type of gas particles in the Earth’s atmosphere that is colliding with charged particles released from the sun’s atmosphere. The most common auroral colour, a pale yellowish-green, is produced by oxygen molecules located about 96 kilometres above the earth. Rare, all-red auroras are produced by high – altitude oxygen, at heights of up to 320 kilometres from the Earth’s surface. Nitrogen produces blue or purplish-red aurora.

5. The lights appear in many forms from patches of scattered clouds of light to streamers, arcs, rippling curtains or shooting rays that light up the sky with an eerie glow.

6. Auroras are classified as diffuse or discrete. Most aurorae occur in a band known as the auroral zone. Diffuse aurora is a featureless glow in the sky which may not be visible to the naked eye even on a dark night. Discrete aurorae are sharply defined features within the diffuse aurora which vary in brightness from being just barely visible to the naked eye to being bright enough to read a newspaper at night. Discrete aurorae are usually observed only in the night because they are not as bright as the sunlit sky.

7. Whereas some people still connect various legends with aurorae, the fact remains that it will continue to fascinate people who experience it.

8.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) The word “harbingers’, in paragraph 1, means …………………………..
i. signs that show that something is going to happen soon
ii. indications of something that has already happened
iii. none of the above

(b) The word ………………………….., in paragraph 5, means ‘dispersed’.
i. patches
ii. scattered
iii. shooting

(c) The word ‘aurora’ has two plural forms.
i. true
ii. false
iii. cannot be said

(d) ………………………….. produces blue or purplish-red aurora.
i. high – altitude oxygen
ii. low – altitude oxygen
iii. nitrogen

8.2. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions briefly.

(a) What does ‘nature’s theatre’ imply?
(b) What were the superstitions associated with auroras?
(c) What was the scientific answer to the superstitions?
(d) Fill in the table with information about auroras.

8.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) heralds (para 1)
(b) myths (para 7)

9 Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. The Hangul deer or the Kashmiri stag is a species of red deer. The Hangul is one of the most famous animals of Jammu and Kashmir. It inhabits the dense forests of the state. Striking in appearance, the Hangul derives its name from ‘han’ which is the local name for the horse chestnut tree, the fruit of which the deer feed on.

2. Scientifically known as Cervuselaphus hanglu, Hangul is the only surviving race of the red deer family of Europe in the sub – continent. The Hangul deer’s coat is brown with slight speckles and each of its antlers consists of five points.

3. Much at home in the forest, the deer can be seen in the lower valleys of Dachigam National Park on the foothills of the Zabarwan range on the outskirts of Srinagar for most parts of the year, though a greater number of their species can be seen from October to March. Normally found in small groups of two to eighteen, Hanguls use the forests of the Dachigam Valley as an important feeding ground and move to the higher slopes to graze. Individual stags are more likely to be seen feeding on the hill slopes. They move about quite a lot from one area to another in their search for good forage. Hanguls eat various plants such as Fraximushockeri, Jasminum humile, Hemerocallisfulva and perennial herbs, depending on the season.

4. In March and April, the stags shed their antlers and begin moving up the mountains to the alpine meadows and pine forests of Upper Dachigam between 2500 to 3500 metres. They return to the lower valley in September, by when a new set of antlers begin to grow. The natural predators that attack Hanguls are leopards and Himalayan black bears.

5. In the past, Jammu and Kashmir had a large and vibrant population of Hangul deer. However, hunting and loss of habitat from deforestation and the building of dams has significantly curbed the wild population of Hangul deer. During the 1940s, their number was believed to be around 3,000–5,000. As per the latest census in 2008, only 160 are left. A captive breeding centre is planned to be commissioned at Shikargah, Tral in south Kashmir, for the captive breeding of Hangul, which will be eventually released in the wild.

6. In the last few years, the government has spent crores of rupees on different projects related to the conservation of Hangul in Jammu and Kashmir. A Habitat Research Study has been initiated in Kashmir in which satellite collaring of Hangul will be used in order to understand their movement patterns and habitat, both in and outside the Dachigam National Park. In addition, a massive improvement in conducting the census programme of Hangul has been undertaken whereby satellite telemetry and field cameras of high definition are being placed in the Park. Besides, an important research programme has been launched to study the relic population of Hangul outside Dachigam National Park in collaboration with the Wildlife Trust of India.

7. The strict enforcement of wildlife acts and the setting up of new initiatives are anticipated to replenish this highly endangered species.

9.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) ………………………….. is the scientific name of the Hangul deer.
i. Jasminum humile
ii. Hemerocallisfulva
iii. Cervuselaphus hanglu

(b) The word ………………………….., in paragraph 5, means the opposite of ‘free’.
i. captive
ii. vibrant
iii. curbed

(c) The word “collaboration’, in paragraph 6, means …………………………..
i. calibration
ii. partnership
iii. none of the above

(d) Each of the Hangul deer’s antlers consists of ………………………….
i. three
ii. four
iii. five

9.2. On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions briefly.

(a) What makes the Hangul deer stand out from others of its species?
(b) How does its name suggest the deer’s origin?
(c) How is the deer’s habitat conducive to its existence?
(d) How does nature help prevent these stags from being preyed upon?
(e) What are the factors which prevent the population of this species from growing?

9.3. Pick out the words from the passage which are the antonyms of the following.

(a) sparse (para 1)
(b) destruction (para 6)

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow.

1. In today’s fiercely competitive business environment, companies need to communicate information pertaining to a whole range of issues in a lucid and precise manner to their customers.

2. This is particularly so in the case of companies which do business in areas such as manufacturing, information technology (IT), engineering products, and services – companies whose products and services may not be understood by a customer not familiar with its technical aspects.

3. The skills of a technical writer are being increasingly sought for preparing marketing documents such as brochures, case studies, website content, and media kits and for the preparation of a whole range of manuals. Though technical writers in a company do a good portion of such work, the trend now is to outsource technical writing to freelancers.

4. Technical writing and writing textbooks are poles apart. The former is aimed at those who do not have in-depth knowledge about a product and hence should be direct and lucid. An overdose of technical terms and jargon would only add to the confusion of the customer.

5. The basic requirement for being a technical writer is the near-total mastery over the English language.

6. A technical writer should be natural in creative writing and needs to be an expert in using Business English.

7. This simply means that those with a Bachelor’s degree in English Literature along with a diploma/degree in Journalism and with a Post Graduate Diploma in Computer Applications (PGDCA) are ideal candidates for being employed as technical writers.

8. According to Joe Winston, Chief Executive Officer of l – manager, good speaking skills are not imperative for a technical writer. All one needs is the talent to write in a simple and effective manner. Many have inhibitions in speaking English but their writing skills should be very sharp.

9. Technical writing would be a good option for such people. If a candidate is to be assigned the ta preparing high – end technical manuals, he/she is required to have higher qualifications such as an MA/ MPhil in English Literature and a degree such as an MCA.

10. Companies look for such qualifications because technical writers first need to understand the technical information themselves, before trying to convey it in de – jargonised language to potential customers.

11. However, it is also true that many companies provide rigorous on – the – job training to fresh technical writers before allowing them to graduate to high – end products. Though the demand for good technical writers has risen sharply over the years, the emphasis is never on numbers but on skills.

12. They point out that even graduates of English Literature are often found wanting when it comes to creative and effective writing. Merely having the right mix of writing and comprehension skills is not sufficient. A technical writer should keep his or her ‘writing blades’ constantly sharpened. It means untold hours of reading up the latest in the technological trends and ceaseless honing of one’s Business English and writing skills. The nature of technical writing is such that a writer has to be at the peak of his or her expressive powers in each piece of writing he or she produces.

13. A beginner can expect to get paid anywhere between 8,000 to $15,000 a month. Technical writers usually join as executive technical writers and then go on to become senior technical writers, team leaders, documentation heads and some even manage to make it to a management job within a decade. As in most private-sector jobs, merit is the main criterion for advancement in the job and not necessarily the number of years one has put in.

10.1 Choose the correct option.

(a) IT is the abbreviation for …………………………..
i. information technology
ii. information techniques
iii. none of the above

(b) ………………………….., in paragraph 1, means ‘clearly expressed’.
i. communicate
ii. precise
iii. lucid

(c) The word ‘imperative’, as used in paragraph 9, means …………………………..
i. commanding
ii. essential
iii. impaired

(d) Companies provide rigorous on – the – job training to fresh technical writers before allowing them to graduate to high – end products.
i. This statement is always true.
ii. This statement is often true.
iii. This statement is never true.

10.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer these questions briefly.

(a) What is the need for technical writing in today’s world?
(b) What is the nature of the job of a technical writer?
(c) According to Joe Winston, who could be a technical writer?
(d) What should be the academic qualification of a technical writer?

10.3 Pick out the words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

(a) non – stop (para 13)
(b) allocated (para 10)

Unseen Passage for Class 7 CBSE With Answers

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

Unseen Passage for Class 7 CBSE With Answers Pdf

A. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. The introduction of harmful waste materials that are hazardous to life, the natural world and our activities, is commonly known as pollution. Pollution has harmful effects on the ecosystem. It disturbs the balance of biosphere in which living beings survive.

2. This imbalance of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and water vapour causes discomfort to all living organisms on the planet. It depletes the ozone layer over the earth that defends us from the damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun. The major types of environmental pollution are air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, thermal pollution, soil pollution and light pollution.

3. Environmental pollution is caused by deforestation and hazardous gaseous emissions Air pollution is caused by the smoke emitted by cars, buses, trucks, trains and factories. This is known to cause lung cancer, asthma, allergies, and various skin and breathing problems along with severe and irreparable damage to flora and fauna. Water pollution is caused when industrial waste products are released into lakes, rivers, and other water bodies. This is destructive for the marine ecosystem. Noise pollution is caused by loud noises from aircraft, cars, buses and trucks, vehicle horns, loudspeakers and industry noise.

Soil pollution is a result of acid rain, polluted water, fertilizers, etc. In short, this occurs when chemicals are released into the soil. Light pollution includes use of excess lighting equipment. The excessive and inappropriate artificial light causes several phenomena that decrease visibility and cause visual discomforts like glare, urban sky glow2 and light trespass}. Light pollution is a great hindrance to astronomy as it has become increasingly difficult to view the night sky because of interference from artificial light.

4. The last decade has witnessed an alarming rise in environmental pollution. This problem is even more alarming as this has caused irreparable damage to the earth.

A.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. What is pollution?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. How does pollution affect the environment?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. How does the reduction of the ozone layer affect us?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Mention four different kinds of pollution.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. What are the two chief causes of environmental pollution?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. What is the main cause of water pollution?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. Mention any two causes of noise pollution.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. What is the most disturbing consequence of increasing pollution?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. The introduction of harmful waste materials that are hazardous to life, the natural world and our activities, is what is termed as pollution. Thus, pollution is caused by an imbalance of waste in our environment.

2. Pollution causes an imbalance of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon and water vapour. This causes discomfort to all living organisms on the planet. Air pollution is also known to cause lung cancer, asthma, allergies, and various breathing problems along with severe and irreparable damage to flora and fauna. Water pollution destroys our marine life.

3. Ozone layer defends us from the damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun. Its depletion leads to these rays reaching us directly and harming us in various wa

4. The four different kinds of pollution include water pollution, soil pollution, air pollution and noise pollution.

5. The two chief causes of environmental pollution are deforestation and hazardous gaseous emissions.

6. Water pollution is caused when industrial waste products are released into lakes, rivers, and other water bodies. This has destroyed our marine life. It is no longer hospitable.

7. Noise pollution is caused by loud noises that may be caused by aircraft, cars, buses, and trucks, vehicle horns, loudspeakers, and industry noise, as well as high-intensity sonar effects.

8. Pollution has harmful effects on the ecosystem. It disturbs the balance of biosphere in which living beings survive. The last decade has witnessed an alarming rise in environmental pollution. This problem is even more alarming as this has caused irreparable damage to the earth.

A.2. Which words in the passage mean the following?

1. dangerous
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. disproportion
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. intrusion
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. permanent
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. hazardous/harmful
2. imbalance
3. trespass
4. irreparable

B. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Adventure sports or extreme sports are recreational activities that are known to involve a high degree of risk. These risks could be in the form of speed, height, or a high level of physical exertion, and involve the use of highly specialized sports equipment. Hence, adventure sports require skills and physical prowess. These sports are usually competitive in nature. These are bold undertakings that involve hazardous action and their outcome is almost always uncertain. These are all about excitement. While some people do it for sheer fun, some others do it to test. The idea of unbounded freedom draws many to the sport.

2. Adventure sports encompass a very wide range of activities that require unusual physical and mental challenges. Some of these are skydiving, bungee jumping, surfing, skiing, sand – boarding ng, snowboarding, jet – boating, white – water rafting and scuba diving Adventure sports are undertaken at various places depending on the topography and weather conditions. Many of them are undertaken in hilly and mountainous areas. On snow-covered mountains, it is possible to carry out activities like skiing and sledging. Hang – gliding involves piloting a flexible wing aircraft by shifting one’s weight on to it.

Lahaul and Spiti, Solan and Billing in Himachal Pradesh are known for paragliding. Hot air ballooning is another adventure sport that is gaining popularity in India. This involves sailing across high altitudes in a basket hanging from a giant nylon balloon filled with hot air. The Western Ghats and Aravalli Hills also provide good opportunities for rock climbing. Adventure water sports like kayaking, sailing, surfing, watching are practised in coastal areas. Bird watching, camping and wildlife safaris have drawn a lot of sportspersons as well as other people too.

B.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. What are adventure sports or extreme sports?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. What do these sports involve?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. What are the basic requirements of these sports?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Why do people undertake hazardous sports? Give two reasons.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Why do people find these sports exciting?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Why do more people these days are likely to take to these sports?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. Mention some adventure sports.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. How does topography affect the choice of sport?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. Adventure sports or extreme sports are recreational activities that are known to involve a high degree of risk. These risks could be in the form of speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and highly specialized sports equipment.

2. Adventure sports involve hazardous action and uncertain outcomes. They are all about excitement. While some people do it for sheer fun, some others do it for testing the limits of what is humanly possible.

3. Adventure sports require a high level of physical exertion and highly specialized sports equipment. Hence, a person who wants to undertake them requires skills and physical prowess.

4. Some people undertake adventure sports it for sheer fun, while some others do it for testing the limits of what is humanly possible. The idea of unbounded freedom draws many to the sport. Apart from this, most jobs require sitting in offices or doing some moderate activity. Hence, people are more likely to try out adventure and adrenaline-fuelled activities.

5. Adventure sports encompass a very wide range of activities that require unusual physical and mental challenges. This is one of the reasons that people find these sports exciting?

6. Most jobs nowadays require sitting in offices or doing some moderate activity. Hence, people are more likely to try out adventure and adrenaline-fuelled activities.

7. Some adventure sports include skydiving, bungee jumping, surfing, skiing, sand-boarding, snowboarding, jet-boating, white water rafting and scuba diving.

8. Adventure sports are undertaken at various places depending on the topography and weather conditions. Many of them are undertaken in hilly and mountainous areas. On snow-covered mountains, it is possible to carry out activities like skiing and sledging.

B. 2. Give words from the passage that are the antonyms of words given below.

1. safety
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. relaxation
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. strenuous
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. rigid
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. risk
2. excitement
3. moderate
4. flexible

C. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
1. The diverse culture in India has had a very positive impact on its rich tradition of folk arts. Various tribes that live in the interiors of various states practise their distinct arts.

2. One such art form is Warli. This beautiful folk art of Maharashtra was traditionally created by tribal women. This art takes its name from Warli, the largest tribe found on the northern outskirts of Mumbai. Although they live in close proximity of the largest metropolis in India, the Warli tribesmen shun all influences of modern urbanization. This art was first discovered in the early seventies but according to some art critics, its roots may be traced to as early as the 10th century A.D. This art expresses the daily and social events of the Warli tribe. This was once the only way to transmit culture when people had not learnt the written word. Hence, one can see pictures of human beings engaged in activities like hunting, dancing, sowing and harvesting, along with scenes from daily life. These tribal people draw these designs with white paint on the mud walls of their house. They use basic materials for painting like rice paste with water and gum for white and a bamboo stick that has been chewed on that serves as a brush.

3. The Warli paintings earlier had no straight lines. These lines are a series of dots and dashes. However, of late, artists have recently started drawing straight lines. Moreover, these days Warli paintings are often done on paper. These painting have modern elements such as bicycle and car. Warli paintings on paper have become very popular and are now sold all over India. The incorporation of these elements have helped sell these paintings in the modern day world.

4. The tribals are forest – dwellers but the growing popularity of the Warli paintings has helped many tribals earn a decent living and becoming integrated with the mainstream.

C.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
1. What has been the effect of a varied way of life on Indian art?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Where did Warli art originate?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Which statement in the passage shows that Warli is an ancient art?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. What pictures did older Warli art depict?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. What was the canvas used to draw?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. How did Warli tribals make their paint and brush?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. How has the Warli art changed?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. How does the art help Warli tribals?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. The diverse culture and a varied life in India has had a very positive impact on its rich tradition of folk arts. This allows various tribes that live in the interiors of various states to practise their distinct arts.

2. The Warli art originated in the northern outskirts of Mumbai in Maharashtra.

3. The following statement in the passage shows that Warli is an ancient art is: This art was first discovered in the early seventies but according to some art critics, its roots may be traced to as early as the 10th century.

4. Warli art expressed the daily and social events of the Warli tribe. This was once the only way to transmit culture when people had not learnt the written word. Hence, one can see pictures of human beings engaged in activities like hunting, dancing, sowing and harvesting, along with scenes from daily life.

5. Warli is designed with white paint on the mud walls of their house.

6. Basic materials are used for painting like rice paste with water and gum for white paint and a bamboo stick that has been chewed on that serves as a brush.

7. The Warli paintings earlier had no straight lines. These lines are a series of dots and dashes. However, of late, artists have recently started drawing straight lines. Moreover, these days Warli paintings are often done on paper. These painting have modern elements such as bicycle and car. Warli paintings on paper have become very popular and are now sold all over India.

8. The tribals who paint the Warli art are forest-dwellers but the growing popularity of the Warli paintings has helped many tribals earn a decent living and becoming integrated with the mainstream.

D. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Puppets are models of human and animals. They have movable joints that are either controlled by strings from above or by placing the puppeteer’s hand inside the model. Puppets come in various shapes, sizes and materials. Puppetry is an ancient art form. It is believed to have originated about 3,000 years ago. Puppets are often used to communicate the ideas and needs of the society as well as for normal entertainment.

2. Hand puppets are also known as glove puppets as they are worn like a glove. Usually, the index finger serves as the neck while the thumb and the middle finger perform the arms of the puppet. Rod puppets are also known as the stick puppet as they are supported by sticks. To create shadow puppets, a shadow is cast using a cloth screen with a projector or a very bright light from behind. These are made of translucent materials such as coloured plastics for some colours to pass through the puppet. In the finger puppet, the puppeteer uses each finger for a different character.

3. The ventriloquist’s dummy is quite big. Usually, it is as big as a half of a regular adult. It sits on the ventriloquist’s knee, and is a human-like puppet that is supported from the back by the ventriloquist, who is in a conversation with his puppet. Marionettes are string – operated puppets that can move around a certain stage. Water puppets are made out of wood and immersed in a waist-deep pool. A large bamboo rod supports the puppet under the water and the puppets appear to be moving over the water. Puppetry is a traditional art used to educate and entertain. Since it is primarily a visual art, it can communicate to people of all languages. Puppets are also a very important and effective method for children to learn. They can stimulate a child’s imagination.

D. 1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. What are puppets?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Why are puppets used for?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Why are glove puppets called so?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. How is a shadow puppet created using a shadow?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. What does ventriloquist’s dummy do?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. What are water puppets made of? How do they stay immersed in water?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. Why was puppetry successful in its purpose?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. What are the two ways that puppets are used in the modern-day world?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. Puppets are movable models of humans or animals that are typically moved either by strings, controlled from above or by a hand inside it. Puppets come in various shapes, sizes and materials.

2. Puppetry is an ancient art form. It is believed to have originated about 3,000 years ago. Puppets have been used to communicate the ideas and needs of the society.

3. Hand puppets are also known as glove puppets. These get their name as they are worn like a glove. Usually, the index finger serves as the neck while the thumb and the middle finger perform the arms of the puppet.

4. To create shadow puppets, a shadow is cast using a cloth screen with a projector or a very bright light from behind. These are made of translucent materials such as coloured plastics for some colours to pass through the puppet.

5. A ventriloquist’s dummy sits on the ventriloquist’s knee, and is a human-like puppet that is supported from the back by the ventriloquist, who is in a conversation with his puppet.

6. Water puppets are made out of wood and immersed in a waist-deep pool. A large bamboo rod supports the puppet under the water and the puppets appear to be moving over the water.

7. Puppetry is a traditional art that was used to educate and entertain. This is why puppetry was successful in its purpose.

8. Puppetry can communicate to people who are not literate or for those who even do not understand spoken language. Puppets are also a very important and effective method for children to learn. They can stimulate a child’s imagination.

E. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Fifty years ago people ate ice cream only in the summer. Now it is eaten all the year-round. It originated in the Orient, centuries before English schoolboys first tasted it. Marco Polo saw people eating it there and brought back the idea to Italy. From Italy, the idea was carried to France. It became very popular with the rich, in France, and an effort was even made to keep the recipes a secret from the common people. But, of course, they soon learned about this delicious new food and ice cream became popular with everyone. Soon, it spread all over the world.

2. The first factory to manufacture ice cream was started in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1851. However, the real development of ice cream and the ice cream business didn’t take place until after 1900 with new developments in refrigeration. 3. The basis of all ice cream is cream, milk or milk solids, sugar and sometimes eggs.

Vanilla, chocolate, berries, fruit ingredients and nuts are added as flavours. This is the usual proportion of ingredients in ice cream: about eighty to eighty – five per cent cream and milk products, fifteen per cent sugar, half to four – and – a – half per cent flavouring and three – tenths of one per cent stabilizer. A small amount of gelatin is used in order to retain the smoothness of the ice cream by preventing the formation of ice crystals. When you eat a third of a pint of vanilla ice cream, you are getting about as much calcium, protein and vitamin B as are in half a cup of whole milk, and as much vitamin A and calories as are in one cup of milk.

E.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. a. Where was ice cream first made in?
i. Europe ii. the East iii. Africa
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
b. In which season was ice cream eaten earlier?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. a. In which country did it become very popular?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
b. Who wanted to keep the ice cream recipe a secret?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Why did the manufacture of ice cream increase after 1900?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. a. What is ice cream made from?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
b. What is the percentage of cream and other milk products in an ice cream?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
c. Which ingredient prevents the formation of ice crystals?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Is ice cream a wholesome food? Give a reason for your answer.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

F. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. The World Animal Day is celebrated on 4th October every year to raise the status of animals in order to improve their welfare standards across the globe. It was started in 1931 at a convention of ecologists in Florence, Italy, as a way of highlighting the plight of endangered species. October 4 was chosen as World Animal Day as it is the Feast Day of St. Francis of Assisi, the patron saint of animals. On this day, animal welfare organizations, communities, clubs, businesses and individuals are encouraged to organize events in the celebration of World Animal Day. The mission is to connect animal advocates from all corners of the world. It is a cause for celebration for animals – lovers.

2. This day is a social movement to fight for social justice and reform. The animal welfare movement is made up of individuals or groups that have made the decision to use their time, talents and resources to help make the world a better place for animals. This is so because the lives of animals are greatly affected by the actions of humans. Therefore, it is important that the awareness of animal issues is increased. It is essential that, as sentient beings, their rightful status as recipients of social justice is realized to develop a compassionate culture.

3. To celebrate World Animal Day, a variety of inspiring events are held each year. These include awareness and educational events, pet adoption events, conferences and workshops, fund raising events such as concerts, sponsored walks, veterinary treatment camps, rabies prevention awareness and vaccinations, radio and TV interviews, peaceful marches, etc.

4. These are wildly diverse. In Australia, marchers have called for an end to poaching elephants and rhinoceroses. In India, a community has released indigenous birds, such as herons and egrets, into a clean and healthy environment. In Panama, an animal shelter offers a spay/neuter clinic for dogs and cats. The World Animal Day thus works to accelerate the process of invoking global concern towards the plight of animals and to unite animal lovers worldwide.

F. 1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. Why is World Animal Day celebrated?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. How was the celebration of this day initiated?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. What is the mission of the World Animal Day?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. Why is it important to involve more people in the movement?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. How is the awareness about animals created?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Why are the events widely diverse in countries?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. What was India’s initiative to celebrate the day?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. What does the World Animal Day aspire to do?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. The World Animal Day is celebrated to raise the status of animals in order to improve, their welfare standards across the globe.

2. It originated in 1931 at a convention of ecologists in Florence, Italy, as a way of highlighting the plight of endangered species.

3. The mission of the World Animal Day is to connect animal advocates from all corners of the world. It is a cause for celebration for animals-lovers.

4. The World Animal Day is a social movement to fight for social justice and reform. The animal welfare movement is made up of individuals or groups that have made the decision to use their time, talents and resources to help make the world a better place for animals. This is so because the lives of animals are greatly affected by the actions of humans. Therefore, it is important that the awareness of animal issues is increased and more people are involved in the movement.

5. In order to celebrate World Animal Day and spread awareness, a variety of inspiring events are held each year. These include awareness and educational events, pet adoption events, conferences and workshops, fundraising events such as concerts, sponsored walks, veterinary treatment camps, rabies prevention awareness and vaccinations, radio and TV interviews, peaceful marches, etc.

6. The events widely are diverse in countries because different species are found in different parts of the world.

7. In India, a community released indigenous birds, such as herons and egrets, into a clean and healthy environment to celebrate the day.

8. The World Animal Day aspires to accelerate the process of invoking global concern towards the plight of animals and to unite animal lovers worldwide.

F. 2. Pick the antonyms of the following words from the passage.

1. worsen
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. disconnect
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. ignorance
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. unfeeling
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. improve
2. connect
3. awareness
4. compassionate

G. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Ayurveda in Sanskrit means “life – knowledge” or “science of life”. It is a system of medicine that originated in the Indian subcontinent more than 5,000 years ago. The ancient Vedic literature by sages has clearly laid out instructions to maintain health as well as fighting illnesses through therapies, massages, herbal medicines, diet control and exercise. Now modernized practices derived from Ayurveda are popular all over the world and are known as alternative medicine. The primary goal of Ayurvedic medicine is to help people live long, healthy and balanced lives without the need for prescription drugs, complicated surgeries or suffering through painful conditions.

2. Ayurveda is based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a balance between the mind, body and spirit. Its main goal is to promote good health, not fight diseases. So, a patient’s approach, attitude and conduct are often responsible for causing him health problems. Ayurveda believes that a negative attitude or negative thoughts can affect mental as well as physical health. It also believes overeating or excess fasting, and a lack of activity and overexertion is harmful for the body and leads to disharmony and disease. Therefore, the practice of yoga, meditation and attention towards one’s conduct are an integral part of the Ayurvedic treatment. But treatments may be geared towards specific health problems.

3. Ayurveda is witnessing a great revival worldwide with thousands of people looking for a holistic, sustainable, safe and effective form of treatment. Until just a few decades ago, modern science had not studied the role of diet and lifestyle in the manifestation and management of the disease. On the other hand, Ayurveda has been doing so for thousands of years. Consequently, the Ayurvedic system has reached an expertise in the role of food and lifestyle in diseases.

For example, it is a fact that the excess consumption of sweets can cause our blood sugar level to shoot up, while spicy food can lead to ulcers or acidity. Going late to bed and sleeping till late in the morning can disturb the metabolism and cause metabolic disorders. Ayurveda recognized these facts long ago and charted out easy and practical guidelines for food and lifestyle.

G.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. Where does Ayurveda get its name from?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. What do the Vedas suggest for good health?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. What is the aim of Ayurvedic medicine?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. What does Ayurveda say about good health?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. Why is mental health important to an Ayurvedic doctor?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Why is yoga an important part of Ayurveda?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. What is Ayurveda’s position in the world today?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. What does Ayurveda excel in?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. Ayurveda gets its name from Sanskrit and means “life-knowledge” or “science of life”.

2. The ancient Vedas suggest that in order to maintain health as well as fight illness, therapies, massages, herbal medicines, diet control and exercise are very important.

3. The primary goal of Ayurvedic medicine is to help people live long, healthy and balanced lives without the need for prescription drugs, complicated surgeries or suffering through painful conditions.

4. Ayurveda is based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a balance between the mind, body and spirit. Its main goal is to promote good health, not fight diseases. So, a patient’s approach, attitude and conduct are often responsible for causing him health problems.

5. Ayurveda believes that a negative attitude or negative thoughts can affect mental as well as physical health. This is why mental health is important to an Ayurvedic doctor.

6. Ayurveda believes that overeating or excess fasting, and a lack of activity and overexertion is harmful for the body and leads to disharmony and disease. This is why is yoga is an important part of Ayurveda.

7. Ayurveda is witnessing a great revival worldwide with thousands of people looking for a holistic, sustainable, safe and effective form of treatment.

8. Ayurveda excels in the role of diet and lifestyle in the manifestation and management of the disease. On the other hand, In fact, the Ayurvedic system has reached an expertise in the role of food and lifestyle in diseases. For example, it is a fact that the excess consumption of sweets can cause our blood sugar level to shoot up, while spicy food can lead to ulcers or acidity. Going late to bed and sleeping till late in the morning can disturb the metabolism and cause metabolic disorders. Ayurveda recognized these facts long ago and charted out easy and practical guidelines for food and lifestyle.

H. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), fast foods are characterized as quick, easily accessible and cheap alternatives to home-cooked meals. These foods are tess nutritious as compared to traditionally cooked foods. These are considered less healthy because they tend to be high in saturated fat, sugar, salt and calories.

2. In a typically hurry burry generation as ours, there is little time to shop for and prepare meals like the earlier generations. Therefore, most people consider fast food as a convenient source of food. Fast food can be prepared and served within a very short time. Fast food outlets come to the rescue of people who tend to be busy or single people who do not wish to cook.

3. According to the NIH, the consumers nowadays have become health conscious and to meet these needs, some fast-food restaurants have salad bars, whole grain buns, grilled chicken and lean meats. Fast food menu provides people with extensive varieties of ready meals and health drinks. For example, a person can skip sugar drinks and opt for low-fat milk or fresh juices. People can also eliminate unhealthy ingredients in their meals by customizing their orders. A number of fast-food restaurants provide an information sheet on the nutritional content of the food on their menu.

4. Although fast food has got a bunch of advantages, it has some negative effects as well: It poses several health hazards. Fast food is rich in fats, salts, artificial substances and oils. Hence, people with heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes must be cautious. Obesity is also on the rise, owing to the popularity of fast food. Further, most fast meals involve frying and that destroys most of the important nutrients in food. Also, according to NIH, most fast food is still cooked with a large amount of oil and butter. This apart, they often do not include fruits and vegetables in their menus.

5. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), fast food can be good for the heart with a little planning. The Association suggests skipping “value” meals that give in extra food so that the quantity of intake is curtailed. The nutritional value of fast food can be enhanced by requesting a wheat bun and keeping away the cheese and sauces.

6. However, there is no substitute for homemade food that has more nutritional value and costs less than fast food.

H.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. What category of foods can be called fast foods?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. Why are these foods less healthy?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Why does the modern generation find these foods convenient?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. How have fast food outlets changed their menus? Mention two points.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. How can one opt for a healthy option even at fast food joints?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. Mention two harmful effects of fast food.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. What are the two better options when opting for fast food?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. What are the two advantages of home-cooked food over fast food?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), fast foods are characterized as quick, easily accessible and cheap alternatives to home-cooked meals. These foods are less nutritious as compared to traditionally cooked foods.

2. These foods are considered less healthy because they tend to be high in saturated fat, sugar, salt and calories.

3. The modern generation is always in a hurry. So, there is little time for them to shop for and prepare meals like the earlier generations. Therefore, most people consider fast food as a convenient source of food. Fast food can be prepared and served within a very short time. Fast food outlets come to the rescue of people who tend to be busy or single people who do not wish to cook.

4. Fast food outlets have changed their menus quite a lot. Some fast-food restaurants have salad bars, whole grain buns, grilled chicken and lean meats. Fast food menu provides people with extensive varieties of ready meals and health drinks.

5. A person can skip sugar drinks and opt for low-fat milk or fresh juices. People can also eliminate unhealthy ingredients in their meals by customizing their orders. A number of fast-food restaurants provide an information sheet on the nutritional content of the food on their menu.

6. Fast foods pose several health hazards. They are rich in fats, salts, artificial substances and oils. Hence, people with heart disease, high blood pressure and diabetes must be cautious. Obesity is also on the rise, owing to the popularity of fast food. Further, most fast meals involve frying and that destroys most of the important nutrients in food.

7. While opting for fast food, one should skip “value” meals that give in extra food so that the quantity of intake is curtailed. The nutritional value of fast food can also be enhanced by requesting a wheat bun and keeping away the cheese and sauces.

8. Home-cooked food has more nutritional value and costs less than fast food.

H.2. Give words from the passage that are synonyms of words given below.

1. easy to get
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. options
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. wide-ranging
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. leaving out
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. accessible
2. options
3. extensive
4. skipping

I. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO) suggests that this is an unexplained aerial phenomenon but these are suspected spacecraft on which the aliens travel. These UFO sightings have been reported in various parts of the world and have been a major subject of interest since times immemorial. These curious flying objects have mentioned in legends as well as seen in stone carvings. Even Jacob Grimm’s fairytales included a story of a flying ship.

2. However in the recent past, in 1947, Kenneth Arnold, an American businessman while flying in his private plane near the northwest Pacific coast saw nine such objects in the sky. He described them as “flat like pie – pan, and so shiny that they reflected the sun like mirror” flying at an amazing speed of 1,700 mph, speed unheard of then.

3. After various reports, the United States Air Force began investigating to find out more about these “flying saucers.” They dismissed these reports calling them weather balloons, highflying aeroplanes, vapour trails, and meteorites, or even birds. They claimed some of these claims were hoaxes.

4. In 1954, a Frenchman who spotted this luminous object described it to be like a huge cigar. It was edged with a bright halo of light. This description was repeated by three American school boys, in 1965, when they saw this “ball of light”, about eight feet across, coming rapidly from the sky.

5. The reports remain unconfirmed and raise many questions on its reliability because descriptions vary greatly. Some describe aliens as little men, while others describe them as giants. Moreover, a bright light, such as the planet Venus, often appears to move. Astronomical objects can also be disconcerting to drivers, as they seem to “follow” the car. But certainly if we can land on moon and send rockets into space, there can be inhabitants on the other planets who are doing the same!

I.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. What are UFOs?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. What have been people’s reactions to these sightings?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. Quote two examples from the passage that show UFO have been talked about for long.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. What did Kenneth Arnold spot?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. What was most mysterious about the sighting?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. How did United States Air Force react to these reports?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. What did the Frenchman see?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. Why is the reliability of the reports doubtful?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. Unidentified Flying Objects (UFO) suggests that this is an unexplained aerial phenomenon but these are suspected spacecraft on which the aliens travel.

2. These UFO sightings have been reported in various parts of the world and have been a major subject of interest since times immemorial.

3. These curious flying objects or UFOs have mentioned in legends as well as seen in stone carvings. Even Jacob Grimm’s fairytales included a story of a flying ship.

4. Kenneth Arnold, an American businessman, while flying in his private plane near the northwest Pacific coast saw nine such objects in the sky that looked like a flying ship.

5. Kenneth described the sightings as “flat like pie-pan, and so shiny that they reflected the sun like mirror” flying at an amazing speed of 1,700 mph, speed unheard of then. This was the most mysterious thing about the sighting.

6. After various reports, the United States Air Force began investigating to find out more about the “flying saucers.” They dismissed these reports calling them weather balloons, highflying aeroplanes, vapour trails, and meteorites, or even birds. They claimed some of these claims were hoaxes.

7. In 1954, a Frenchman who spotted this luminous object described it to be like a huge cigar. It was edged with a bright halo of light. This description was repeated by three American school boys, in 1965, when they saw this “ball of light”, about eight feet across, coming rapidly from the sky.

8. The reports remain unconfirmed and raise many questions on its reliability because descriptions vary greatly. Some describe aliens as little men, while others describe them as giants. Moreover, a bright light, such as the planet Venus, often appears to move. Astronomical objects can also be disconcerting to drivers, as they seem to “follow” the car.

J. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

1. Travel is the activity of going from one place to another place. Making trips every day to the same place, work or school, is called “commuting”. Travelling is known to have many advantages. The foremost advantage that it offers is of meeting new people and making friends. One could improve business contacts as well as learn new skills. It is educative in the sense that one is exposed to various languages, foods, cultures, etc and this widens the worldview. During the process, we look at and experience the world from other people’s perspectives.

Thus, our outlook becomes more global. Travelling also de-stresses people. As they move out of their mundane routine, they leave behind the stresses of home and work. One of the best things about travelling is that it helps you store wonderful memories for a lifetime. Photographs and souvenirs bought back from such places are treasured because of memories associated with these travels.

2. However, travelling can have its pitfalls too. It is an expensive exercise and can upset your budget. Travelling in groups can reduce expenses, and offer more safety, but it offers no space for private time and individual’s interests. Hence, many people advocate appreciating the good things they have at home. The ecological impact is the greatest disadvantage. The carbon footprint that we leave behind because of the resources we deplete is immeasurable.

Travelling in itself can be a tedious process that involves booking tickets, packing, waiting at airports and stations, booking hotels, etc. Taking time out from your work is not an easy process. The security of the empty house because of burglaries can be a major disadvantage. Moreover, one often hears of travellers getting homesick. If you have pets, leaving them behind in someone’s custody can be a painful experience.

J.1. Answer the following questions very briefly.

1. What is the difference in travelling and commuting?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. How does travelling have a positive impact on the business?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. How does travelling improve learning?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. How is travelling a stress buster?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
5. How do photos and souvenirs from our travels give us pleasure?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
6. What are the two advantages of travelling in groups?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
7. How does travel affect the environment?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
8. Mention two disadvantages of travelling.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. Travel is the activity of going from one place to another place. Making trips every day to the same place, work or school, is called “commuting”.

2. Travelling helps in meeting new people and making friends. Thus, it helps to improve business contacts as well as learn new skills.

3. Travel is educative in the sense that one is exposed to various languages, foods, cultures, etc and this widens the worldview. During the process, we look at and experience the world from other people’s perspectives. Thus, our outlook becomes more global.

4. Travelling helps people de-stress. As they move out of their mundane routine, they leave behind the stresses of home and work.

5. Travelling helps you store wonderful memories for a lifetime. Photographs and souvenirs bought back from such places are treasured because of memories associated with these travels.

6. Travelling in groups can reduce expenses, and offer more safety.

7. Travelling has an ecological impact on the planet. When we travel, the carbon footprint that we leave behind because of the resources we deplete is immeasurable.

8. Travelling is an expensive exercise and can upset your budget. In itself, it can be a tedious process that involves booking tickets, packing, waiting at airports and stations, booking hotels, etc. Taking time out from your work is not an easy process. The security of the empty house because of burglaries can be a major disadvantage.

j.2. Which words in the passage mean the following?

1. primary
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
2. point of view
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3. dull
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4. drawback
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Answer:
1. foremost
2. perspectives/outlook
3. mundane
4. pitfalls/disadvantage

Gap Filling Exercises for Class 10 CBSE With Answers

Gap Filling Exercises for Class 10 CBSE

Basic English Grammar rules can be tricky. In this article, we’ll get you started with the basics of sentence structure, punctuation, parts of speech, and more.

We also providing Extra Questions for Class 10 English Chapter wise.

Gap Filling Exercises for Class 10 CBSE With Answers PDF Download

Gap Filling Exercises Practice With Answers for Class 10 CBSE

1. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

The modern student (a) …………………….. the importance (b) …………………….. physical exercise. He spends one to two hours in open air (c) …………………….. he takes part in different sports. However, care should (d) …………………….. not to overstrain (e) …………………….. body. [2018]
Answer:
(a) understands
(b) of
(c) where
(d) be taken
(e) the

2. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

Although there is no direct evidence that salt is the (a) ………………………. of high blood pressure or hypertension, there are studies which indicate that reducing salt intake (b) ………………………. blood pressure. Some scientists are also concerned that excessive use of salt may cause asthma and kidney diseases. Therefore most doctors have welcomed a decision by food manufacturers to (c) ………………………. the amount of salt in food. Many food manufacturers, however, (d) ………………………. reluctant to reduce the amount of salt. Salt is (e) ………………………. important flavor enhancer and preservative. British Salt points (f) ………………………. that salt is an essential nutrient and regular intake is required to maintain bodily functions.

3. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

The history of medicine includes the pre-scientific stage, before it was a science, and the time when it became a science. The medicine of primitive people (a) ………………………. all kinds of strange explanations of diseases. In treating the disease, primitive medicine (b) ………………………. on magic or on anything that seemed to work. But surprisingly enough, medicine from the primitive people included the application of heat and cold, bloodletting, massage (c) ………………………. the use of herbs. Ancient Egyptian medicine, which was the best-known medicine before the scientific age, depended heavily on magic. It used all (d) ………………………. of ointments and potions. Among the ‘drugs’ used (e) ………………………. honey, salt, cedar oil, the brain, liver, heart, and the blood of (f) animals.

4. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

A map (a) ……………………….! a drawing of the earth’s surface, or part of it, on a flat surface (b) ………………………. as a sheet of paper, linen or parchment. Mapmakers, or cartographers, transfer the curved surface of the globe on to a flat plane by (c) ………………………. of a projection. There are several (d) ………………………. of projecting an area on to a map, depending on whether it is wanted to be correct for direction, area or shape. Perhaps the (e) ………………………. fariious projection of all is Mercator’s, devised in 1568 by the German Gerhard Kramer, or Gerardus Mercator. This projection is probably the one (f) ………………………. in your school atlas.

5. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

There (a) …………………….. a beggar in a village. He (b) …………………….. to go door to door for his alms. All the women of that area (c) …………………….. him. One day he (d) …………………….. not come for begging. The women (e) …………………….. Very anxious. They all (f) …………………….. to see that beggar and took food along with them.
Answer:
(a) was
(b) used
(c) liked
(d) did
(e) became
(f) went

6. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

Wrestling is one of the oldest sports in the world. Ancient cave drawings of people wrestling have (a) ………………………. found in Europe. Amateur wrestling is very different from the professional wrestling seen on the television. It is a serious sport. Amateur wrestlers do (b) ………………………. wrestle for money, they wrestle for the love of the sport. The top goal of nearly all amateur wrestlers is to (c) ………………………. at the Olympics. A successful wrestler (d) ………………………. endurance, strength, intelligence, and the will to train hard. Wrestling does not (e) ………………………. much equipment. Wrestlers (f) ………………………. a tight-fitting, one-piece suit called a singlet.

7. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

The entry of air (a) ………………………. the house is ventilation. Air may enter the house in many ways: natural ventilation when we open (b) ………………………. doors or windows or (c) ………………………. infiltration through the cracks in the walls, floors or ceilings or (d) ………………………. exhaust fans or air conditioners: These pollutants (e) ………………………. dry throat and cough. One may forget that indoor air pollution can be the cause. Most of the unexplained cough or cough variant asthma (f) ………………………. the result of these causes.

8. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

The need for blood can (a) ………………………. from many reasons. Blood is (b) ………………………. to replace what was lost or to build up resistance in advance. One or two litres of new blood transfusion into the veins means new life to a patient! The idea of blood transfusion is not new. In 1654, an Italian doctor called Francesco Folli tried blood transfusions (c) ………………………. one living animal to another. Later, there were attempts to transfuse blood from animals to man, but the results were unfavourable. Now we know that the animals of one species do not (d) ………………………. blood from another species. In fact, it acts as a poison and usually (e) ………………………. death. During World War I, it was discovered that blood from certain persons could not be safely given to others. This (f) ………………………. to the classification of blood into four groups.

9. In the passage, given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

Cleopatra, the most attractive queen of the ancient world, (a) ………………………. in reality a short, fat and unattractive woman, says a forthcoming exhibition at the British Museum. The scathing portrait emerged with the rediscovery of 11 previously unrecognized images of the queen – all statues (b) ………………………. in the Egyptian style. They depict the alluring and ambitious queen of the Nile as (c) ………………………. ordinary¬looking woman (d) ……………………….! slightly bucked bad teeth, and severe in appearance. We have been able to identify the Egyptian statues (e) ………………………. Cleopatra, principally by the triple version of the royal uraeus (a rearing cobra that signifies protection) worn on the headdress (f) ………………………. the brow. Other factors in the identification were face shape and expression, pose of the arms, and the double cornucopia.

10. In the passage given below, some words are missing. Write the correct word in the space provided to complete the passage meaningfully. (1/2 x 6 = 3 marks)

Delhi (a) …………………….. the capital of India. People from all parts of the country and world (b) …………………….. to visit Delhi. There (c) …………………….. many historical buildings. Last year I, (d) …………………….. Delhi. I also (e) …………………….. the Commonwealth 2010. There (f) …………………….. many colourful programmes. [Delhi 2019]
Answer:
(a) is
(b) come
(c) are
(d) visited
(e) attended
(f) were